Hualong One

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Primary coolant system showing reactor pressure vessel (red), steam generators (purple), pressurizer (blue), and pumps (green) in the three coolant loop Hualong One design

The Hualong One (Chinese: 华龙一号; pinyin: Huálóng yī hào; lit. 'China Dragon №1') is a Chinese Generation III[1] pressurized water nuclear reactor jointly developed by the China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN) and the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). The CGN version, and its derived export version, is called HPR1000.[2] It is commonly mistakenly referred to in media as the "ACPR1000" and "ACP1000", which are in fact earlier reactors design programs by CGN and CNNC.

Unit 5 of the Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant was the first Hualong One to enter commercial service on 30 January 2021.[1][3][4]

Design[edit]

Active and passive cooling systems of the HPR1000 (Hualong One)[5]
Red line − active systems
Green line − passive systems
IRWST − in-containment refuelling water storage tank

Hualong One is jointly developed by the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) and China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN), based on the three-loop ACP1000 of CNNC and ACPR1000 of CGN, which in turn are based on the French M310.[2]

Merger of ACP-1000 and ACPR-1000 into Hualong One[edit]

Since 2011, CNNC has been progressively merging its ACP-1000 nuclear power station design[citation needed] with the CGN ACPR-1000 design, while allowing some differences, under direction of the Chinese nuclear regulator. Both are three-loop designs originally based on the same French M310 design used in Daya Bay with 157 fuel assemblies, but went through different development processes (CNNC's ACP-1000 has a more domestic design with 177 fuel assemblies while CGN's ACPR-1000 is a closer copy with 157 fuel assemblies).[6] In early 2014, it was announced that the merged design was moving from preliminary design to detailed design. Power output will be 1150 MWe, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment. CNNC's 177 fuel assembly design was retained.

Initially the merged design was to be called the ACC-1000,[7][8][9] but ultimately it was named Hualong One. In August 2014 the Chinese nuclear regulator review panel classified the design as a Generation III reactor design, with independently owned intellectual property rights.[10][11] As a result of the success of the merger, ACP-1000 and ACPR-1000 designs are no longer being offered.

After the merger, both companies retain their own supply chain and their versions of the Hualong One will differ slightly (units built by CGN will retain some features from the ACPR1000) but the design is considered to be standardised. CNNC version emphasizes more passive safety due to influence from Westinghouse AP1000, with increased containment volume and two active safety trains, while CGN version has three active safety trains due to influence from Areva EPR.[12] Some 90% of its components will be made domestically.[13][14]

The Hualong One power output will be 1170 MWe gross, 1090 MWe net, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment.[5] It has a 177 assembly core design with an 18-month refuelling cycle. The power plant's utilisation rate is as high as 90%. CNNC has said its active and passive safety systems, double-layer containment and other technologies meet the highest international safety standards.[15]

According to CNNC, the Hualong One has a construction cost of CNY17,000 per kW.[16]

A the end of August 2014, Chinese regulators were satisfied that Hualong One was a Generation III design and that intellectual property rights were fully held in China.[10][17]

Chinese media reports that all core components are manufactured in China and that 17 universities and research institutions, 58 state-owned enterprises and over 140 private firms across China worked on Hualong One's development to ensure all core components were able to be produced domestically.[18]

EU approval[edit]

In November 2021, the European Utility Requirements (EUR) organisation formally certified the Hualong One (HPR1000) as compliant after a four-step process which began in August 2017. The requirements covered a broad range of conditions for nuclear power plants to operate efficiently and safely.[19]

UK approval[edit]

In February 2022, UK regulators announced that the Hualong One (HPR1000) had passed the four-step Generic Design Assessment (GDA) which started in August 2017 and was thus suitable for construction in the UK, possibly in the Bradwell B nuclear power station project. The Office for Nuclear Regulation issued a Design Acceptance Confirmation (DAC) and the UK Environment Agency issued a Statement of Design Acceptability (SoDA).[20]

Construction[edit]

The first units to be constructed will be Fuqing 5 and 6 (Fujian Province), followed by Fangchenggang 3 and 4 (Guangxi), Zhangzhou 1 and 2 (Fujian), Taipingling 1 and 2 (Guangdong), and San’Ao 1 and 2 (Zhejiang). Fuqing 5 began commercial operation on 30 January 2021.[21]

There are five[22] Hualong One reactors planned for Pakistan, four reactors are planned at Karachi Nuclear Power Complex[23][24][25] and one reactor at Chashma Nuclear Power Plant, out of which two are under construction at Karachi.[26] Construction of another Hualong One reactor was planned to start in 2020 in Argentina,[27][28][29] but was stalled during negotiation.[30] The project was reactivated in 2021 and expected to start construction in mid 2022, with completion date by 2028.[31]

China[edit]

Name Unit No. Status Construction start Grid connection
Changjiang 3 Under construction 31 March 2021
4 Under construction 28 December 2021
Fangchenggang 3 Under construction 24 December 2015
4 Under construction 23 December 2016
Fuqing 5 operational 7 May 2015 27 November 2020
6 operational 22 December 2015 1 January 2022
San'ao 1 Under construction 31 December 2020
2 Under construction 31 December 2021
Taipingling 1 Under construction 26 December 2019
2 Under construction 15 October 2020
Zhangzhou 1 Under construction 16 October 2019
2 Under construction 4 September 2020

Pakistan[edit]

Name Unit No. Status Construction start Grid connection
Karachi Nuclear Power Plant K2 (KANUPP-2) Operational 20 August 2015 18 March 2021
K3 (KANUPP-3) Operational 31 May 2016 4 March 2022[32]
Chashma Nuclear Power Plant C5 (CHASNUPP V) Under construction

Argentina[edit]

Name Unit No. Status Construction start Grid connection
Atucha Nuclear Power Plant Atucha III Contract signed

International marketing[edit]

In December 2015, CGN and CNNC agreed to create Hualong International Nuclear Power Technology Co as a joint venture to promote the Hualong One in overseas markets,[33] which was officially launched in March 2016.[34] On 19 January 2017, the United Kingdom Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) started their Generic Design Assessment process for the Hualong One, expected to be completed in 2021, in advance of possible deployment at the Bradwell nuclear power station site.[35] On 16 November 2017, the ONR and the Environment Agency announced they are progressing to the next phase of their Generic Design Assessment of the UK HPR1000 reactor. Step 2 formally commenced on this day and is planned to take about 12 months. The targeted timescale for the UK HPR1000 GDA process is about five years from the start of Step 1.[36]

Hualong Two[edit]

CNNC plans to start building a follow-on version, named Hualong Two, by 2024. It will be a more economical version using similar technology, reducing build time from 5 years to 4, and reducing costs by around a fourth from 17,000 yuan per kW to 13,000 yuan per kW. [37][38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "China's first Hualong One nuclear reactor starts commercial operation". Reuters. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  3. ^ China National Nuclear Corporation (30 January 2021). "World's first Hualong One reactor put into commercial operation". Cision - PR Newswire. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  4. ^ Conca, James. "China Will Lead The World In Nuclear Energy, Along With All Other Energy Sources, Sooner Than You Think". Forbes. Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  5. ^ a b Ji Xing; Daiyong Song; Yuxiang Wu (March 2016). "HPR1000: Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor with Active and Passive Safety". Engineering. 2 (1): 79–87. doi:10.1016/J.ENG.2016.01.017.
  6. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. 24 September 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  7. ^ "CGN Chairman He Yu Makes Proposal for Promoting Export of China-designed Nuclear Power Technology ACC1000". CGN. 6 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  8. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. April 2014. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  9. ^ Caroline Peachey (22 May 2014). "Chinese reactor design evolution". Nuclear Engineering International. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  10. ^ a b "China's new nuclear baby". World Nuclear News. 2 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  11. ^ "Independent Gen-III Hualong-1 reactor technology passes national review". CGN. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Global developments in advanced reactor technologies and international cooperation" (PDF). ScienceDirect. December 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  13. ^ "Chinese reactor design passes safety review - World Nuclear News".
  14. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. February 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  15. ^ "China to begin construction of Hualong Two in 2024 - Nuclear Engineering International".
  16. ^ "China to begin construction of Hualong Two in 2024 - Nuclear Engineering International".
  17. ^ "Independent Gen-III Hualong-1 reactor technology passes national review". CGN. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  18. ^ "First nuclear unit with Hualong One reactor starts commercial operation". Xinhuanet. 30 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  19. ^ "CGN's Hualong One design certified for European use : Regulation & Safety - World Nuclear News".
  20. ^ "UK regulators approve China's UK HPR1000 design : Regulation & Safety - World Nuclear News".
  21. ^ First Hualong One begins commercial operation
  22. ^ "中国为巴基斯坦建5座核反应堆 投150亿美元-新华网". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  23. ^ China commits $6.5 billion for nuclear power project in Karachi
  24. ^ Local Fallout From Pakistan's Nuclear Energy Bet
  25. ^ Construction cleared for China's first Hualong One units
  26. ^ China ‘to build third Hualong One nuclear reactor’ in Pakistan
  27. ^ "Hualong One selected for Argentina". World Nuclear News. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  28. ^ Charlie Zhu and David Stanway (6 March 2015). "'Made in China' nuclear reactors a tough sell in global market". Reuters. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  29. ^ "Argentina and China sign contract for two reactors". World Nuclear News. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  30. ^ "Retoman negociaciones con China para la construcción de Atucha III". BAE Negocios (in European Spanish). Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  31. ^ "Argentina seeks new China-backed nuclear power plant". Dialogo Chino. 2021-08-20. Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  32. ^ "Karachi 3 begins supplying electricity". World Nuclear News. 7 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  33. ^ "Chinese firms join forces to market Hualong One abroad". World Nuclear News. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  34. ^ "Hualong One joint venture officially launched". World Nuclear News. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  35. ^ "UK GDA reports good progress for AP1000 and UK ABWR". Nuclear Engineering International. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  36. ^ "Regulators start technical assessment of UK HPR 1000". world-nuclear-news.org. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  37. ^ "China to begin construction of Hualong Two in 2024". Nuclear Engineering International. 15 April 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  38. ^ "China to start building Hualong Two nuclear reactor in 2024". NASDAQ. 14 April 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2022.