Hubert de Givenchy

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Hubert de Givenchy
Hubert de Givenchy in his atelier at Avenue George V.tif
Givenchy in 1972
Born(1927-02-20)20 February 1927
Beauvais, France
Died10 March 2018(2018-03-10) (aged 91)
NationalityFrench
EducationÉcole des Beaux-Arts
Known forLittle black dress
LabelGivenchy
PartnerPhilippe Venet
RelativesJames de Givenchy (nephew)
AwardsChevalier de la Légion d'honneur (1983)[1]
Medal of l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (1992)[1]

Count Hubert James Marcel Taffin de Givenchy (pronounced [ybɛʁ də ʒivɑ̃ʃi]; 20 February 1927[2] – 10 March 2018[3]) was a French aristocrat and fashion designer who founded the luxury fashion and perfume house of Givenchy in 1952. He is famous for having designed much of the personal and professional wardrobe of Audrey Hepburn and clothing for Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy. He was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1970.[4]

Early life[edit]

Hubert James Taffin de Givenchy was born on 20 February 1927 in Beauvais, Oise[5][6][7] into a Protestant family.[2] He was the younger son of Lucien Taffin de Givenchy, Marquis of Givenchy (1888–1930), and his wife, the former Béatrice ("Sissi") Badin (1888–1976). The Taffin de Givenchy family, which traces its roots to Venice, Italy (the original surname was Taffini), was ennobled in 1713, at which time the head of the family became Marquis of Givenchy.[8] He had an elder brother, Jean-Claude de Givenchy (1925–2009), who inherited the family's marquessate and eventually became the president of Parfums Givenchy.[9]

After his father's death from influenza in 1930, he was raised by his mother and maternal grandmother,[7] Marguerite Dieterle Badin (1853–1940), the widow of Jules Badin (1843–1919), an artist who was the owner and director of the historic Gobelins Manufactory and Beauvais tapestry factories. Artistic professions ran in the extended Badin family. Givenchy's maternal great-grandfather, Jules Dieterle, was a set designer who also created designs for the Beauvais factory, including a set of 13 designs for the Elysée Palace. One of his great-great-grandfathers also designed sets for the Paris Opera.[10]

He moved to Paris at the age of 17, and he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts.[6][7]

Career[edit]

Givenchy's first designs were done for Jacques Fath in 1945.[6][11] Later he did designs for Robert Piguet and Lucien Lelong (1946) – working alongside the still-unknown Pierre Balmain and Christian Dior.[6][11] From 1947 to 1951 he worked for the avantgarde designer Elsa Schiaparelli.[6][11]

Hat for Audrey Hepburn in Breakfast at Tiffany's designed by Givenchy.

In 1952, he opened his own design house at the Plaine Monceau in Paris,[6][7] concentrating on versatile separates in shirting cotton.[12] Later, he named his first collection "Bettina Graziani" for Paris's top model at the time.[6] His style was marked by innovation, contrary to the more conservative designs by Dior. At 25, he was the youngest designer of the progressive Paris fashion scene. His first collections were characterized by the use of rather cheap fabrics for financial reasons, but they always piqued curiosity through their design.[13]

Audrey Hepburn, later the most prominent proponent of Givenchy's fashion, and Givenchy first met in 1953 during the shoot of Sabrina.[14][15] He went on to design the black dress she wore in Breakfast at Tiffany's.[14][15] He also developed his first perfume collection for her (L'Interdit and Le de Givenchy).[6][7] Audrey Hepburn was the face of that fragrance. This was the first time a star was the face of a fragrance's advertising campaign.[16]

At that time, Givenchy also met his idol Cristóbal Balenciaga.[7][17] Givenchy sought inspiration not only from the lofty settings of haute couture but also in such avant-garde environments as Limbo, the store in Manhattan's East Village.[18]

Givenchy's notable clients included Donna Marella Agnelli, Lauren Bacall,[5] Ingrid Bergman, Countess Mona von Bismarck, Countess Cristiana Brandolini d'Adda, Sunny von Bülow, Renata Tebaldi, Maria Callas, Capucine, Marlene Dietrich,[5] Daisy Fellowes, Greta Garbo, Gloria Guinness, Dolores Guinness, Aimee de Heeren, Audrey Hepburn,[14] Jane Holzer, Grace Kelly,[14] Princess Salimah Aga Khan, Rachel Lambert Mellon, Sophia Loren, Jeanne Moreau, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis,[14] Empress Farah Pahlavi, Babe Paley, Lee Radziwill, Hope Portocarrero, Comtesse Jacqueline de Ribes, Nona Hendryx, Baroness Pauline de Rothschild, Frederica von Stade, Baroness Gaby Van Zuylen van Nijevelt, Diana Vreeland, Betsey Cushing Roosevelt Whitney, Baroness Sylvia de Waldner, the Duchess of Windsor, Haitian first lady Michèle Duvalier and Jayne Wrightsman.

Hubert de Givenchy and mannequins at International Flowershow Flora 1953 in Holland.

During the 1950s and early 1960s, he was considered one of the top couturiers, very influential.[19] He debuted his prêt-à-porter collection in 1954,[7][17] at which time his designs were considered to be both comfortably wearable and well-shaped enough to have "hanger appeal".[20][21] He is credited with introducing in 1957 the loose-fitting-but-narrow-hemmed "sack/sac dress," also called the chemise dress, soon copied by Christian Dior for his 1957 Fuseau/Spindle line.[22][23] The same year, he felt confident enough with his stature to present his collections weeks after almost all other designers showed theirs, requiring a second trip to Paris for press and buyers.[24] He created the iconic 'Balloon coat' and the 'Baby Doll' dress in 1958,[25][26] making innovative contributions to the geometric seaming and experimental construction becoming prevalent at the time.[27][28] In 1969,[29] a men's line was also created.[7]

While his premiere collection in the early 1950s had consisted of separates, they had still conformed to the rather dressy norms of the day. In the second half of the 1960s and into the 1970s, with the rise of miniskirts,[30] jeans,[31][32] and much more casual styles,[33][34][35][36][37] a societal rejection of materialism,[38][39] and the decline in importance of haute couture,[40][41][42][43][44] Givenchy's designs remained rather formal and dressy and he became much less influential, seen by some as a behind-the-times designer for wealthy women "of a certain age"[45][46][47] and not showing skirts above the knee until 1971,[48][49] when he also joined 1971's brief vogue for hot pants[50][51] (and showed fabrics inspired by Mark Rothko[52]).

With the return to dresses that accompanied 1974's Big Look trend, he began to be taken a little more seriously again,[53][54] and with the return to formality and conspicuous-consumption,[55] hats-gloves-suits-and-big-shoulders glamour reintroduced for fall of 1978[56][57] and continuing into the 1980s, Givenchy entered the upper echelons of fashion's status quo once again,[58] joining designers like Valentino, Yves Saint Laurent,[59][60] and Oscar de la Renta[61] in showing shoulder-padded versions[62] of the chemise dress,[63][64][65][66] sharply tailored suits,[67][68] grand entrance ballgowns,[69][70][71] and cocktail dresses[72] revived from the 1940s and 1950s.[73][74] While no longer the innovator he was in the 1950s,[75] his work was very popular and perfectly in line with the mood of the era's wealthy.[76][77][78][79] He even joined other cocktail-set designers in showing the occasional above-the-knee skirt,[80][81] newly acceptable to him now that it was dressy-looking instead of 1960s-casual, a tendency that increased during the eighties.[82]

From 1976 through 1987 in the US, the Lincoln division of Ford Motor Company offered a Givenchy Edition of its Continental Mark series (1976[83] to 1982[84]) and Lincoln Continental (1982[85] to 1987) automobiles, beginning with the 1976 Continental Mark IV coupe, continuing with the 1977[86]-79[87] Mark V coupe, and ending with the 1982 Lincoln Mark VI and the 1987 Lincoln Continental sedan.

The House of Givenchy was split in 1981, with the perfume line going to Veuve Clicquot, and the fashion branch was acquired by LVMH in 1989.[88] As of today, LVMH owns Parfums Givenchy as well.[6]

In 1988, he organized a retrospective of his work at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California.[11]

Later life[edit]

Givenchy retired from fashion design in 1995.[14] His successor to head the Givenchy label was John Galliano.[6][7] After a brief stint by Galliano, a five-year stay from Alexander McQueen and a term from 2001 to 2004 by Julien Macdonald, Givenchy women's ready-to-wear and haute couture was headed by Riccardo Tisci from 2005 until 2017.[6][7] Clare Waight Keller held the post from 2017[89] until April 2020.[90] Matthew M. Williams became Givenchy's creative director in June 2020.[91]

Givenchy resided at the Château du Jonchet, a listed historic castle in Romilly-sur-Aigre, Eure-et-Loir, near Paris.[7] In his retirement, he focused on collecting 17th and 18th-century bronze and marble sculptures.[15] In July 2010, he spoke at the Oxford Union.[6][7] From 8 to 14 September 2014, during the Biennale des Antiquaires, he organized a private sale exhibition at Christie's in Paris featuring, artwork by Jean-Baptiste-Claude Odiot, the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, Jacques-Louis David, and Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, etc.[92]

In January 2007, the French Post Office issued postage stamps for Valentine's Day designed by Givenchy. In October 2014, a retrospective exhibition featuring ninety-five of his designed pieces took place at the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in Madrid, Spain.[14][93]

His longtime partner was fashion designer Philippe Venet.[94]

Hubert de Givenchy died in his sleep at the Renaissance chateau near Paris on Saturday 10 March 2018.[3][95][96][97][98] He was 91[99] and was buried in Passy Cemetery in Paris.

Grave in Passy Cemetery.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Françoise Mohrt, The Givenchy Style (1998), Assouline. ISBN 2-84323-107-8
  • Pamela Clarke Keogh, Hubert de Givenchy (introduction): Audrey style (1999), Aurum Press. ISBN 1-85410-645-7
  • Jean-Noël Liaut: Hubert de Givenchy : Entre vies et légendes (2000), Editions Grasset & Fasquelle. ISBN 2-246-57991-0

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mohrt, Françoise. The Givenchy Style. Assouline, 1998. ISBN 2-84323-107-8, p. 204.
  2. ^ a b "Le couturier Hubert de Givenchy est mort à l'âge de 91 ans". Le Monde (in French). 12 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b "'Little black dress' designer Givenchy dies aged 91". Yahoo News Australia. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  4. ^ Zilkha, Bettina (2004). Ultimate Style – The Best of the Best Dressed List. p. 116. ISBN 2-84323-513-8.
  5. ^ a b c Hubert de Givenchy at FMD
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hubert de Givenchy: 'It was always my dream to be a dress designer', The Independent, 7 June 2010
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Connie Roff, Who's Who: Hubert de Givenchy, Vogue, 11 November 2011
  8. ^ Jougla VI, 256, numéro 32324.
  9. ^ New York Times,Hubert de Givenchy Dies at 91; Fashion Pillar of Romantic Elegance, by Eric Wilson, March 12 2018
  10. ^ (fr)Encyclopedie.picardie.fr, Givenchy, Hubert de
  11. ^ a b c d Rose-Mary Turk, Givenchy : For 36 years, He Has Reigned as a Prince of Fashion; an Unusual Retrospective in L.A. Will Show Why, The Los Angeles Times, 28 October 1988
  12. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1946-1956". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 189. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. [Givenchy's 1952 debut collection] was shown in cotton shirting and consisted of mix-and-match blouses, skirts and trousers for a casual, yet impeccable, wardrobe. As Givenchy says, 'I think it was quite a novelty...to have everything separate. I used cotton because it is a simple and true fabric.' He also wanted to offer a contrast to the formal clothes of Dior, and he had little money.
  13. ^ Working on a tight budget, Givenchy served up the floor-length skirts and country chic blouses in raw white cotton materials normally reserved for fittings. French fashion designer Hubert de Givenchy has died at the age of 91, News Corp Australia Network, March 13, 2018
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Ashifa Kassam, Hubert de Givenchy needled by collapse of haute couture, The Guardian, 22 October 2014
  15. ^ a b c Mary M. Lane, Hubert de Givenchy Remembers Audrey Hepburn, The Wall Street Journal, 4 September 2012
  16. ^ History of the house
  17. ^ a b Lauren Milligan, Hubert De Givenchy On Fashion Today, Vogue, 20 October 2014
  18. ^ Vogue (15 February 1966)
  19. ^ "Givenchy, Once Off Pace, Strides Ahead". The New York Times: 48. 23 July 1974. Retrieved 18 March 2022. During the nineteen-fifties and into the sixties, he scaled the couture heights a half‐step behind Balenciaga....
  20. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1946-1956". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 189. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. [C]lothes from Balenciaga, Chanel, Givenchy and Lanvin had to be worn for their charm to be realized – one was conscious of the body moving underneath them.
  21. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1955". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 239. ISBN 0-14-00-4955-X. ...[D]esigners of clothes with body and shape of their own, clothes popular with manufacturers and shops for their 'hanger appeal' are Dior, Givenchy, Balmain and Fath...
  22. ^ Morris, Bernadine (14 September 1979). "It Was Givenchy's Hour Again". The New York Times: 6. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Along with Balenciaga, he introduced the chemise in the summer of 1957.
  23. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1956-57". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 242. ISBN 0-14-00-4955-X. Christian Dior's last collection...a refinement of Givenchy's 'sack' called the 'spindle' or 'chemmy dress'
  24. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1957". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 248. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Balenciaga and Givenchy decided to emphasize their exclusivity by showing their collections between a fortnight and a month after all the other couturiers. From now on, therefore, the press had to return to Paris to see these important shows.
  25. ^ The iconic Givenchy balloon coat
  26. ^ The 'baby doll' dress [https://web.archive.org/web/20151124170412/https://www.givenchy.com/en/baby-doll-dress-0 Archived 24 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1958". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 252. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Givenchy showed a reversible coat with a large 'funnel' collar that required perfect cut to prevent it looking awkward. Such experimental cutting, which challenged accepted lines and silhouettes, became more widespread as the fifties moved towards their end.
  28. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1958". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 246. ISBN 0-14-00-4955-X. Originating with Balenciaga and Givenchy there is the 'high-rise' waist, cinching the ribs above an almond-shaped skirt, gathered over the hips and narrowed at the hem.
  29. ^ Givenchy Gentleman: prêt-à-porter for men Archived 24 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Morris, Bernadine (25 August 1974). "The Big Look". The New York Times: 285. Retrieved 10 February 2022. Starting with the swinging young in London in the early nineteen‐sixties, the miniskirt spread to Paris and then to this country where season after season matrons and manufacturers gleefully subtracted an inch or two from hemlines.
  31. ^ "Fashion View". The New York Times: SM6. 30 December 1979. Retrieved 10 December 2021. Pants and jeans took over the scene...[T]hey suited the quiet, realistic mood of the time...Pants also carried with them the important impression of ease, of not trying too hard, and of freedom — crucial preoccupations of the early 70's...
  32. ^ Evans, Eli N. (24 August 1975). "The Emperor's Fall Clothes". The New York Times: 213. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[J]eans have invaded ballet, theater and gallery openings with such assertion that everyone else feels overdressed.
  33. ^ Morris, Bernadine (6 February 1971). "The Romans Didn't Waste Any Time About Shorts". The New York Times: 18. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Until 10 years ago [1961], street clothes were very formal. Now that's all changed.
  34. ^ Morris, Bernadine (13 January 1978). "Fashion: A Look at the Simple Truth". The New York Times: B4. Retrieved 9 January 2022. With a generation of office workers and executives going to work in T-shirts and blue jeans, formality in fashion was becoming a thing of the past....[I]t is possible for a woman to go anywhere, including black‐tie dinners, in a shirt and pants....Simplicity is the rule, and there's no need for a woman to clutter her closets with a lot of clothes...It is part of the simplification of life that comes under the heading of modernity. So is the fact that most clothes are soft and unstructured as well as interchangeable.
  35. ^ Morris, Bernadine (27 February 1983). "The Directions of the Innovators". The New York Times: 132. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[F]ar more important was the character of the clothes, always casual, always relaxed and, more often than not, looking untouched by a designer's hand....[G]uests on luxury yachts cavorted in them rather than the couture clothes to which they were accustomed.
  36. ^ "On the Art of Being Chic Though Shabby". The New York Times: 62. 9 March 1976. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[I]t has become smart to be shabby, to make do with what you have. It is no longer smart to be affluent, or rather, to be seen to be affluent....Shabby has long been chic in dress...Shabby Chic is part of the denim/patchwork vogue....[T]he smartest people were...in their denims with ragged edges and carefully sewn on patches...They wore their jeans until they were on their last legs, and their T‐shirts until the slogans had virtually faded into oblivion....
  37. ^ Morris, Bernadine (21 July 1972). "...and in Rome, Valentino Regards Pants as Passé". The New York Times: 20. Retrieved 22 June 2022. Fashion designers [and s]torekeepers...fondly recall the time when women traveled with steamer trunks filled with clothes instead of with backpacks, when ladies wore white gloves and hats, and blue jeans were for farmers and laborers.
  38. ^ Ehrenreich, Barbara and John (2020). "Death of a Yuppie Dream". Had I Known. Twelve. pp. 293–295. ISBN 978-1455543670. Retrieved 1 May 2022. In the 1960s,...materialism was briefly out of style.
  39. ^ "Fashion View". The New York Times: SM6. 30 December 1979. Retrieved 10 December 2021. Take the anti‐establishment 60's...: the untamed manes of the flower children, the faded jeans of the affluence‐rejecting hippies, the discarded bras of the women's liberation movement, the knee‐freeing skirts..., and the street‐imitating gear of the radical chic...share...an antifashion attitude that became...powerful and pervasive...
  40. ^ "1966: Saint Laurent Rive Gauche". Musée Yves Saint Laurent Paris. Retrieved 4 April 2022. In the 1960s, society had evolved in such a way that the norms imposed by haute couture had become obsolete. A growing number of women wanted to be able to dress themselves elegantly and affordably.
  41. ^ Barmash, Isadore (13 May 1973). "Long-Skirt Fiasco Lingers On". The New York Times: 155. Retrieved 4 April 2022. 'Between five and seven years ago [1966-1968], the big change occurred,' said the head of a New York resident buying office last week. 'The matron or dowager who favored labels, quality and tailoring became influenced by her daughter. Now, the two of them are no longer seeking the same criteria in clothes. They don't want to pay $600 for a garment but would rather buy three or four for that price. And the garment doesn't have to last for years, and labels aren't that important. What they do want, though, is styling that is attractive and young'.
  42. ^ Morris, Bernadine (30 July 1972). "A Few Kind Words for Paris Couture as Quite Unexciting Showings End". The New York Times: 46. Retrieved 22 June 2022. Having given up trying to appeal to young people, couturiers everywhere are aiming at the woman who is rich, conservative and around 40 years old. Sometimes she seems 90.
  43. ^ Morris, Bernadine (4 February 1974). "Why Nobody's Paying Much Attention to Spring Couture". The New York Times: 24. Retrieved 22 June 2022. Why has the couture lost its touch? Because it is a geriatric institution, having been invented around the turn of the century by men such as Worth and Poiret and is now in its 75th year. Because its customers are a similar age. Because It is losing its nerve. Because it is terrified by competition from the ready‐to‐wear...
  44. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1968". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 306. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Balenciaga retired from the couture this year. His parting remark was, 'The life that supported the couture is finished. Real couture is a luxury which is just impossible to do anymore'.
  45. ^ "Givenchy, Once Off Pace, Strides Ahead". The New York Times: 48. 24 July 1974. Retrieved 18 March 2022. ...[R]ecently, he has been considered the designer to the geriatric crowd.
  46. ^ Morris, Bernadine (31 July 1975). "Applause Meter Gets a Workout at Saint Laurent". The New York Times: 18. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Hubert de Givenchy has his fashion followers...They tend...to be 'women of a certain age'...
  47. ^ Emerson, Gloria (31 January 1970). "Givenchy, 1970: The Approach is Positive, the Look is Softer". The New York Times: 22. Retrieved 18 March 2022. For the last few seasons, some of the Givenchy critics have carped that inside his strict, carved shapes was a middle‐aged matron who would never get out.
  48. ^ Emerson, Gloria (31 January 1970). "Givenchy, 1970: The Approach is Positive, the Look is Softer". The New York Times: 22. Retrieved 18 March 2022. ...[S]kirts are now longer and his always have been.
  49. ^ Morris, Bernadine (30 July 1971). "For Daring, There's Givenchy". The New York Times: 14. Retrieved 18 March 2022. ...Givenchy's micromini dresses...show a lot of leg, though they are concealed by such things as a purple leather coat to the floor.
  50. ^ Morris, Bernadine (30 July 1971). "For Daring, There's Givenchy". The New York Times: 14. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Givenchy shows hot pants.
  51. ^ Morris, Bernadine (28 January 1971). "Givenchy: Elegance and More". The New York Times: 41. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Givenchy tucks shorts under his skinny daytime suits and dresses and sometimes sends the shorts out alone unabashed.
  52. ^ Morris, Bernadine (28 January 1971). "Givenchy: Elegance and More". The New York Times: 41. Retrieved 18 March 2022. One of his daring ventures was to have Sache, an esteemed French fabric designer, adapt the very abstract paintings of Rothko to thin evening silks.
  53. ^ "Givenchy, Once Off Pace, Strides Ahead". The New York Times: 48. 24 July 1974. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Givenchy's yokes...gave blouses, jackets and coats a smock‐like shape that was equally good belted or left loose....He shows coats with cape backs...
  54. ^ Morris, Bernadine (15 August 1976). "Fashion: Paris Report". The New York Times: 179. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Hubert de Givenchy loosened up a bit, turning out a peasant style or two.
  55. ^ Morris, Bernadine (3 August 1982). "For Every Trend in Paris, There's a Countertrend". The New York Times: A16. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Designers such as Yves Saint Laurent and Hubert de Givenchy simply picked dramatic traditional shapes, made them in the most opulent fabrics and embellished them with furs, feathers and jewels.
  56. ^ "Fashion View". The New York Times: SM6. 30 December 1979. Retrieved 18 March 2022. In Paris, the body‐conscious trend took a civilized turn with Givenchy's elegantly tapered suits...
  57. ^ "Fashion View". The New York Times: SM6. 30 December 1979. Retrieved 18 March 2022. The brisk, capable look of the wide-shouldered silhouette suited the mood of women who wanted to convey just that image: in control and 'together'.
  58. ^ Morris, Bernadine (14 September 1979). "It Was Givenchy's Hour Again". The New York Times: 6. Retrieved 18 March 2022. The overflow audience...cheered almost from the first style...The designer was pleased by the enthusiastic reception to his work...'I have had a second "jeunesse" '...It is not that he has changed his style so much, but that fashion has come around again to his basic concepts, he explained....'Suddenly, women want to look neat again, pure. That is my style.... The circle has returned in my direction,' Givenchy said. 'I am very grateful'.
  59. ^ Morris, Bernadine (19 October 1979). "At Paris Showings, Both Creativity and Confusion". The New York Times: A20. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Yves Saint Laurent and Hubert de Givenchy produced the best collections.
  60. ^ Donovan, Carrie (11 September 1983). "Fashion View from Paris Couture". The New York Times: 132. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Givenchy's [clothes] are always the essence of luxury, even though nowadays they often contain some outfits strikingly similar to those Saint Laurent showed a season before.
  61. ^ Cunningham, Bill (1 September 1989). "To the Future Through the Past". Details. New York, NY: Details Publishing Corp. VIII (3): 219. ISSN 0740-4921. Both Valentino and de la Renta showed collections in the formal rich society-lady style.
  62. ^ Donovan, Carrie (31 March 1985). "Fashion: Feminine Flourishes". The New York Times: 80. Retrieved 9 March 2022. Karl Lagerfeld..., Yves Saint Laurent, Emanuel Ungaro and Hubert de Givenchy...continued with their versions of the rather aggressive broad-shouldered silhouette...
  63. ^ Morris, Bernadine (31 July 1979). "Couture Forecasts Shape of Clothes to Come". The New York Times: C5. Retrieved 18 March 2022. ...[T]he prevailing shape is the chemise....[T]he shoulders of the chemise are padded...
  64. ^ Morris, Bernadine (19 October 1979). "At Paris Showings, Both Creativity and Confusion". The New York Times: A20. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Givenchy proposed a tapering chemise.
  65. ^ Morris, Bernadine (25 October 1983). "Looking for Keys to Fashion Trends". The New York Times: A32. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...Hubert de Givenchy...returned to the...chemise shapes promulgated by Balenciaga in 1957....Current versions have wider shoulders and shorter skirts than those of Balenciaga, but still offer a reprise on an earlier style.
  66. ^ Morris, Bernadine (31 January 1984). "Saint Laurent Dominates Couture". The New York Times: C12. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Givenchy added innumerable versions of the chemise dress, a category of fashion he has made his own...
  67. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1983". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 287. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Sharp, daytime tailoring...distinguished the collections of Saint Laurent, Givenchy, Valentino and Ungaro. Suits were styled with wide revers and shoulders above tiny, cinched waists.
  68. ^ "Peplums and Picasso". The Washington Post. 26 July 1979. Retrieved 18 March 2022. ...[T]he hourglass shape at Christian Dior and Givenchy, with broad-shouldered jackets with set-in sleeves with fullness at the top, and tiny waists...
  69. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1979". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 368. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Paris evening dresses were far from simple:...Givenchy and Lancetti showed bustles...
  70. ^ Morris, Bernadine (5 February 1985). "Paris Couture: Living Up to Tradition of Excellence". The New York Times: A22. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Beaded evening dresses are available at houses like Givenchy, which specializes in them, for around $10,000.
  71. ^ Morris, Bernadine (26 March 1985). "Seductive Dresses by Gres; Lagerfeld Brightens Chanel". The New York Times: A22. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[B]all gowns took over the evening scene...
  72. ^ Luther, Marylou (1 August 1987). "Paris When It Dazzles". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[Givenchy's] short black puckered velvet cocktail dresses electrified with oversize shocking pink bows...
  73. ^ Hyde, Nina S. (29 October 1978). "Fashion Notes". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. There were nifty Kitty Foyle-like dresses [a 1940s-style short-sleeve dress] at Givenchy...
  74. ^ Luther, Marylou (1 August 1987). "Paris When It Dazzles". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. There were the Audrey Hepburn reprises everyone hoped for from Givenchy...
  75. ^ Morris, Bernadine (27 July 1985). "Givenchy's Modern Classics". The New York Times: 48. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Though he broke no new ground and certainly showed no wild clothes, his collection had a good sense of freshness and a youthful vigor.
  76. ^ Cunningham, Bill (1 March 1987). "The Collections Spring Forward". Details. New York, NY: Details Publishing Corp. V (8): 103. ISSN 0740-4921. ...[H]istorical...revivals...celebrated Proustian opulence for the new rich of the Eighties.
  77. ^ Hyde, Nina S. (29 April 1980). "Fashion's Opulent Autumn". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Bill Blass insists that in spite of the state of the economy, his customers want rich, opulent clothes. So he has made his things a little richer, a little more opulent.
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