Hudson Hornet

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Hudson Hornet
Hudson Hornet 4-door burgundy.JPG
1951 Hudson Hornet Four-Door Sedan
Overview
Manufacturer
Production1950–1957
Body and chassis
Class
LayoutFR layout
Hornet nameplate

Hudson Hornet is a full-sized automobile that was manufactured by Hudson Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan from 1951 until 1954, when Nash-Kelvinator and Hudson merged to form American Motors Corporation (AMC). Hudson automobiles continued to be marketed under the Hudson brand name through the 1957 model year.

The first-generation Hudson Hornets featured a functional "step-down" design with dropped floorpan and a chassis with a lower center of gravity than contemporary vehicles that helped the car handle well — a bonus for racing. The Hornet's lower and sleeker look was accentuated by streamlined styling, sometimes called "ponton" styling. Hornet owner Spencer Blake, writing for Popular Mechanics in 1999, notes that "the car's unique, low slung appearance and silky handling earned Hudson an image that — for many buyers — eclipsed luxury marques like Cadillac."[1]

In order for American Motors to build Hudson cars on the newer factory assembly line for Nash Statesman/Ambassador unibody chassis, all second-generation Hudson Hornets were restyled Nash automobiles that were badge engineered as a Hudson.[1]

First generation[edit]

First generation
Hudson Hornet Club Coupe 1951.jpg
1951 Hudson Hornet coupe
Overview
Production1950–1954
AssemblyDetroit, Michigan, United States
Body and chassis
Body style
Powertrain
Engine
  • 308 cu in (5.0 L) I6
  • 308 cu in (5.0 L) I6
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase124 in (3,150 mm)
Length208 in (5,283 mm)[3]
Width77.5 in (1,968 mm)
Height60 in (1,524 mm)[3]
Curb weight3,620 lb (1,642 kg)

The Hornet, introduced for the 1951 model year, was based on Hudson's "step-down" design[4] that was first seen in the 1948 model year on the Commodore. Unlike a unibody, the design didn't fully merge the body and chassis frame into a single structure, but the floorpan footwells recessed down, in between the car's chassis rails, which were, in turn, routed around them – instead of a conventional floor, sitting on top of straight ladder frame rails – a body on frame design that later became more widely adopted, and known as a perimeter frame. Thus one "stepped down" into a Hudson. Thanks to the step-down chassis and body, the car's "lower center of gravity...was both functional and stylish. The car not only handled well, but treated its six passengers to a sumptuous ride. The low-slung look also had a sleekness about it that was accentuated by the nearly enclosed rear wheels."[5]

1951[edit]

1951 Hudson Hornet Convertible Brougham
"Twin H-Power" engine
1951 Hudson Hornet

Hudson Hornets were available as a two-door coupe, four-door sedan, a convertible, and a pillarless hardtop coupe. The models were priced the same as Commodore Eight, which was priced from US$2,543 to $3,099.

All Hornets from 1951 to 1953 were powered by Hudson's high-compression straight-six "H-145" engine. Starting in 1952 an optional "twin-H" or twin one barrel carburetor setup was available at additional cost. The newly introduced "Twin H-Power" was available in November 1951 as a Dealer installed option at the cost of $85.60. An electric clock was standard.[3] A L-head (flathead or side-valve) design, at 308 cu in (5.0 L) it was the largest [displacement] six-cylinder engine for mass-production cars the at the time. It had a two-barrel carburetor and produced 145 hp (108 kW)[3] at 3800 rpm and 275 lb⋅ft (373 N⋅m) of torque.[6] In 1954, power was increased to 170 hp (127 kW) from 145 hp (108 kW). The engine was capable of far more power in the hands of precision tuners, including Marshall Teague, who claimed he could get 112 miles per hour (180.2 km/h) from an AAA- or NASCAR-certified stock Hornet, as well as Hudson engineers who developed "severe usage" options (thinly disguised racing parts).[7] The combination of the Hudson engine with overall road-ability of the Hornets, plus the fact the cars were over-designed and over-built, made them unbeatable in competition on the dirt and the very few paved tracks of the 1950s.[8]

Hudson Hornet 1951 model year production totaled 43,666 units.[9]

1952[edit]

1952 Hudson Hornet Club Coupe

In 1952 the "Twin H-Power" version became standard equipment with dual single-barrel carburetors atop a dual-intake manifold, and power rose to 170 hp (127 kW; 172 PS). The hood featured a functional scoop that ducts cold air to the carburetors and was considered "ventilation" in 1954, rather than ram air.[1] The engine could be tuned to produce 210 hp (157 kW) when equipped with the "7-X" modifications that Hudson introduced later.[6] During 1952 and 1953 the Hornet received minor cosmetic enhancements, and still closely resembled the Commodore of 1948.

The Hornet proved to be nearly invincible in stock-car racing.[7] "[D]espite its racing successes...sales began to languish."[5] Hudson's competitors, using separate body-on-frame designs, could change the look of their models on a yearly basis without expensive chassis alterations"[5] whereas the Hornet's "modern, sophisticated unibody design was expensive to update," so it "was essentially locked in" and "suffered against the planned obsolescence of the Big Three [General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler] automakers.

A total of 35,921 Hornets were produced for 1952, with approximately 2,160 hardtops and 360 convertibles.[9]

1953[edit]

1953 Hudson Hornet Hollywood Hardtop

The 1953 model year brought minor changes to the Hudson Hornet. The front end was modified with a new grille and a non-functional air scoop hood ornament.[10] four different body designs: two-door club coupe, Hollywood hardtop, Convertible Brougham, and a four-door sedan.

Hudson Hornet 1953 model year production totaled 27,208 units of which around 910 were the Hollywood hardtops.[11] An 8-tube radio was a $100 option.[12]

1954[edit]

1954 Hudson Hornet Sedan
1954 Hudson Hornet convertible

For the 1954 model year, the Hornet underwent a major square-lined redesign and to match the look of the compact Hudson Jet that was introduced in 1953.[13] This entailed extensive retooling because of the way the step-down frame wrapped around the passenger compartment. The front had a simpler grille that complemented the now-functional hood scoop and a new one-piece curved windshield, while the sides gained period-typical fender chrome accents, and the formerly sloped rear end was squared off.[9] The front to rear fender line was styled to make the car look longer and taillamps were also redesigned.[14] The interior was also updated with a new dash and instrument cluster that were surprisingly modern.[9]

There was no V8 engine available, but the 308 cu in (5.0 L) six-cylinder was standard in Hornets and produced 160 hp (119 kW), the racing-inspired 170 hp (127 kW; 172 PS) "Twin-H-Power" (dual carburetor) option was popular, and a 7-X version of the engine was offered as a factory option, producing over 210 hp (157 kW; 213 PS) using a high compression head, special camshaft, and other "severe usage" parts designed for racing. The 308 cu in (5.0 L) engine produced high torque at low RPMs and had a fairly flat torque curve, which helped the Hornet beat V8s from other makes whose power advantage came only at much higher rpm. The engine more powerful compared to the contemporary low-priced competition (the Chevrolet I6 and Ford V8) and was close to the V8 engines offered by the medium-priced competition (Oldsmobile and Buick).[15] The Hornet's performance delivered up to 100 mph (161 km/h) and "quasi-thrifty" 17 mpg‑US (14 L/100 km; 20 mpg‑imp) fuel economy.[15]

Although the Hornet's redesign put it on par with its contemporaries in terms of looks and style, it came too late to boost sales. The news that Hudson was in financial difficulties and had been essentially taken over by Nash-Kelvinator to form American Motors Corporation during the 1954 model year was known by the car-buying public.

The updated Hornet Brougham convertible, the only open top body design available from Hudson, was attractive but considered overpriced at $3,288 for a six-cylinder car in 1954.[16] These top line model included hydraulic window lifts and leather upholstery in blue, maroon, or green with the fabrics tops available in maroon, black, or tan.[13] A total of 540 convertibles were built.[17]

Hudson's Board of Directors approved a merger with Nash-Kelvinator on 14 January 1954, and ratified by shareholders on 24 March 1954, with the new American Motors Corporation formed on 1 May 1954.[18] Further production of Hudson cars was to be in Nash's Kenosha, Wisconsin, with the last Detroit-built Hudson was built on 30 October 1954.[18]

Hudson Hornet 1954 model year production of all body styles totaled 24,833.[19]

A 1954 Hornet two-door hardtop was customized by Harold Du Charme of Grosse Pointe, Michigan, who was a large stockholder in the automaker.[20] He did not like the redesign of the car and proposed changes to improve Hudson's flagging sales. Changes included a 2.5-inch (64 mm) top chopping and channeling the midsection 4 inches (102 millimetres) as well as repositioned headlamps in an egg-crate grille, twin hood scoops, extended rear fenders with Lincoln taillights, and a continental kit.[21]

NASCAR fame[edit]

Herb Thomas's #92 Fabulous Hudson Hornet

Hudson was the first automobile manufacturer to get involved in stock car racing.[8] The Hornet "dominated stock car racing in the early-1950s, when stock car racers actually raced stock cars."[5]

During 1952, Marshall Teague finished the 1952 AAA season with a 1000-point lead over his closest rival, winning 12 of the 13 scheduled events.[7] Hornets driven by NASCAR aces Herb Thomas, Dick Rathmann, Al Keller, Frank Mundy, and Tim Flock won 27 NASCAR races driving for the Hudson team.[7]

In the AAA racing circuit, Teague drove a stock Hornet that he called the Fabulous Hudson Hornet to 14 wins during the season. This brought the Hornet's season record to 40 wins in 48 events, a winning percentage of 83%.[8]

Overall, Hudson won 27 of the 34 NASCAR Grand National races in 1952, followed by 22 wins of 37 in 1953, and capturing 17 of the 37 races in 1954 — "an incredible accomplishment, especially from a car that had some legitimate luxury credentials."[5]

The original Fabulous Hudson Hornet can be found today fully restored in Ypsilanti, Michigan at the Ypsilanti Automotive Heritage Museum, a facility that was formerly home to Miller Motors, the last Hudson dealership in the world.[22]

Second generation[edit]

Second generation
1957 Hudson Hornet Hollywood 2-door.jpg
1957 Hudson Hornet V8 Super Hollywood Hardtop
Overview
Production1955–1957
AssemblyKenosha, Wisconsin, United States
Body and chassis
Body style
Powertrain
Engine
  • 308 cu in (5.0 L) I6
  • 320 cu in (5.2 L) Packard V8 (1955-early-56)
  • 250 cu in (4.1 L) AMC V8 (late-56)
  • 327 cu in (5.4 L) AMC V8 (1957)
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 121.25 in (3,080 mm)
  • 1956 Special: 114.25 in (2,902 mm)[23]
Length
  • 209 in (5,309 mm)
  • 1956 Special: 202 in (5,131 mm)[23]
Width78 in (1,981 mm)
Height60 in (1,524 mm)
Curb weight
  • I6: 3,495 lb (1,585 kg)
  • V8 Hornet Special: 3,467 lb (1,573 kg)[23]

In its final three model years, the Hornet became a product of the newly-formed American Motors Corporation (AMC). Following the 1954 merger of the Hudson Motor Car Company and Nash-Kelvinator, Hudson's Detroit manufacturing facility was closed and the production of Hudson models was shifted to Nash's Wisconsin factory. No longer built on the "Step-down" platform, all Hudsons were now based on the senior Nash models, but featuring distinctive Hudson styling themes.

1955[edit]

1955 Hudson Hornet Custom Sedan

The new models were delayed to a January 1955 introduction, "as American Motors engineers work out the problem of making two completely different looking automobiles with identical body shells."[24]

The first entirely new car from American Motors, the 1955 Hudson emerged as a conservatively styled car compared to the competition. The 1955 Hornet was the cleanest model with a broad eggcrate grille and distinctive two-toning.[25] Sedan and hardtop body styles were offered, but the coupe and convertible were no longer available.[26]

The 308 cu in (5.0 L) straight-six engine continued in 160 bhp (119 kW) or 170 bhp (127 kW) versions. For the first time ever, the Hornet could be ordered with a Packard-built 320 cu in (5.2 L) V8 engine producing 208 bhp (155 kW) and Packard's Ultramatic automatic transmission. The rear suspension now incorporated a torque tube system for the driveshaft and coil spring rear suspension along with front springs that are twice as long as most other cars.[27]

Along with Nash, the new Hudsons had the widest front seats in the industry.[28] The Weather Eye heating and ventilation with an optional air conditioning system were highly rated in terms of efficiency.[27] The integrated placement of major air conditioning systems under the hood and the price of only $395 (about half the cost as on other cars) also won praise.[27] Automotive journalist Floyd Clymer rated the Hudson Hornet as the safest car built in the United States because of (1) the single unit welded body, (2) high quality braking system with added mechanical backup system, (3) roadability, general handling, and maneuverability; as well as (4) excellent acceleration and power for emergency situations.[27]

Production for the 1955 model year totaled 10,010 four-door sedans and 3,324 Hollywood two-door hardtops.[25]

1956[edit]

1956 Hudson Hornet Custom Four-Door Sedan

For the 1956 model year, AMC executives decided to give the Hornet more character and the design for the vehicles was given over to designer Richard Arbib, who provided the Hornet and Wasp with one of the more distinctive looks in the 1950s which he called "V-Line Styling". Taking the traditional Hudson tri-angle, Arbib applied its "V" form in every conceivable manner across the interior and exterior of the car. Combined with tri-tone paint combinations, the Hudson's look was unique and immediately noticeable.

The legendary 308 cu in (5.0 L) straight-six engine, with and without Twin-H Power, was offered and gained 5 hp (4 kW) for 1956. However, Packard's V8 engine was available only during the first half of 1956. At mid-model year Hornet Special was introduced featuring a lower price and AMC's new 250 cu in (4.1 L) 190 hp (142 kW) V8 engine.[25] The Hornet Special models were built on a 7-inch (178 mm) shorter and slightly lighter Statesman/Wasp four-door sedan and two-door hardtop platform with Hornet trim.[29]

The 1956 design failed to excite buyers and Hudson Hornet sales decreased to 8,152 units, of which 6,512 were four-door sedans and 1,640 Hollywood two-door hardtops.[25]

1957[edit]

1957 Hudson Hornet Custom Sedan

In 1957, the historic Hudson name came only in a Hornet version in "Super" and "Custom" series, and available as a four-door sedan or a two-door "Hollywood" hardtop. For the second year, the V-Line styling featured an enormous egg-crate grille, creases and chrome strips on the sides, and five tri-tone schemes for the Custom models. There was more ornamentation to the cars, including fender "finettes" atop the rounded rear quarter panels for 1957, as well as very unusual twin-fin trim on top of both front fenders.

The price was reduced and the power was increased by way of AMC's new 327 cu in (5.4 L) V8 that was rated at 255 hp (190 kW) with a four-barrel carburetor and dual exhausts.[30]

Prompted by Automobile Manufacturer Association ban on factory-supported racing beginning in 1957, production of Hudson Hornet ended on 25 June 1957, at which time the Hudson brand name with its racing heritage was discontinued and all American Motors Corporation automobiles were then marketed as being made by "Rambler" Division. Total production of 1957 Hornets was 4,108, split between 3,359 sedans and 749 Hollywood Hardtops.[31]

Foreign markets[edit]

The Hudson Hornet was sold in foreign markets, either exported as complete cars or locally-built from knock-down kits.

Australia[edit]

1955 Hudson Hornet (Australia)

Hudson vehicles were locally assembled in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia, from 1913 however World War II put an end to all local vehicle assembly in Australia.[32] Following the war the Australian government legislated currency restrictions which put an end to all local assembly of foreign vehicles. Despite the restrictions, Australian distributors were able to bring in limited numbers of US-built, factory right-hand-drive Hudson vehicles from 1946, eventually including the Hudson Hornet.[33] It was not until 1961 that American Motors Corporation vehicles began to be assembled in Australia after AMC struck a deal with Australian Motor Industries in 1960.[34]

Canada[edit]

Canadian assembly of Hudson vehicles commenced in 1932 by Hudson Motors of Canada in Tilbury, Ontario. World War II interrupted operations and production ceased in 1941. Post-war operations resumed in 1950, with Hudsons being assembled by CHATCO Steel Products in Tilbury, Ontario.[35] Operations in Tilbury ceased permanently in 1954 following the formation of American Motors Corporation. As a result of the merger, Toronto-based Nash Motors of Canada Ltd. became American Motors (Canada) Ltd. and all subsequent Hudson, Nash, and Rambler assembly operations continued in Toronto.[36]

New Zealand[edit]

1957 Hudson Hornet, assembled in New Zealand

Hudson vehicles were imported into New Zealand from 1912 and eventually locally assembled from knock-down kits from 1919.[37]

From 1935, Hudson and other marques were assembled by Christchurch company Motor Assemblies Limited. Production ended when the company was acquired by Standard-Triumph International in 1954.[38] From 1954 the Hudson Hornet was built in New Zealand by Auckland company VW Motors as a secondary line to the Volkswagens they assembled. AMC's subsequent Rambler models were assembled thereafter at VW Motors' new plant in Otahuhu, Auckland from 1958 until 1962.[39][40] AMC formed an agreement in 1963 with Campbell Motor Industries (CMI) of Thames to assemble Ramblers, production of which ran from 1964 until 1971.

South Africa[edit]

1957 Hudson Hornet (South Africa)

Hudson vehicles were assembled in South Africa beginning in the 1920s by Stanley Motors at their plant, National Motor Assemblers (NMA), in Natalspruit (Gauteng).[41][42] The Hudson Hornet was assembled in right-hand-drive from knock-down kits sourced from Canada.[43] After the Hudson and Nash merger, NMA continued to assemble AMC's new Ramblers until 1967, although the 1957 Rambler was instead marketed in South Africa as the "Hudson 108."[44]

United Kingdom[edit]

Hudsons were introduced to the United Kingdom in 1911 and eventually a factory was built where Hudson (and Essex) vehicles were locally assembled from 1927.[45] The British company was renamed Hudson Motors Ltd. in 1932.[46]

The Hudson Hornet was assembled in right-hand-drive for the U.K market and other European countries. Following the demise of the Hudson marque, the British company was renamed Rambler Motors (A.M.C.) Limited in 1966[47] and continued to import AMC vehicles through the 1970s.

Legacy[edit]

Hudson Hornet 51 created as a prototype for the film Cars

The 1951 Hudson Hornet was selected as the "Car of the Year" in a book profiling seventy-five years of noteworthy automobiles by automotive journalist Henry Bolles Lent.[48]

Some police departments used the Hudson Hornet 4-door sedans as police cars. After their retirement, they were replaced by the AMC Matador and the AMC Ambassador police cars.

For the 1970 model year, American Motors resurrected the Hornet name for their new compact car that replaced the Rambler American (see AMC Hornet).

In 2006, a small, front-wheel-drive concept car called Hornet was designed and developed by Dodge (see Dodge Hornet).

The Disney Pixar film Cars and several spin-off video games featured a Fabulous Hudson Hornet named Doc Hudson, a retired Piston Cup champion. The Piston cup is the film franchise's version of the Winston Cup Series, which changed names several times since its inception.

The Hudson Hornet was featured in the video games Driver: San Francisco, Forza Horizon 4, and Forza Motorsport 4 as a part of July Car Pack.

Notable owners[edit]

1951 Hudson Hornet Limousine

Collectibility[edit]

First-generation Hudson Hornets are legendary for their NASCAR racing history and Jay Leno lists the 1951-1954 models as one of the "top ten of America's most collectible cars".[53] "One of the great postwar landmarks - a true champion" gives it a big edge in collector appeal.[54] Richard M. Langworth describes the first-generation Hornets in his book Complete Book of Collectible Cars: 70 Years of Blue Chip Auto Investments as "the most remembered Hudson of the postwar years, one of the industry's all-time greats."[55] For example, prices on the Club Coupes, the body style used by the winning NASCAR drivers, have greatly appreciated in the last several years where several nicely restored examples have broken the $75K barrier in several cases.[56] The convertible versions have also increased in value with a restored 1953 bringing $150,000 in 2013.[57]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Inline
  1. ^ a b c "1954 Hudson Hornet Club Coupe". Popular Mechanics. April 1999. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  2. ^ Gunnell, John, ed. (2002). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975 (Fourth ed.). Krause Publications. p. 477. ISBN 9780873410960.
  3. ^ a b c d Flory, Jr., J. "Kelly" (2008). American Cars, 1946-1959 Every Model Every Year. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-3229-5.
  4. ^ "1951 Hudson Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. p. 4. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e Nerad, Jack. "Hudson Hornet (and racing) — as seen in Pixar's movie Cars". Driving Today. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  6. ^ a b Cheetham, Craig (2006). Ultimate American Cars. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-7603-2570-4. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (20 June 2007). "How Hudson Cars Work". Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  8. ^ a b c Cheptea, Constantin (24 June 2006). "1952 Hudson Hornet". TopSpeed. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d McCourt, Mark J. (June 2004). "Hudson Hornet, 1951-54". Hemmings Motor News. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  10. ^ "Parade of 1953 cars, from Buick to Willys: Hudson". Popular Mechanics. 99 (2): 109. February 1953. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  11. ^ Vaughan, Daniel (June 2009). "1953 Hudson Hornet news, pictures, specifications, and information". conceptcarz.com. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  12. ^ Gunnell, John A. (ed.). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-87341-096-0.
  13. ^ a b "Car of the Week: 1954 Hudson Hornet (Last Step-Down Design)". Old Cars Weekly. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  14. ^ Donovan, Leo (February 1954). "Parade of 1954 and 1955 cars: Hudson". Popular Mechanics. 101 (2): 157. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  15. ^ a b McCourt, Mark J. (August 2012). "Hudsons in the Heartland - 1954 Hudson Hornet". Hemmings Classic Car. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  16. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (27 May 2007). "1954 Hudson Hornet Brougham". Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  17. ^ Clarke, Adam (6 March 2020). "Rare 1954 Hudson Hornet Brougham Convertible!". Barn Finds. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  18. ^ a b Vaughan, Daniel (April 2019). "1954 Hudson Hornet". conceptcarz.com. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  19. ^ "Hudson Serial Numbers". hudsonjet.hetclub.org. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  20. ^ "1954 Hudson". Peterson Family Cars. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  21. ^ ODonnell, Jim (9 October 2020). "Historic Custom: 1954 Hudson Hornet". Barn Finds. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  22. ^ Arnold, Mark. "The Fabulous Hudson Hornet". Jalopnik.com. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  23. ^ a b c Strohl, Daniel (5 September 2010). "SIA Flashback – 1956 Hudson Hornet Special". Hemmings. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  24. ^ Donovan, Leo (December 1954). "Detroit Listening Post". Popular Mechanics. 102 (6): 92. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  25. ^ a b c d Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (19 July 2007). "1955-1957 Hudson Hornet". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  26. ^ Gunnell, John (2002). Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975 (Fourth ed.). p. 479. ISBN 9780873410960.
  27. ^ a b c d Clymer, Floyd (October 1955). "Clymer tests the Hudson Hornet". Popular Mechanics. 104 (4): 132–282. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  28. ^ Donovan, Leo (February 1955). "Parade of 1955 cars: Hudson". Popular Mechanics. 103 (2): 141. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  29. ^ Foster, Patrick (January 2011). "The Hornet Special - 1956 Hudson Hornet". Hemmings Classic Car. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  30. ^ Lyons, Dan; Collins, Tom (18 November 2005). Cars of the Fantastic '50s. Krause Publications. pp. 140–144. ISBN 978-0-87349-926-2.
  31. ^ Nau, Charles. "American Motors Production Statistics 1955 1956 1957" (PDF). Hudson-Essex-Terraplane Club. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  32. ^ "The Hudson Car". The Bundaberg Mail and Burnett Advertiser. Queensland, Australia. 28 June 1913. p. 3. Retrieved 22 October 2020 – via Trove.
  33. ^ "Hudson Car Models". The Age. Melbourne, Victoria. 27 November 1945. p. 6. Retrieved 22 October 2020 – via Trove.
  34. ^ "Australia: Five Decades of Motoring - The 1950s". Australia Guide. 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  35. ^ Quella, Chad. "AMC - The Spirit Still Lives (history of American Motors)". allpar.com. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  36. ^ "Hudson Motor Car Company Dealerships in Canada". hudsonjet.hetclub.org. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  37. ^ "A Powerful Company". Press. LV (16515). 10 June 1919. p. 7. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  38. ^ Rose, William Dennis (1971). Development options in the New Zealand motor car assembly industry. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research. Research paper; no. 16. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  39. ^ "Volkswagen New Zealand". Volkswagen.co.nz. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  40. ^ Niall, Todd (6 October 2018). "The Empty Halls of New Zealand's Car Assembly Industry". Sunday Star Times. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  41. ^ "Collection in Action – H". Franschhoek Motor Museum. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  42. ^ Michael. "1957 Hudson 108 (South Africa) print advertisement". Flickr. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  43. ^ Compton, M.; Gallwey, T.J. (2009). "Motor Assemblies Limited". Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  44. ^ Michael. "1957 Hudson Hornet (South Africa) advertisement". Flickr. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  45. ^ Marshall, James (1997). "The Great West Road Then & Now". Brentford & Chiswick Local History Society. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  46. ^ Boddy, Bill (October 1963). "Fragments on forgotten makes: No. 23 Hudson-Essex". Motor Sport Magazine. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  47. ^ "Rambler Motors - Graces Guide". gracesguide.co.uk.
  48. ^ Lent, Henry Bolles (1974). Car of the year, 1895-1970: a 75-year parade of American automobiles that made news. Dutton. pp. 116–118. ISBN 978-0-525-27451-3.
  49. ^ Valdez-Dapena, Peter (10 February 2014). "Steve McQueen's cars go for big bucks". CNN Money. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  50. ^ Billmeier, Jerry (April 2006). "1953 Steve McQueen's Hudson Hornet". Hudson-Essex-Terraplane Club. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  51. ^ "This Time It's Hudson". The Souers Auto Collection. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  52. ^ "Remembering victor haydon: the mascara snake, fast & bulbous". Retrieved 3 May 2010.
  53. ^ Koch, Jeff (August 2010). "Leno's Top Ten". Hemmings Classic Car. 6 (11): 16–19.
  54. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (18 July 2007). "1951-1953 Hudson Hornet". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  55. ^ Langworth, Richard M. (2000). Complete book of collectible cars: 70 years of Blue Chip auto investments 1930-2000. Publications International. pp. 229–233. ISBN 978-0-7853-4313-4.
  56. ^ "The Astor Collection: 27–29 June 2008: 1953 Hudson Hornet Twin H-Power Coupe". RM Auction Results. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  57. ^ Ernst, Kurt (26 November 2013). "Restored Hudson Hornet Twin-H convertible sells for $150,000". Hemmings. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
General
  • Conde, John A. (1987). The American Motors Family Album. American Motors Corporation. OCLC 3185581.

External links[edit]