Hudson Yards, Manhattan

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Hudson Yards Real Estate Development
Hudson Yards from 30 St hiline 2015 July uncut jeh.jpg
Hudson Yards construction progress in 2015 as seen from the High Line
Location Bounded by 30th Street, Twelfth Avenue, 34th Street, and Tenth Avenue
Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates 40°45′17″N 74°00′14″W / 40.754661°N 74.003783°W / 40.754661; -74.003783Coordinates: 40°45′17″N 74°00′14″W / 40.754661°N 74.003783°W / 40.754661; -74.003783
Status Under construction
Groundbreaking December 4, 2012[1]
Estimated completion 2024
Companies
Architect Kohn Pedersen Fox
Developer The Related Companies L.P.
Oxford Properties Group Inc.
Collingwood Inc.
Technical details
Cost US$20 billion
Buildings 10, 15, 30, 35, 50, 55 Hudson Yards, and Culture Shed in phase 1; residential buildings and a school in phase 2; Hudson Park, Square, and Mall; 7 Subway Extension
Size 26 to 28 acres (11 to 11 ha)

Hudson Yards is a zoned area in the Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea neighborhoods of Manhattan in New York City. The area was created in order to spur development activity. Currently, development and redevelopment efforts comprise several simultaneous projects led by different entities, including Manhattan West, developed by Brookfield, and Hudson Yards, developed by Related and Oxford Properties. The projects were made possible through a set of agreements between the State of New York, New York City, and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, with the aim of expanding New York City's Midtown Manhattan Business District westward to the Hudson River through the creation of the "Hudson Yards Special District" which is bound by 30th Street in the south, 41st Street in the north, 11th avenue in the west, and Eight Avenue in the east. The "Special District" also includes the pre-existing Penn Station, also undergoing a major overhaul.

The largest of the concurrent projects made possible by the rezoning is the 28-acre (11 ha) mixed-use "Hudson Yards" by Related Companies and Oxford Properties, currently being built over the West Side Rail Yard. According to its master plan, created by Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, this portion of the redevelopment effort is to consist of 16 skyscrapers to be constructed in two "phases". The program includes a major rezoning of the Far West Side, an extension of the New York City Subway's 7 and <7>​ trains to a new subway station at 34th Street and 11th Avenue, a renovation and expansion of the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, as well a financing plan to fund the various components.

Early plans[edit]

There has been a long series of proposals to develop the rail yard air rights, including for a major expansion of Midtown Manhattan by William Zeckendorf in the 1950s[2] and for a housing development considered by U.S. Steel in the 1960s.[3] The idea of building housing on air rights over the rail yard, with commercial development between 34th Street and 42nd Street, was included in a 1963 plan announced by Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr.[4]

The administration of John Lindsay maintained the goal of the 1963 plan—a westward expansion of Midtown—but shifted their focus to the blocks north of 42nd Street, home to 35,000 residents of the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood.[5] As a first step, the City approved a convention center on 44th Street. But after the defeat of a bond issue that would have funded a 48th Street "people mover,"[6] the City abandoned the rest of the master plan.[7] At the same time the local Hell's Kitchen community proposed that midtown expansion take place south of 42nd Street instead.[8] A community-proposed convention center site—between Eleventh and Twelfth avenues from 34th to 39th streets—was later promoted by Donald Trump, who had obtained an option on the rail yard from the bankrupt Penn Central in 1975.[9] Facing political opposition and the severe fiscal crisis of the 1970s, the City and State eventually chose the rail yard site when the 44th Street site proved to be too expensive.[10] However Trump's offer to build the convention center was rejected.[11]

Despite the completion of the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in 1986, no further development took place. One impediment to development was a lack of mass transit in the area, which is far from Penn Station, and none of the proposals for a link to Penn Station were pursued successfully (for example, the ill-fated West Side Transitway).[12] No changes to the zoning happened until 1990, when the city rezoned a small segment of 11th Avenue across the street from the Javits Center.[13][14] However, as most of the area was still zoned for manufacturing and low-rise apartment buildings, the rezoning did not spur development.[15]

Redevelopment begins[edit]

Formal planning[edit]

The Hell's Kitchen community's 1973 proposal for major office and residential development south of 42nd Street was finally realized when all impediments to development were addressed. In 2003, the New York City Department of City Planning issued a master plan that envisioned the creation of 40 million square feet of commercial and residential development, two corridors of open space – one between Eleventh Avenue and Tenth Avenue, and another network of open space between Ninth Avenue and Tenth Avenue to create a park system from West 39th Street to West 34th Street, portions of which would be located along the Dyer Avenue/Lincoln Tunnel Expressway corridors.[16] Dubbed the Hudson Yards Master Plan, the area covered is bordered on the east by Seventh and Eighth Avenues, on the south by West 28th and 30th Streets, on the north by West 43rd Street, and on the west by Hudson River Park and the Hudson River. The City's plan was similar to a neighborhood plan produced by architect Meta Brunzema and environmental planner Daniel Gutman for the Hell's Kitchen Neighborhood Association (HKNA). The main concept of the HKNA plan was to allow major new development while protecting the existing residential core area between Ninth and Tenth avenues.[17]

Aerial view of location of the Hudson Yards area, including the rail yard in the foreground, the Javits Center on the upper left, and the blocks between Tenth and Eleventh avenues up to 43rd Street.

To help facilitate development, the City's plan called for extending the 7 and <7>​ trains to a 34th Street subway station under Eleventh Avenue, next to the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, which would be expanded by the State. To fund the subway and a park and boulevard and other infrastructure, the City proposed a novel tax-increment financing scheme within a Hudson Yards financing district to collect both residential property taxes and commercial payments-in-lieu-of-taxes (PILOTS) and sell transferable development rights to prospective developers.[18] A Hudson Yards Infrastructure Corporation would issue bonds against expected revenues.

In January 2005, the New York City Council approved the 60-block rezoning, including the eastern portion of the West Side Yard.[19] The newly rezoned Hudson Yards area was to have 25,800,000 square feet (2,400,000 m2) of Class A office space, 20,000 housing units, two million square feet (190,000 m2) of hotel space, a 750-seat public school, one million square feet (93,000 m2) of retail and more than 20 acres (8 ha) of public open space.[20] The rezoning and financing district did not include the western portion of the rail yard, which was reserved for the proposed West Side Stadium, to be built for the New York Jets and New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. When not in use for football, the covered stadium would be a venue for conventions at the Javits Center. In June 2005, the stadium proposal was defeated.[21] After the City rezoned the western rail yard and added it to the financing district, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) sought to develop the 26-acre (11 ha) yard. In conjunction with the City the MTA issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) for a 12,700,000 square feet (1,180,000 m2) mixed-use development to be built on platforms over the rail yard, which would remain in use throughout.[21]

Rail yard development bids[edit]

Five developers responded to the RFP: Extell, Tishman Speyer,[22] Brookfield, Vornado, and the Related Companies.[23] Tishman Speyer won the bid in March 2008.[24] Tishman Speyer entered into a 99-year lease with the MTA, paying $1 billion for the air rights.[25] It would also spend another $2 billion for development over the rail yards, including for the two platforms over the yards to support 15 acres (6.1 ha) of public spaces, four office buildings, and ten high-rise residential towers.[24]

Developer's original conception of the rail yard development (2011)
Current plan for eastern portion of rail yard (2013)

However, just two months later, the deal broke down due to the late-2000s financial crisis.[26] Subsequently, the MTA chose the Related Companies and Goldman Sachs to develop Hudson Yards under the same conditions.[27] In December 2009, the New York City Council approved Related Companies' revised plan for Hudson Yards, and the western portion of the West Side Yard was rezoned.[21] Following the rail yards' successful rezoning, the MTA signed another 99-year lease to the air rights over the rail yard in May 2010. The air rights were signed over to a joint venture of Related Companies and Oxford Properties Group, which invested $400 million to build a platform above both the eastern and western portions of the yard on which to construct the buildings.[21][28] Groundbreaking for 10 Hudson Yards, the first building, occurred on December 4, 2012.[1]

In April 2013, the Related/Oxford joint venture obtained a $475 million construction loan from parties including Barry Sternlicht's Starwood Capital Group and luxury retailer Coach. The financing deal was unique in several aspects, including the fact that it included a construction mezzanine loan, that Coach was a lender on both the debt and equity sides,[29] and that the MTA reused a "severable lease" structure (previously used by Battery Park City) that allowed for the loans. A portion of the project was also financed by the EB-5 investment program, which uses capital from immigrants who become eligible for a green card.[30]

Redevelopment progress[edit]

Financing[edit]

The city had originally projected to receive $563 million from property sales by September 2015, but only half the amount came in. Consequently, the city had to spend more money than planned to pay off debt: for example, a total of $358 million from 2006 to 2015.[31] But sales rose in later years, with 57 buildings built or under construction in the area from 2006 to June 2015. Between July 2014 and June 2015, for example, developers have paid the city $336 million, twice the debt service during that period.[32]

Subway extension[edit]

The new 34th Street subway station, September 2015

After the Hudson Yards project was approved in 2005, the MTA received proceeds from the initial 2006 bond offering to pay for the subway to 34th Street.[33] With funding assured, the MTA proceeded quickly to construction.[34] The subway extension opened on September 13, 2015,[35][36] and connects to nearby buildings and developments, including 30 Hudson Yards[37] and the Hudson Park and Boulevard.[38] The 34th Street station's main entrance, escalators and an elevator on the west side of Hudson Park and Boulevard between 33rd and 34th Streets, is at the foot of 55 Hudson Yards and is just half a block away from the rail yard's northern edge.[39] Another station, planned for Tenth Avenue and 41st Street, was not built.[40]

Parks[edit]

Hudson Park and Boulevard, a four-acre system of parks and roads,[41] is located north of the rail yard site, extending from 33rd Street to 39th Street, mid-block between Tenth Avenue and Eleventh Avenue. The boulevard is divided into a Hudson Boulevard East and a Hudson Boulevard West, with the park between the two.[42] The first phase, between 33rd and 36th Streets, was completed in August 2015.[43] Proposed parks between Ninth and Tenth avenues in the original plan were later dropped.

In late 2014, the final phase of the High Line, an elevated park using the former right-of-way of the southern portion of the West Side Line, opened. It enters the Hudson Yards site and curves along 30th Street, Twelfth Avenue and 34th Street, with a spur (dubbed "The Spur") along 30th Street to Tenth Avenue. Related Companies intends to integrate the High Line with its buildings; for example, 10 Hudson Yards cantilevers over The Spur.[44] Dubbed "High Line at the Rail Yards", the section will be built in three phases. The right-of-way from 30th Street will be extended into the Hudson Yards site, running parallel to 30th Street past Eleventh Avenue, and developed in a manner similar to the opened sections of the park. The Spur along 30th Street is slated to get an amphitheater, restrooms, trees and grasses above Tenth Avenue.[45] Finally, the curved section around the western part of Hudson Yards will be developed as an "interim walkway", with further construction in 2015.[46]

Hudson Yards[edit]

Rail yard construction[edit]

The new platform upon which the Hudson Yards development will be built is bordered by 10th and 12th Avenues and by 30th and 33rd Streets.[47][48] In 2014, it was expected to cost more than US$20 billion[49] and may eventually see 65,000 visitors a day.[50] As of June 2015, construction is overseen by Related Companies' executive vice president, Timur Galen.[51]

The 26.17-acre (10.59 ha) Hudson Yards project,[52][53], was to be constructed over the existing at-grade West Side Yard, allowing LIRR trains to continue to be stored during midday hours. The land parcel is bordered by 30th Street and Chelsea on the south, Twelfth Avenue on the west, 33rd Street and Hell's Kitchen on the north, and Tenth Avenue on the east. Eleventh Avenue runs through the site, and splits the redevelopment project into two phases. To minimize construction impact on the LIRR's ability to store trains during midday and peak hours, caissons were drilled into bedrock throughout much of the site, over which the platform was to be built.[54] However, only 38% of the ground level at West Side Yard was to be filled in with columns to support the development.[44] Much of the platform itself will be built by a huge Manitowoc 18000 crane.[55] The eastern platform, supporting the towers, comprises 16 bridges.[56] The platform for the Eastern Rail Yard was completed in October 2015, and the western platform will be completed by 2016.[57]

In 2013, Amtrak announced it would build a "tunnel box" through the project areas to reserve the space for a future rail right-of-way such as the proposed Gateway Project.[58][59][60] Construction began September 2013 and is expected to take two years.[61] The underground concrete casing is 800 ft (240 m) long, 50 ft (15 m) wide, and approximately 35 ft (11 m) tall.[62]

Phase 1[edit]

30th Street staging area for construction equipment and materials.

Phase 1, the eastern phase, is to contain two office towers on Tenth Avenue, plus a retail podium between them. The southern tower, the 52-story, 895-foot (273 m) 10 Hudson Yards, opened in 2016,[63] anchored by Coach Inc. The building, for which ground was broken on December 4, 2012,[1] was the first of the Hudson Yards buildings to begin construction, because it is not being built over railroad tracks. It will, however, straddle the High Line spur to Tenth Avenue.[64] 10 Hudson Yards, which opened on May 31, 2016,[65] is expected to receive LEED Gold certification,[66] as all of the other Phase 1 buildings.[57] The other tower, the 80-story, 1,337-foot (408 m) 30 Hudson Yards, is designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox with an observation deck. Construction will begin after caissons are sunk to support the platform over the tracks, the latter of which will be raised 12 to 27 feet (4 to 8 m) above ground level and be level with the High Line.[52] Related Companies officials expect 30 Hudson Yards to be occupied by 2018.[37]

Bordering Eleventh Avenue are two mixed-use buildings, 15 Hudson Yards and 35 Hudson Yards, which were previously known as the D and E Towers, respectively. 15 Hudson Yards will be connected to a semi-permanent structure, a performance and arts space known as the Culture Shed.[67] 15 Hudson Yards started construction in December 2014, and construction on 35 Hudson Yards's foundation was started in January 2015.[68]

In Phase 1, there will also be 100 shops and 20 restaurants inside a proposed 7-story mall,[52] which will have 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) of space, including 750,000 square feet (70,000 m2) in retail, possibly including department stores and a movie theater. The retail space, designed by Elkus Manfredi Architects[69] with a connection to the bases of 10 and 30 Hudson Yards, started construction in June 2015,[68][70] with a 100,000 short tons (91,000,000 kg) order of steel, one of the largest such orders in the history of the United States.[71] In September 2014, Neiman Marcus was signed to become the anchor tenant of the Hudson Yards Retail Space, which will open in 2018; the store will occupy the top 3 levels and ​14 of the mall, or 250,000 square feet (23,000 m2).[72] Fairway, a locally based grocer, is expected to build a store in the lower floors of the building, occupying 45,875 square feet (4,262 m2).[73][74] Chef and restaurateur Thomas Keller will open a restaurant in the complex, in addition to selecting 11 other restaurants in the retail space; all 12 restaurants are expected to open in 2018.[68][75] The mall may be anchored by Dior and Chanel on the topmost floors, with "a 'Fifth Avenue' mix of shops", such as H&M, Zara, and Sephora below them.[68]

When the West Side Yard was built in the mid-1980s, space was left between the tracks to allow for columns supporting an overbuild. The area pictured will be where Phase 2 of the project will be built.

There will also be a 6-acre (2 ha) public square, with 28,000 plants and 225 trees,[76] on the platform.[52] In the middle of the square would be a 16-story structure of connected staircases between the buildings; the structure, titled Vessel, is designed by Thomas Heatherwick and will cost US$150 million.[77] The public square will be a ventilation area for the West Side Yards, as well as a storm water runoff site. Storm water that runs off into the square will be reused.[57] Since it is going to be on top of an active rail yard, the public square would be located over a 6-foot (1.8 m) deep plenum above a huge cooling slab with 15 fans blowing 45 miles per hour (72 km/h) air and a 60,000-US-gallon (230,000 l; 50,000 imp gal) rainwater storage tank. The whole platform would then be supported by 234 caissons. The plantings themselves would be rooted with "smart soil".[68][76]

Phase 2[edit]

View of 30 Hudson Yards (left, under construction), and 10 Hudson Yards (right, completed) in February 2017

The western phase of the project is to contain up to seven residential towers, an office building at 33rd Street and Eleventh Avenue tentatively known as "West Tower", and a school serving Pre-K to eighth grade students.[57] The third phase of the High Line will traverse Phase 2 of the project.[67] The entire project, including Phase 2, could be complete by 2024.[78]

Technology implementation[edit]

Vessel between 30 Hudson Yards and 10 Hudson Yards, seen in June 2018

The rail yard development will be technologically advanced, in that all sorts of data will be collected within the buildings using sensors and other data-collecting instruments.[78][79] Among the innovations will be:

  • Air quality monitoring[79]
  • Heat mapping to track crowd size and energy usage[78]
  • Opt-in mobile apps to help collect data about users' health and activities[79]
  • Pedestrian and vehicular traffic monitoring[79]
  • Sensors collecting data about noise levels and energy and water usage[78]
  • Energy savings using a microgrid[79]
  • Organic and solid waste collection and recycling using pneumatic tubes installed by Envac, which operate at 45 miles per hour (72 km/h); garbage trucks will not be used.[80]

New York University's Center for Urban Science and Progress is designing the infrastructure with the developers of Hudson Yards. Fiber loops connected to satellite dishes on rooftops, to transponders, and to two-way radios will create a network covering the 14 acres (6 ha) of open space as well as 17,000,000 square feet (1,600,000 m2) of commercial space.[79] The technology is designed to be adaptable — updates to infrastructure will be performed as new technological advances are made.[78]

Other projects[edit]

Renovated 450 West 33rd Street building in Manhattan West, home to the Associated Press.

Manhattan West[edit]

Brookfield, a Canadian asset manager, is developing the second-largest project in Hudson Yards. Dubbed "Manhattan West" it will comprise six buildings, two of which are pre-existing structures undergoing substantial renovations.[81] The project will include three office buildings, two residential buildings, and one hotel.[82] The two principal office buildings and a public green space, open year-round, will be placed on a platform over covered tracks that lead from the West Side Yard to Penn Station. Tenants slated to move into 1 and 2 Manhattan West include Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom and the National Hockey League.

To facilitate construction Brookfield announced that it would use prefabricated parts to build the platform.[83]

The Spiral[edit]

In early 2014, real estate firm Massey Knakal announced a conceptual supertall with a 1.22 million square feet capacity and 108 stories that would soar over 1,800 feet on the north side of 34th Street between Hudson Boulevard and Tenth Avenue in order to show the potential of a site that it intended to sell.[84] Dubbed Hudson Spire and designed by MJM+A architects, it would be the tallest tower in the Western Hemisphere if completed. The site was later purchased by Tishman Speyer on April 30, 2014, along with two adjacent properties for a total space of 2,850,000 square feet (265,000 m2).[85][86]

The plans for The Spire were later replaced with plans designed by Bjarke Ingels Group, dubbed The Spiral.

Associated developments[edit]

Even before the opening of any of the rail yard buildings, many businesses in the area have seen increased profits due to the project's construction. The Hudson Yards redevelopment program catalyzed plans to build new buildings along the future Hudson Boulevard. There has also been a development boom in the vicinity of the rail yard development.[87] Among these are 3 Hudson Boulevard (formerly the GiraSole), located on 34th Street and Eleventh Avenue.[88]

In February 2015, the Chetrit Group, headed by Meyer and Joseph Chetrit, announced that it wanted to spend US$29 million to expand one Hudson Yards development site to 373,068 square feet (34,659.2 m2). It would add about 200,000 square feet (19,000 m2) of space to a site between 11th Avenue, 37th and 38th Streets, and Hudson Boulevard that previously allowed 173,000 square feet (16,100 m2) of retail space. A buyer would be able to split the space between two buildings.[89]

In June 2015, Tishman Speyer bought another lot between West 36th and 37th Streets on 11th Avenue; the lot was zoned for a 735,000 square feet (68,300 m2) residential and hotel property.[90] It is next to a lot—zoned for a planned residential tower—that was bought in 2012 by Lalezarian Properties for $46.5 million,[91] Tishman Speyer's land is also close to a lot owned by former New York Governor Eliot Spitzer, who bought the lot in 2013 and plans at least 414,000 square feet (38,500 m2) of new development space.[92]

List of buildings[edit]

Below is a list of buildings constructed, planned, or proposed for the broader Hudson Yards neighborhood (from Northwest to Southeast):

Street Address Building Name Building Use Construction Started Completed Date Architectural Height Height (Stories) Status Developer / Architect
650 West 42nd Street River Place Residential 1999 40 Completed Silverstein Properties
635 West 42nd Street Atelier Residential 2007 46 Completed Moinian Group
620 West 42nd Street Silver Towers Residential 2009, June 653 ft. (199m) 60 Completed Silverstein Properties
605 West 42nd Street Sky Residential 2008/2013 2016 656 ft. (200m) 71 Completed Moinian Group
520 West 41st Street Residential 2015 2020 1,100 ft. (335m) 106 Postponed Silverstein Properties
350 West 42nd Street The Orion (skyscraper) Residential 2004 2006 604 ft (184 m) 58 Completed CetraRuddy / Extell Development Company
450 West 42nd Street MiMA (including Yotel) Residential
including Hotel
2007 2011 669 ft. (204m) 63 Completed Related
555 Tenth Avenue 555Ten Residential 2016 610 ft. 53 Topped Out Extell Development Company /
SLCE Architects
528 West 39th St /
476 Eleventh Avenue
Mixed-Use In Development Rockrose
509 West 38th Street Residential 2014 2017 361 ft. (110m) 30 Topped Out Imperial Companies /
BKSK Architects
470 Eleventh Avenue Hudson Rise Hotel
(Chinese Lantern Building)
Hotel 47 In Development/
Litigation[93]
Kuafu Properties and Siras Development
550 West 37th Street Offices In Development Tishman Speyer
541 West 37th Street In Development Chetrit Group
505 West 37th Street Residential 2009 44 Completed TF Cornerstone
455 West 37th Street Residential 2009 32 Completed TF Cornerstone
515 West 36th Street Residential 2018 38 Under Construction Lalezarian Properties /
Ismael Levya Architects
517 West 35th Street In Development Related
451 Tenth Avenue /
511 West 37th Street
Mixed-Use In Development Eliot Spitzer
444 Tenth Avenue Four Points by Sheraton Hotel 2017 17 Completed Maddd Equities /
Aufgang Architects
445 West 35th Street Residential 12 In Development Maddd Equities /
Aufgang Architects
411 West 35th Street Residential 2013 2016 12 Topped Out Maddd Equities /
Aufgang Architects
555 West 34th Street 3 Hudson Boulevard Offices 2016 2019 1,034 ft. (315m) 66 Under Construction Moinian Group /
FXFOWLE Architects
550 West 34th Street 55 Hudson Yards Offices 2015, January 2018 780 ft. (240m) 51 Under Construction Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox and Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates
435 Tenth Avenue The Spiral Offices 1,005 ft. 65 In Development Tishman Speyer /
Bjarke Ingels Group
461 West 34th Street Hudson Yards' Marriott Courtyard Hotel Hotel 312 ft. (95m) 29 Under Construction David Marx
424 Tenth Avenue 50 Hudson Yards[94] Offices 2017 985 ft. (300m) 58 Designed Related /
Foster + Partners
35 Hudson Yards
Equinox Tower
Mixed-Use 1,000 ft. (300m) 79 Under Construction Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox and David Childs
30 Hudson Yards Offices 2015 2019 1,296 ft. (395m) 92 Topped Out Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox
The Shops at Hudson Yards Retail 2018 7 Under Construction Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox /
Elkus Manfredi Architects
10 Hudson Yards Offices 2012-12-04 2016 878 ft. (268m) 52 Completed Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox
15 Hudson Yards Residential 2014-12-04 2018 917 ft. (280m) 71 Under Construction Related /
Diller Scofidio + Renfro, David Rockwell, and mael Levya Architects
Culture Shed Performing Arts Center 2015 2019 6 Under Construction Related /
Diller Scofidio + Renfro and David Rockwell
Western Rail Yards Hudson Yards Phase 2 Residential Towers, Office Building, School, & Retail 2024 In Development Related
NE Manhattan West Complex One Manhattan West Offices 2020 1,216 ft. (370m) 66 Under Construction Brookfield /
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
SE Manhattan West Complex Two Manhattan West Offices 2020 994 ft. (303m) 60 Planned Brookfield /
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
435 West 31st Street The Eugene[95] Residential 2017, March 702 ft. (214m) 62 Completed Brookfield /
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
Four Manhattan West Hotel Planned Brookfield
450 West 33rd Street Five Manhattan West Offices 2014 (renovation) 1969,
renovated 2016
1,216 ft. (370m) 16 Under Construction Brookfield /
Davis Brody Associates
Renovation: REX
360 Tenth Avenue Offices In Development Frank McCourt /
SHoP Architects
312 Eleventh Avenue Ohm Residential 2010 34 Completed Douglaston Development /
Stephen B. Jacobs Group
530 West 30th Street One Hudson Yards Residential 2015 2017 367 ft. 33 Leasing Related /
Davis Brody Bond
500 West 30th Street Abington House Residential 2012 2014, April 325 ft. (99m) 33 Completed Related /
Robert A.M. Stern
529 West 29th Street Residential (Affordable Artist Housing) 2013 15 Completed Related /
Ismael Leyva Architects

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Sheftell, Jason. "New York City officials, developers to break ground on $15 billion mini-city Hudson Yards" New York Daily News (December 4, 2012)
  2. ^ Paul Crowell, "'Palace' Plan Out; Bigger One Urged," New York Times, January 6, 1956.
  3. ^ Robert E. Bedingfield, "U.S. Steel Weighs Midtown Project," New York Times, August 4, 1964.
  4. ^ George Horne, "670-Million, 40-Year Waterfront Plan To Alter West Side Is Urged by Mayor; Convention Center, Docks and Housing Would Be Built," New York Times, April 26, 1963.
  5. ^ Stern, Michael (December 8, 1970). "6th and Last Part of Master Plan on City Released; Volume on Manhattan Urges Building of Offices Along 48th St. Transit Line Westward Pattern Set Condemnation of Big Tracts Intended to Insure Public Use of Some of Area". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  6. ^ Richard Witkin, "State Will Cancel Some Road Projects," New York Times, November 4, 1971.
  7. ^ Tomasson, Robert E. (1973-02-18). "Developers Turning to West Midtown". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-20. 
  8. ^ Darnton, John (February 14, 1973). "Convention Center Model Unveiled Here With Pride; A Dissenting View". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  9. ^ "Developer Proposes a Convention Center in Midtown". The New York Times. December 18, 1975. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  10. ^ Kaiser, Charles (April 29, 1978). "Convention Site At West 34th St. Chosen by Koch; He and Carey Outline Plans for Center". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2015. 
  11. ^ Marilyn Bender, "The Empire and Ego of Donald Trump," New York Times, August 7, 1983.
  12. ^ Gregory P. Benz, et. al., "West Side Manhattan Transitway Study," Transportation Research Board, Special Report No. 221, May 8-11, 1988.
  13. ^ Oser, Alan. "Perspectives: The West 30's; Land Uses Near the Convention Center." The New York Times. New York. February 4, 1990. Section 10, page 9, column 2.
  14. ^ Buder, Leonard. "Area Near Javits Center Is Rezoned." The New York Times. New York. February 24, 1990. Section 1, page 29, column 2.
  15. ^ Lyons, Richard. "Postings: For Pioneers?; Housing Near Javits Center." The New York Times. New York. July 2, 1989. Section 10, page 1, column 4.
  16. ^ "Hudson Yards Master Plan: Preferred Direction" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. February 2003. Retrieved August 10, 2009. 
  17. ^ "HKNA plan" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  18. ^ City of New York, Hudson Yards financing proposal, July 12, 2004.
  19. ^ Purnick, Joyce (January 2, 2005). "What Rises in the West? Uncertainty". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2010. 
  20. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (December 21, 2009). "Rezoning Will Allow Railyard Project to Advance". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2009. 
  21. ^ a b c d Mitchell L. Moss (November 2011). "HOW NEW YORK CITY WON THE OLYMPICS" (PDF). Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service. New York University. Retrieved September 11, 2015. 
  22. ^ Brenzel, Kathryn (2016-10-10). "Biggest Real Estate Projects NYC | 66 Hudson Boulevard". Therealdeal.com. Retrieved 2017-08-23. 
  23. ^ Lisberg, Adam (November 19, 2007). "Plans For The Old West, Five major developers lay out visions for Hudson Yards". Daily News. New York. 
  24. ^ a b Kates, Brian (March 27, 2008). "$1B Bid That Won West. Developer Nets Hudson Yards' Building Rights". Daily News. New York. 
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Further reading

External links[edit]

Project websites:

Descriptions:

Maps: