Hudson Yards Redevelopment
Hudson Yards construction progress in 2015 as seen from the High Line
Bounded by West 42nd and 43rd Streets, 7th and 8th Avenues, West 29th and 30th Streets, and the West Side Highway|
Manhattan, New York City
|Website||Hudson Yards Development Corporation|
|Planner||New York City Department of City Planning and New York City Economic Development Corporation|
|Buildings||7 Subway Extension; Hudson Park and Boulevard; Hudson Yards rail yard development; Manhattan West|
|Size||50,000,000 sq ft (4,600,000 m2)|
Hudson Yards is an area on the West Side of Manhattan for which a large-scale redevelopment program is being planned, funded, and constructed under a set of agreements among the State of New York, City of New York, and Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), with the aim of expanding New York City's Midtown Manhattan business district westward to the Hudson River. The program includes a major rezoning of the Far West Side, an extension of the New York City Subway's 7 and <7> trains to a new subway station at 34th Street and 11th Avenue, a renovation and expansion of the Javits Center, and a financing plan to fund the various components. The Hudson Yards Financing District is an irregular shape bounded roughly by 30th Street in the south, 43rd Street in the north, the West Side Highway in the west, and Eighth Avenue in the east. The various components are being planned by New York City Department of City Planning and New York City Economic Development Corporation.
The largest of the projects made possible by the rezoning is the 28-acre (11 ha) multiuse Hudson Yards real estate development by Related Companies and Oxford Properties, which is being built over the West Side Rail Yard. Construction began in 2012 with the groundbreaking for 10 Hudson Yards, and is projected to be completed by 2024. According to its master plan, created by Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, the Hudson Yards development would include 16 skyscrapers to be constructed in two phases. Architects including Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, Thomas Heatherwick, Roche-Dinkeloo, and Diller Scofidio + Renfro contributed designs for individual structures. Major office tenants include or will include fashion company Coach, gym chain Equinox Fitness, and financial company BlackRock.
The area also includes other redevelopment projects. One such project is Manhattan West, developed by Brookfield Property Partners over the rail yard west of Ninth Avenue between 31st and 33rd streets. Other structures being developed in the Hudson Yards Zoning District include 3 Hudson Boulevard, and The Spiral. The special district also includes Pennsylvania Station, the subject of a major overhaul.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Context
- 3 Subway extension
- 4 Parks
- 5 Hudson Yards development project
- 6 Neighboring projects
- 7 List of buildings
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The term "Hudson Yards" is used to refer to the MTA rail yards along the Hudson River between 30th Street and 34th Street, but has also been used to refer to the entire area being redeveloped, an irregular shape extending as far south as 28th Street and as far north as 43rd Street. The portion of the yards between the river and Eleventh Avenue is called the Western Rail Yards, and the portion between Eleventh Avenue and Tenth Avenue is called the Eastern Rail Yards. The Hudson Yards area includes parts of the Garment Center, the Javits Convention Center, Madison Square Garden, the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the Farley Post Office, and the Lincoln Tunnel. Most of the Hudson Yards redevelopment area has historically been considered a part of Hell's Kitchen. The special purpose district covering the area, the Special Hudson Yards District, includes a "Hell's Kitchen subdistrict."
There has been a long series of proposals to develop the rail yard air rights, including for a major expansion of Midtown Manhattan by William Zeckendorf in the 1950s and for a housing development considered by U.S. Steel in the 1960s. The idea of building housing on air rights over the rail yard, with commercial development between 34th Street and 42nd Street, was included in a 1963 plan announced by Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr.
The administration of John Lindsay maintained the goal of the 1963 plan—a westward expansion of Midtown—but shifted their focus to the blocks north of 42nd Street, home to 35,000 residents of the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood. As a first step, the City approved a convention center on 44th Street. But after the defeat of a bond issue that would have funded a 48th Street "people mover," the City abandoned the rest of the master plan. At the same time the local Hell's Kitchen community proposed that midtown expansion take place south of 42nd Street instead. A community-proposed convention center site—between Eleventh and Twelfth avenues from 34th to 39th streets—was later promoted by Donald Trump, who had obtained an option on the rail yard from the bankrupt Penn Central in 1975. Facing political opposition and the severe fiscal crisis of the 1970s, the City and State eventually chose the rail yard site when the 44th Street site proved to be too expensive. However Trump's offer to build the convention center was rejected. In 1987 the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) converted the remainder of the rail yard into a storage facility for commuter trains; the new West Side Yard was designed with space left between the tracks for columns to support development in air rights above the tracks.
Despite the completion of the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in 1986, no further development took place. One impediment to development was a lack of mass transit in the area, which is far from Penn Station, and none of the proposals for a link to Penn Station were pursued successfully (for example, the ill-fated West Side Transitway). No changes to the zoning happened until 1990, when the city rezoned a small segment of 11th Avenue across the street from the Javits Center. However, as most of the area was still zoned for manufacturing and low-rise apartment buildings, the rezoning did not spur development.
The Hell's Kitchen community's 1973 proposal for major office and residential development south of 42nd Street was finally realized when all impediments to development were addressed. In 2003, the New York City Department of City Planning issued a master plan that envisioned the creation of 40,000,000 square feet (3,700,000 m2) of commercial and residential development, two corridors of open space – one between Eleventh Avenue and Tenth Avenue, and another network of open space between Ninth Avenue and Tenth Avenue to create a park system from West 39th Street to West 34th Street, portions of which would be located along the Dyer Avenue/Lincoln Tunnel Expressway corridors. Dubbed the Hudson Yards Master Plan, the area covered is bordered on the east by Seventh and Eighth Avenues, on the south by West 28th and 30th Streets, on the north by West 43rd Street, and on the west by Hudson River Park and the Hudson River. The City's plan was similar to a neighborhood plan produced by architect Meta Brunzema and environmental planner Daniel Gutman for the Hell's Kitchen Neighborhood Association (HKNA). The main concept of the HKNA plan was to allow major new development while protecting the existing residential core area between Ninth and Tenth avenues.
To help facilitate development, the City's plan called for extending the IRT Flushing Line to a 34th Street subway station under Eleventh Avenue at the rail yard, and next to the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, which would be expanded by the State. To fund the subway and a park and boulevard and other infrastructure, the City proposed a novel tax-increment financing scheme within a Hudson Yards financing district to collect both residential property taxes and commercial payments-in-lieu-of-taxes (PILOTS) and sell transferable development rights to prospective developers. A Hudson Yards Infrastructure Corporation would issue bonds against expected revenues.
In January 2005, the New York City Council approved the 60-block rezoning, including the eastern portion of the West Side Yard. The newly rezoned Hudson Yards area was to have 25,800,000 square feet (2,400,000 m2) of Class A office space, 20,000 housing units, two million square feet (190,000 m2) of hotel space, a 750-seat public school, one million square feet (93,000 m2) of retail and more than 20 acres (8 ha) of public open space.
The rezoning and financing district did not include the western portion of the rail yard; this was reserved for the proposed West Side Stadium, which would have been build as part of the New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. At the conclusion of the Olympics, the stadium would have been used by the New York Jets. When not in use for football, the covered stadium would be a venue for conventions at the Javits Center, and so proposers dubbed the structure the "New York Sports and Convention Center." This effort, led by Deputy Mayor Daniel Doctoroff, was unpopular with both the public and politicians. Consequently the City Council insisted that financing for the city's broader rezoning plans not be used to subsidize the rail yard stadium. In June 2005, the stadium proposal was defeated. The City subsequently rezoned the western rail yard for residential and commercial development and added it to the financing district. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) then sought to develop the 26-acre (11 ha) yard. In conjunction with the City the MTA issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) for a 12,700,000 square feet (1,180,000 m2) mixed-use development to be built on platforms over the rail yard, which would remain in use throughout.
Rail yard development bids
Five developers responded to the RFP: Extell, Tishman Speyer, Brookfield, Vornado, and the Related Companies. Tishman Speyer won the bid in March 2008. Tishman Speyer entered into a 99-year lease with the MTA, paying $1 billion for the air rights. It would also spend another $2 billion for development over the rail yards, including for the two platforms over the yards to support 15 acres (6.1 ha) of public spaces, four office buildings, and ten high-rise residential towers.
However, just two months later, the deal broke down due to the late-2000s financial crisis. Subsequently, the MTA chose the Related Companies and Goldman Sachs to develop Hudson Yards under the same conditions. In December 2009, the New York City Council approved Related Companies' revised plan for Hudson Yards, and the western portion of the West Side Yard was rezoned. Following the rail yards' successful rezoning, the MTA signed another 99-year lease to the air rights over the rail yard in May 2010. The air rights were signed over to a joint venture of Related Companies and Oxford Properties Group, which invested $400 million to build a platform above both the eastern and western portions of the yard on which to construct the buildings. Groundbreaking for 10 Hudson Yards, the first building, occurred on December 4, 2012.
In April 2013, the Related/Oxford joint venture obtained a $475 million construction loan from parties including Barry Sternlicht's Starwood Capital Group and luxury retailer Coach. The financing deal was unique in several aspects, including the fact that it included a construction mezzanine loan, that Coach was a lender on both the debt and equity sides, and that the MTA reused a "severable lease" structure (previously used by Battery Park City) that allowed for the loans. A portion of the project was also financed by the EB-5 investment program, which uses capital from immigrants who become eligible for a green card.
After the Hudson Yards project was approved in 2005, the MTA received proceeds from the initial 2006 bond offering to pay for the 7 Subway Extension to 34th Street–Hudson Yards station. With funding assured, the MTA proceeded quickly to construct the extension. The first construction contracts were awarded in October 2007. After a series of delays related to the construction of the 34th Street station, the subway extension opened on September 13, 2015. The station connects to nearby buildings and developments, including 30 Hudson Yards and Hudson Park and Boulevard. The 34th Street station's main entrance, escalators and an elevator on the west side of Hudson Park and Boulevard between 33rd and 34th Streets, is at the foot of 55 Hudson Yards and is just half a block away from the rail yard's northern edge. Another station, planned for Tenth Avenue and 41st Street, was not built.
The platform atop which the Related development is being built will include a 6-acre (2 ha) public square. In the middle of the square would be Vessel, a 16-story structure of freestanding, connected staircases that is designed by Thomas Heatherwick.
Hudson Park and Boulevard, a four-acre system of parks and roads, is located north of the rail yard site, extending from 33rd Street to 39th Street, mid-block between Tenth Avenue and Eleventh Avenue. The boulevard is divided into a Hudson Boulevard East and a Hudson Boulevard West, with the park between the two. The first phase, between 33rd and 36th Streets, was completed in August 2015. Proposed parks between Ninth and Tenth avenues in the original plan were later dropped.
The High Line, an elevated park using the former right-of-way of the southern portion of the West Side railroad line, runs along Hudson Yards' southern and western edges before continuing south to Gansevoort Street in the Meatpacking District; its northern terminus is at 11th Avenue and 34th Street on the north side of Hudson Yards. In 2012, the city government acquired the northernmost section of the High Line from CSX Transportation. In late 2014, the final phase of the High Line opened. It enters the Hudson Yards site and curves along 30th Street, Twelfth Avenue and 34th Street, with a spur (dubbed "The Spur") along 30th Street to Tenth Avenue. Related Companies intends to integrate the High Line with its buildings; for example, 10 Hudson Yards cantilevers over the Spur. Dubbed "High Line at the Rail Yards", the section will be built in three phases. The right-of-way from 30th Street will be extended into the Hudson Yards site, running parallel to 30th Street past Eleventh Avenue, and developed in a manner similar to the opened sections of the park. The Spur along 30th Street is slated to get an amphitheater, restrooms, trees and grasses above Tenth Avenue. Finally, the curved section around the western part of Hudson Yards was originally developed as an "interim walkway", with further construction in 2015. There will be an entrance to the High Line from within the complex.
Hudson Yards development project
The Hudson Yards development is being built by Related Companies on top of a large platform bordered by 10th and 12th Avenues and by 30th and 33rd Streets. Construction on the platform began in 2014. The platform was to be constructed over the existing at-grade West Side Yard, allowing LIRR trains to continue to be stored during midday hours. The land parcel is bordered by 30th Street and Chelsea on the south, Twelfth Avenue on the west, 33rd Street and Hell's Kitchen on the north, and Tenth Avenue on the east. Eleventh Avenue runs through the site, and splits the redevelopment project into two phases. Before Phase 2 was built, an underground concrete casing was built for Amtrak's future Gateway Project under the Hudson River. Construction started in December 2014 and was nearing completion as of July 2017[update], though funding disputes stalled the tunnel box's completion.
Phase 1, the eastern phase, contains two office towers on Tenth Avenue, plus a retail podium between them. The southern tower is the 52-story, 895-foot (273 m) 10 Hudson Yards, which opened in 2016. The other tower on Tenth Avenue is the 80-story, 1,337-foot (408 m) 30 Hudson Yards, which is the city's third-tallest building; it is expected to be completed in early 2019. Bordering Eleventh Avenue are two mixed-use buildings, 15 Hudson Yards and 35 Hudson Yards. 15 Hudson Yards, the more southerly of the two towers, will be connected to a semi-permanent structure, a performance and arts space known as the Culture Shed. The mixed-use 15 Hudson Yards was topped out in February 2018. 35 Hudson Yards, a mixed-use skyscraper located to the north of 15 Hudson Yards, was topped out in June 2018. Phase 1 also includes a 7-story mall called Shops & Restaurants of Hudson Yards.
The western portion of the yard is bordered by 30th Street and 33rd Street in the north and south, and Eleventh and Twelfth avenues in the east and west. The western phase of the project is to contain up to seven residential towers, an office building at 33rd Street and Eleventh Avenue tentatively known as "West Tower", and a school serving Pre-K to eighth grade students. The third phase of the High Line will traverse Phase 2 of the project. Work on the platform to cover the second half of the tracks is scheduled to begin in 2018. The entire project, including Phase 2, could be complete by 2024.
50 and 55 Hudson Yards
50 and 55 Hudson Yards are located just north of the West Side Yard on the block bounded by 33rd Street to the south, 10th Avenue to the east, 34th Street to the north, and 11th Avenue to the west. 50 Hudson Yards and 55 Hudson Yards are respectively located on the east and west side of the block. Work on the foundation of the 985-foot-tall (300 m) 50 Hudson Yards began in May 2018. The 780-foot-tall (240 m) 55 Hudson Yards started construction on January 22, 2015, and topped out in August 2017.
Brookfield, a Canadian asset manager, is developing the second-largest project in Hudson Yards. Dubbed "Manhattan West" it will comprise six buildings, two of which are pre-existing structures undergoing substantial renovations. The project will include three office buildings, two residential buildings, and one hotel. The two principal office buildings and a public green space, open year-round, will be placed on a platform over covered tracks that lead from the West Side Yard to Penn Station. To facilitate construction Brookfield announced that it would use prefabricated parts to build the platform. Despite its considerable scale, Manhattan West has been referred to as "somewhat eclipsed" and "overshadowed" by the larger Hudson Yards.
In early 2014, real estate firm Massey Knakal announced a conceptual supertall with a 1,220,000-square-foot (113,000 m2) capacity and 108 stories that would soar over 1,800 feet on the north side of 34th Street between Hudson Boulevard and Tenth Avenue in order to show the potential of a site that it intended to sell. Dubbed Hudson Spire and designed by MJM+A architects, it would be the tallest tower in the Western Hemisphere if completed. The site was later purchased by Tishman Speyer on April 30, 2014, along with two adjacent properties for a total space of 2,850,000 square feet (265,000 m2).
The plans for The Spire were later replaced with plans designed by Bjarke Ingels Group, dubbed The Spiral. The building started construction in June 2018, and its design includes terraces to provide green space. Tishman has secured pharmaceutical company Pfizer as an anchor tenant.
Even before the opening of any of the rail yard buildings, many businesses in the area have seen increased profits due to the project's construction. The Hudson Yards redevelopment program catalyzed plans to build new buildings along the future Hudson Boulevard. There has also been a development boom in the vicinity of the rail yard development. Among these are 3 Hudson Boulevard (formerly the GiraSole), located on 34th Street and Eleventh Avenue. 3 Hudson Boulevard is under construction, although it lacks an anchor tenant.
In February 2015, the Chetrit Group, headed by Meyer and Joseph Chetrit, announced that it wanted to spend US$29 million to expand one Hudson Yards development site to 373,068 square feet (34,659.2 m2). It would add about 200,000 square feet (19,000 m2) of space to a site between 11th Avenue, 37th and 38th Streets, and Hudson Boulevard that previously allowed 173,000 square feet (16,100 m2) of retail space. A buyer would be able to split the space between two buildings.
In June 2015, Tishman Speyer bought another lot between West 36th and 37th Streets on 11th Avenue; the lot was zoned for a 735,000 square feet (68,300 m2) residential and hotel property. It is next to a lot—zoned for a planned residential tower—that was bought in 2012 by Lalezarian Properties for $46.5 million, Tishman Speyer's land is also close to a lot owned by former New York Governor Eliot Spitzer, who bought the lot in 2013 and plans at least 414,000 square feet (38,500 m2) of new development space.
Two other new Related buildings, One Hudson Yards and Abington House, are adjacent the Phase 1 buildings, but are unrelated to the Hudson Yards project. Another Related development also on the West Side dubbed "Hudson Residences" is under construction at the same time as Hudson Yards.
List of buildings
Below is a list of buildings constructed, planned, or proposed for the broader Hudson Yards neighborhood (from Northwest to Southeast):
|Street Address||Building Name||Building Use||Construction Started||Completed Date||Architectural Height||Height (Stories)||Status||Developer / Architect|
|650 West 42nd Street||River Place||Residential||1999||40||Completed||Silverstein Properties|
|635 West 42nd Street||Atelier||Residential||2007||46||Completed||Moinian Group|
|620 West 42nd Street||Silver Towers||Residential||2009, June||653 ft. (199m)||60||Completed||Silverstein Properties|
|605 West 42nd Street||Sky||Residential||2008/2013||2016||656 ft. (200m)||71||Completed||Moinian Group|
|520 West 41st Street||Residential||2015||2020||1,100 ft. (335m)||106||Postponed||Silverstein Properties|
|350 West 42nd Street||The Orion (skyscraper)||Residential||2004||2006||604 ft (184 m)||58||Completed||CetraRuddy / Extell Development Company|
|450 West 42nd Street||MiMA (including Yotel)||Residential
|2007||2011||669 ft. (204m)||63||Completed||Related|
|555 Tenth Avenue||555Ten||Residential||2016||610 ft.||53||Topped Out||Extell Development Company /|
|528 West 39th St /
476 Eleventh Avenue
|509 West 38th Street||Residential||2014||2017||361 ft. (110m)||30||Topped Out||Imperial Companies /|
|470 Eleventh Avenue||Hudson Rise Hotel
(Chinese Lantern Building)
|Kuafu Properties and Siras Development|
|550 West 37th Street||Offices||In Development||Tishman Speyer|
|541 West 37th Street||In Development||Chetrit Group|
|505 West 37th Street||Residential||2009||44||Completed||TF Cornerstone|
|455 West 37th Street||Residential||2008||32||Completed||TF Cornerstone|
|515 West 36th Street||Residential||2018||38||Under Construction||Lalezarian Properties /|
Ismael Levya Architects
|517 West 35th Street||In Development||Related|
|451 Tenth Avenue /
511 West 37th Street
|Mixed-Use||In Development||Eliot Spitzer|
|444 Tenth Avenue||Four Points by Sheraton||Hotel||2017||17||Completed||Maddd Equities /|
|445 West 35th Street||Residential||12||In Development||Maddd Equities /|
|411 West 35th Street||Residential||2013||2016||12||Topped Out||Maddd Equities /|
|555 West 34th Street||3 Hudson Boulevard||Offices||2016||2019||1,034 ft. (315m)||66||Under Construction||Moinian Group /|
|550 West 34th Street||55 Hudson Yards||Offices||2015, January||2018||780 ft. (240m)||51||Under Construction||Related /|
Kohn Pedersen Fox and Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates
|435 Tenth Avenue||The Spiral||Offices||1,005 ft.||65||In Development||Tishman Speyer /|
Bjarke Ingels Group
|461 West 34th Street||Hudson Yards' Marriott Courtyard Hotel||Hotel||312 ft. (95m)||29||Under Construction||David Marx|
|424 Tenth Avenue||50 Hudson Yards||Offices||2017||985 ft. (300m)||58||Designed||Related /|
Foster + Partners
|35 Hudson Yards
|Mixed-Use||1,000 ft. (300m)||79||Under Construction||Related /|
Kohn Pedersen Fox and David Childs
|30 Hudson Yards||Offices||2015||2019||1,296 ft. (395m)||92||Topped Out||Related /|
Kohn Pedersen Fox
|The Shops at Hudson Yards||Retail||2018||7||Under Construction||Related /|
Kohn Pedersen Fox /
Elkus Manfredi Architects
|10 Hudson Yards||Offices||2012-12-04||2016||878 ft. (268m)||52||Completed||Related /|
Kohn Pedersen Fox
|15 Hudson Yards||Residential||2014-12-04||2018||917 ft. (280m)||71||Under Construction||Related /|
Diller Scofidio + Renfro, David Rockwell, and mael Levya Architects
|Culture Shed||Performing Arts Center||2015||2019||6||Under Construction||Related /|
Diller Scofidio + Renfro and David Rockwell
|Western Rail Yards||Hudson Yards Phase 2||Residential Towers, Office Building, School, & Retail||2024||In Development||Related|
|NE Manhattan West Complex||One Manhattan West||Offices||2020||1,216 ft. (370m)||66||Under Construction||Brookfield /|
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
|SE Manhattan West Complex||Two Manhattan West||Offices||2020||994 ft. (303m)||60||Planned||Brookfield /|
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
|435 West 31st Street||The Eugene||Residential||2017, March||702 ft. (214m)||62||Completed||Brookfield /|
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
|Four Manhattan West||Hotel||Planned||Brookfield|
|450 West 33rd Street||Five Manhattan West||Offices||2014 (renovation)||1969,
|1,216 ft. (370m)||16||Under Construction||Brookfield /|
Davis Brody Associates
|360 Tenth Avenue||Offices||In Development||Frank McCourt /|
|312 Eleventh Avenue||Ohm||Residential||2010||34||Completed||Douglaston Development /|
Stephen B. Jacobs Group
|530 West 30th Street||One Hudson Yards||Residential||2015||2017||367 ft.||33||Leasing||Related /|
Davis Brody Bond
|500 West 30th Street||Abington House||Residential||2012||2014, April||325 ft. (99m)||33||Completed||Related /|
Robert A.M. Stern
|529 West 29th Street||Residential (Affordable Artist Housing)||2013||15||Completed||Related /|
Ismael Leyva Architects
- West Side Yards
- Javits Center
- Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan
- Pacific Park, formerly "Atlantic Yards", a similar redevelopment project in Downtown Brooklyn
- List of tallest buildings in New York City
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Hudson Yards is defined as the area bounded by Seventh and Eighth Avenues (East), West 28th/30th Streets (South), West 43rd Street (North) and Hudson River Park (West).
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project.|
- Hudson Yards Development Corp. website
- Real Estate development website
- Real Estate development blog
- Related Companies project website
- Description of Hudson Yards on official website
- Animation: building the platform while trains run through Brookfield properties, via Gothamist
- Hudson Yards news and developments on The Real Deal's website