Skyline of Huanggang
Location of Huanggang City jurisdiction in Hubei
|Coordinates (Huanggang government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Prefecture-level city||17,446.63 km2 (6,736.18 sq mi)|
|• Urban||363.23 km2 (140.24 sq mi)|
|• Prefecture-level city||6,162,069|
|• Urban density||1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HB-11|
|Local Dialect||Lower Yangtze Mandarin|
|Website||黄冈市政府门户网站 (Huanggang City Government Web Portal) (in Simplified Chinese)|
Huanggang is a prefecture-level city in easternmost Hubei Province, China. It is situated to the north of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and is bounded in the north by the Dabie Mountains and is named after Mount Huanggang. It borders Henan in the north, Anhui in the east and Jiangxi in the south.
The city's administrative area covers 17,453 square kilometres (6,739 sq mi) and the total population was 7.4031 million as of the 2017 census, 366,769 of whom resided in the urban area. The Ezhou – Huanggang built-up (or metro) area was home to 1,035,496 inhabitants comprising (Echeng district and Huangzhou district of Huanggang). In 2007, the city is named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.
In 845 BC Marquis Wen 文侯 Huang Meng 黃孟 (aka Huang Zhang 黃璋) moved the capital of the State of Huang from Yicheng to Huangchuan (present-day Huangchuan, Henan). Huang Xi's descendants ruled State of Huang until 648 BC when it was destroyed by the State of Chu. The Marquis of Huang, Marquis Mu 穆侯 Huang Qisheng 黃企生, fled to the state of Qi. The people of Huang were forced to relocate to Chu. They settled in the region of present-day Hubei province, in a region known as the Jiangxia Prefecture 江夏郡 during the Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). There are many places in this region today that were named after Huang e.g. Huanggang, Huangpi, Huangmei, Huangshi, Huangan, Huangzhou etc. A large number of the people of Huang were also relocated to regions south of the Yangtze River. During the reign of Emperor Cheng of Jin, Later Zhao forces inflicted great damage on many Jin cities and bases north of the Yangtze and captured Zhucheng (邾城, in modern Huanggang, Hubei). Huanggang has a history of at least 2,000 years.
|4||Xishui County Xi River||浠水县|
|6||Huangmei County Yellow Plum||黄梅县|
|11||Longganhu Administrative District||龙感湖管理区|
|12||Huanggang Economonic Development Area||黄冈经济开发区|
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Huanggang is the home of Huanggang Middle School, one of the most prestigious secondary schools in China. The school is especially well known for its smart and diligent students. It has consistently excellent records in China's National Higher Education Entrance Examination and International Science Olympiad. Students from Huanggang Middle School have won 25 medals in The International Mathematical Olympiad, International Physics Olympiad and International Chemistry Olympiad. Textbooks and course materials edited by faculty from this school are widely recognized and popular across the country, making Huanggang High School a national brand. Huanggang Normal University is a full-time institution of higher education located in the city of Huanggang.
Huanggang enjoys an excellent transportation infrastructure. Wuhan airport is only 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the west, while Jiujiang Airport in Jiangxi to the east is only 160 kilometres (99 mi) away. Being on the Yangtze River, Wuhan main port is within 80 kilometres (50 mi) and Huangzhou District has a small bulk-handling port. There is an extensive road network, with three north-south and seven east-west major roads within the main city area. The city also is served by several new expressways, including the north-south "Jingzhu" (Beijing to Zhuhai, Guangdong) expressway and the east-west Wuhan to Shanghai expressway. Huanggang also is on the main north-south "Jingjiu" (Beijing to Hong Kong) and "Jingguang" (Beijing to Guangzhou, Guangdong) railway lines.
Two bridges connect Huanggang across the Yangtze to the Ezhou on the south bank of the river:
- Ehuang Bridge, between the main urban area of Huanggang and Ezhou; it carries the China National Highway 106.
- Edong Bridge carries the G45 Daqing–Guangzhou Expressway and the G50 Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway.
Other river crossings near Huanggang include:
- Jiujiang Yangtze River Bridge, between Huangmei County and Jiujiang; a combined road-rail bridge, it carries the Huangxiao Expressway, China National Highway 105, and the Jingjiu Railway
- Huangshi Bridge, which carries the Huanghuang Expressway from Xishui County to Huangshi
Huanggang is served by the Beijing–Kowloon Railway, which has several stations within the prefecture-level city. The Huangzhou Station, located within Huangzhou District some 20 km (12 mi) northeast from downtown Huanggang, has the best service of all, with several trains a day to Beijing, Nanchang, and Shenzhen. Huanggang travelers can also use the Huangshi station on the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway, across the river.
Huanggang prefecture is the birthplace of numerous famous Chinese inventors, scientists, and scholars, including:
- Bi Sheng, the inventor of movable type printing;
- Cheng Yi, ancient idealist philosopher;
- Dong Biwu, Acting President of the People's Republic of China, 1972-1975;
- Li Shizhen, herbalist and author of the ancient medical classic Compendium of Materia Medica;
- Li Siguang, ecologist;
- Lin Biao, one of the ten marshals in China;
- Wen Yiduo, patriotic poet;
- Xiong Shili, a 20th-century Chinese philosopher;
- Daman Hongren, the 5th Chán (Buddhist) Patriarch in the traditional lineage of Chinese Chan;
- Xu Fuguan, a Chinese historian and philosopher, notable for Confucian studies;
- Hu Feng, a Chinese writer and literary and art theorist;
- Chu Bong-Foo, the inventor of the Cangjie method, the most widely available Chinese input method, and the father of the modern Chinese computing;
- Huang Kan, a Chinese philologist.
As well, Huanggang is famous for producing military and political leaders. Hong'an County is known as the "County of Generals" in that more than 400 Chinese army generals have been born there, a total far greater than for any other county in all of China. In addition, former military leader and President of China, Li Xiannian (1909–1992), was born in Hong'an.
- 辭海第六版 [Cihai (Sixth Edition)]. Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. September 2009. p. 957. ISBN 9787532628599.
- "China's Top 10 Most Livable Cities". hnloudi.gov.cn. Hunan Loudi Official Government. 2012-03-28. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- 黄冈概况 (in Chinese). Huanggang People's Government. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- 黄冈市历史沿革 [Historical Development of Huanggang City] (in Chinese). XZQH.org. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- 黄州列车时刻表 [Huangzhou Station Schedule]., as compared to that for the neighboring stations: 浠水,蕲春,武穴
- Lin 164
- Lin Biao. "Lin Piao: Master Strategist". In Snow, Helen Foster (Ed.). The Chinese Communists: Sketches and Autobiographies of the Old Guard. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwoods Publishing Company. 1972. ISBN 0-8371-6321-8