Hudson Yards Redevelopment

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Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project
Hudson Yards from 30 St hiline 2015 July uncut jeh.jpg
Hudson Yards construction progress in 2015 as seen from the High Line
Location Bounded by West 42nd and 43rd Streets, 7th and 8th Avenues, West 29th and 30th Streets, and the West Side Highway[1]
Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates 40°45′17″N 74°00′14″W / 40.754661°N 74.003783°W / 40.754661; -74.003783Coordinates: 40°45′17″N 74°00′14″W / 40.754661°N 74.003783°W / 40.754661; -74.003783
Status Under construction
Groundbreaking 2006
Estimated completion 2031-2036
Website Hudson Yards Development Corporation
Companies
Planner New York City Department of City Planning and New York City Economic Development Corporation
Technical details
Buildings 7 Subway Extension; Hudson Park and Boulevard; Hudson Yards rail yard development; Manhattan West
Size 50,000,000 sq ft (4,600,000 m2)
Proposed 2003

Hudson Yards is an area on the West Side of Manhattan for which a large-scale redevelopment program is being planned, funded, and constructed under a set of agreements among the State of New York, City of New York, and Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), with the aim of expanding New York City's Midtown Manhattan business district westward to the Hudson River. The program includes a major rezoning of the Far West Side, an extension of the New York City Subway's 7 and <7>​ trains to a new subway station at 34th Street and 11th Avenue, a renovation and expansion of the Javits Center, and a financing plan to fund the various components. The Hudson Yards Financing District is an irregular shape bounded roughly by 30th Street in the south, 43rd Street in the north, the West Side Highway in the west, and Eighth Avenue in the east.[1][2] The various components are being planned by New York City Department of City Planning and New York City Economic Development Corporation.

The largest of the projects made possible by the rezoning is the 28-acre (11 ha) multiuse Hudson Yards real estate development by Related Companies and Oxford Properties, which is being built over the West Side Rail Yard. Construction began in 2012 with the groundbreaking for 10 Hudson Yards, and is projected to be completed by 2024. According to its master plan, created by Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, the Hudson Yards development would include 16 skyscrapers to be constructed in two phases. Architects including Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, Thomas Heatherwick, Roche-Dinkeloo, and Diller Scofidio + Renfro contributed designs for individual structures. Major office tenants include or will include fashion company Coach, gym chain Equinox Fitness, and financial company BlackRock.

The area also includes other redevelopment projects. One such project is Manhattan West, developed by Brookfield Property Partners over the rail yard west of Ninth Avenue between 31st and 33rd streets. Other structures being developed in the Hudson Yards Zoning District include 3 Hudson Boulevard, and The Spiral. The special district also includes Pennsylvania Station, the subject of a major overhaul.

Geography[edit]

The term "Hudson Yards" is used to refer to the MTA rail yards along the Hudson River between 30th Street and 34th Street, but has also been used to refer to the entire area being redeveloped, an irregular shape extending as far south as 28th Street and as far north as 43rd Street. The portion of the yards between the river and Eleventh Avenue is called the Western Rail Yards, and the portion between Eleventh Avenue and Tenth Avenue is called the Eastern Rail Yards. The Hudson Yards area includes parts of the Garment Center, the Javits Convention Center, Madison Square Garden, the Port Authority Bus Terminal, the Farley Post Office, and the Lincoln Tunnel.[3] Most of the Hudson Yards redevelopment area has historically been considered a part of Hell's Kitchen.[4] The special purpose district covering the area, the Special Hudson Yards District, includes a "Hell's Kitchen subdistrict."[2]

Context[edit]

Early plans[edit]

There has been a long series of proposals to develop the rail yard air rights, including for a major expansion of Midtown Manhattan by William Zeckendorf in the 1950s[5] and for a housing development considered by U.S. Steel in the 1960s.[6] The idea of building housing on air rights over the rail yard, with commercial development between 34th Street and 42nd Street, was included in a 1963 plan announced by Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr.[7]

The administration of John Lindsay maintained the goal of the 1963 plan—a westward expansion of Midtown—but shifted their focus to the blocks north of 42nd Street, home to 35,000 residents of the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood.[8] As a first step, the City approved a convention center on 44th Street. But after the defeat of a bond issue that would have funded a 48th Street "people mover,"[9] the City abandoned the rest of the master plan.[10] At the same time the local Hell's Kitchen community proposed that midtown expansion take place south of 42nd Street instead.[11] A community-proposed convention center site—between Eleventh and Twelfth avenues from 34th to 39th streets—was later promoted by Donald Trump, who had obtained an option on the rail yard from the bankrupt Penn Central in 1975.[12] Facing political opposition and the severe fiscal crisis of the 1970s, the City and State eventually chose the rail yard site when the 44th Street site proved to be too expensive.[13] However Trump's offer to build the convention center was rejected.[14] In 1987 the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) converted the remainder of the rail yard into a storage facility for commuter trains; the new West Side Yard was designed with space left between the tracks for columns to support development in air rights above the tracks.[15]

Despite the completion of the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in 1986, no further development took place. One impediment to development was a lack of mass transit in the area, which is far from Penn Station, and none of the proposals for a link to Penn Station were pursued successfully (for example, the ill-fated West Side Transitway).[16] No changes to the zoning happened until 1990, when the city rezoned a small segment of 11th Avenue across the street from the Javits Center.[17][18] However, as most of the area was still zoned for manufacturing and low-rise apartment buildings, the rezoning did not spur development.[19]

Redevelopment begins[edit]

Formal planning[edit]

The Hell's Kitchen community's 1973 proposal for major office and residential development south of 42nd Street was finally realized when all impediments to development were addressed. In 2003, the New York City Department of City Planning issued a master plan that envisioned the creation of 40,000,000 square feet (3,700,000 m2) of commercial and residential development, two corridors of open space – one between Eleventh Avenue and Tenth Avenue, and another network of open space between Ninth Avenue and Tenth Avenue to create a park system from West 39th Street to West 34th Street, portions of which would be located along the Dyer Avenue/Lincoln Tunnel Expressway corridors.[20] Dubbed the Hudson Yards Master Plan, the area covered is bordered on the east by Seventh and Eighth Avenues, on the south by West 28th and 30th Streets, on the north by West 43rd Street, and on the west by Hudson River Park and the Hudson River. The City's plan was similar to a neighborhood plan produced by architect Meta Brunzema and environmental planner Daniel Gutman for the Hell's Kitchen Neighborhood Association (HKNA). The main concept of the HKNA plan was to allow major new development while protecting the existing residential core area between Ninth and Tenth avenues.[21]

Aerial view of location of the Hudson Yards area, including the rail yard in the foreground, the Javits Center on the upper left, and the blocks between Tenth and Eleventh avenues up to 43rd Street.

To help facilitate development, the City's plan called for extending the IRT Flushing Line to a 34th Street subway station under Eleventh Avenue at the rail yard, and next to the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, which would be expanded by the State. To fund the subway and a park and boulevard and other infrastructure, the City proposed a novel tax-increment financing scheme within a Hudson Yards financing district to collect both residential property taxes and commercial payments-in-lieu-of-taxes (PILOTS) and sell transferable development rights to prospective developers.[22] A Hudson Yards Infrastructure Corporation would issue bonds against expected revenues.

In January 2005, the New York City Council approved the 60-block rezoning, including the eastern portion of the West Side Yard.[23] The newly rezoned Hudson Yards area was to have 25,800,000 square feet (2,400,000 m2) of Class A office space, 20,000 housing units, two million square feet (190,000 m2) of hotel space, a 750-seat public school, one million square feet (93,000 m2) of retail and more than 20 acres (8 ha) of public open space.[24][25][26]

The rezoning and financing district did not include the western portion of the rail yard; this was reserved for the proposed West Side Stadium, which would have been build as part of the New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. At the conclusion of the Olympics, the stadium would have been used by the New York Jets.[27] When not in use for football, the covered stadium would be a venue for conventions at the Javits Center, and so proposers dubbed the structure the "New York Sports and Convention Center." This effort, led by Deputy Mayor Daniel Doctoroff, was unpopular with both the public and politicians.[28] Consequently the City Council insisted that financing for the city's broader rezoning plans not be used to subsidize the rail yard stadium.[29][30] In June 2005, the stadium proposal was defeated.[31] The City subsequently rezoned the western rail yard for residential and commercial development and added it to the financing district. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) then sought to develop the 26-acre (11 ha) yard. In conjunction with the City the MTA issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) for a 12,700,000 square feet (1,180,000 m2) mixed-use development to be built on platforms over the rail yard, which would remain in use throughout.[31]

Rail yard development bids[edit]

Developer's original conception of the rail yard development (2011)
Rendering for eastern portion of rail yard (2013)

Five developers responded to the RFP: Extell, Tishman Speyer,[32] Brookfield, Vornado, and the Related Companies.[33] Tishman Speyer won the bid in March 2008.[34] Tishman Speyer entered into a 99-year lease with the MTA, paying $1 billion for the air rights.[35] It would also spend another $2 billion for development over the rail yards, including for the two platforms over the yards to support 15 acres (6.1 ha) of public spaces, four office buildings, and ten high-rise residential towers.[34]

However, just two months later, the deal broke down due to the late-2000s financial crisis.[36] Subsequently, the MTA chose the Related Companies and Goldman Sachs to develop Hudson Yards under the same conditions.[37] In December 2009, the New York City Council approved Related Companies' revised plan for Hudson Yards, and the western portion of the West Side Yard was rezoned.[31] Following the rail yards' successful rezoning, the MTA signed another 99-year lease to the air rights over the rail yard in May 2010. The air rights were signed over to a joint venture of Related Companies and Oxford Properties Group, which invested $400 million to build a platform above both the eastern and western portions of the yard on which to construct the buildings.[31][38] Groundbreaking for 10 Hudson Yards, the first building, occurred on December 4, 2012.[39]

In April 2013, the Related/Oxford joint venture obtained a $475 million construction loan from parties including Barry Sternlicht's Starwood Capital Group and luxury retailer Coach. The financing deal was unique in several aspects, including the fact that it included a construction mezzanine loan, that Coach was a lender on both the debt and equity sides,[40] and that the MTA reused a "severable lease" structure (previously used by Battery Park City) that allowed for the loans. A portion of the project was also financed by the EB-5 investment program, which uses capital from immigrants who become eligible for a green card.[41]

Subway extension[edit]

The new 34th Street subway station, September 2015

After the Hudson Yards project was approved in 2005, the MTA received proceeds from the initial 2006 bond offering to pay for the 7 Subway Extension to 34th Street–Hudson Yards station.[42] With funding assured, the MTA proceeded quickly to construct the extension.[43] The first construction contracts were awarded in October 2007.[44][45] After a series of delays related to the construction of the 34th Street station, the subway extension opened on September 13, 2015.[46][47] The station connects to nearby buildings and developments, including 30 Hudson Yards[48] and Hudson Park and Boulevard.[49] The 34th Street station's main entrance, escalators and an elevator on the west side of Hudson Park and Boulevard between 33rd and 34th Streets, is at the foot of 55 Hudson Yards and is just half a block away from the rail yard's northern edge.[50] Another station, planned for Tenth Avenue and 41st Street, was not built.[51]

Parks[edit]

The platform atop which the Related development is being built will include a 6-acre (2 ha) public square.[52][53] In the middle of the square would be Vessel, a 16-story structure of freestanding, connected staircases that is designed by Thomas Heatherwick.[54][55]

Hudson Park and Boulevard, a four-acre system of parks and roads,[56] is located north of the rail yard site, extending from 33rd Street to 39th Street, mid-block between Tenth Avenue and Eleventh Avenue. The boulevard is divided into a Hudson Boulevard East and a Hudson Boulevard West, with the park between the two.[57] The first phase, between 33rd and 36th Streets, was completed in August 2015.[58] Proposed parks between Ninth and Tenth avenues in the original plan were later dropped.

The High Line, an elevated park using the former right-of-way of the southern portion of the West Side railroad line, runs along Hudson Yards' southern and western edges before continuing south to Gansevoort Street in the Meatpacking District; its northern terminus is at 11th Avenue and 34th Street on the north side of Hudson Yards. In 2012, the city government acquired the northernmost section of the High Line from CSX Transportation.[59] In late 2014, the final phase of the High Line opened. It enters the Hudson Yards site and curves along 30th Street, Twelfth Avenue and 34th Street, with a spur (dubbed "The Spur") along 30th Street to Tenth Avenue. Related Companies intends to integrate the High Line with its buildings; for example, 10 Hudson Yards cantilevers over the Spur.[60] Dubbed "High Line at the Rail Yards", the section will be built in three phases. The right-of-way from 30th Street will be extended into the Hudson Yards site, running parallel to 30th Street past Eleventh Avenue, and developed in a manner similar to the opened sections of the park. The Spur along 30th Street is slated to get an amphitheater, restrooms, trees and grasses above Tenth Avenue.[61] Finally, the curved section around the western part of Hudson Yards was originally developed as an "interim walkway", with further construction in 2015.[62] There will be an entrance to the High Line from within the complex.[63]

Hudson Yards development project[edit]

30th Street staging area for construction equipment and materials.

The Hudson Yards development is being built by Related Companies on top of a large platform bordered by 10th and 12th Avenues and by 30th and 33rd Streets.[64][65] Construction on the platform began in 2014.[66] The platform was to be constructed over the existing at-grade West Side Yard, allowing LIRR trains to continue to be stored during midday hours. The land parcel is bordered by 30th Street and Chelsea on the south, Twelfth Avenue on the west, 33rd Street and Hell's Kitchen on the north, and Tenth Avenue on the east. Eleventh Avenue runs through the site, and splits the redevelopment project into two phases.[67] Before Phase 2 was built, an underground concrete casing was built for Amtrak's future Gateway Project under the Hudson River.[68] Construction started in December 2014 and was nearing completion as of July 2017, though funding disputes stalled the tunnel box's completion.[69]

30 Hudson Yards (left, under construction), and 10 Hudson Yards (right, completed) in February 2017
Under construction, 2018

Phase 1, the eastern phase, contains two office towers on Tenth Avenue, plus a retail podium between them. The southern tower is the 52-story, 895-foot (273 m) 10 Hudson Yards, which opened in 2016.[70] The other tower on Tenth Avenue is the 80-story, 1,337-foot (408 m) 30 Hudson Yards, which is the city's third-tallest building;[71] it is expected to be completed in early 2019.[72] Bordering Eleventh Avenue are two mixed-use buildings, 15 Hudson Yards and 35 Hudson Yards. 15 Hudson Yards, the more southerly of the two towers, will be connected to a semi-permanent structure, a performance and arts space known as the Culture Shed.[73] The mixed-use 15 Hudson Yards was topped out in February 2018.[74] 35 Hudson Yards, a mixed-use skyscraper located to the north of 15 Hudson Yards, was topped out in June 2018.[75] Phase 1 also includes a 7-story mall called Shops & Restaurants of Hudson Yards.[53]

The western portion of the yard is bordered by 30th Street and 33rd Street in the north and south, and Eleventh and Twelfth avenues in the east and west. The western phase of the project is to contain up to seven residential towers, an office building at 33rd Street and Eleventh Avenue tentatively known as "West Tower", and a school serving Pre-K to eighth grade students.[76] The third phase of the High Line will traverse Phase 2 of the project.[73] Work on the platform to cover the second half of the tracks is scheduled to begin in 2018.[77] The entire project, including Phase 2, could be complete by 2024.[78]

Neighboring projects[edit]

50 and 55 Hudson Yards[edit]

50 and 55 Hudson Yards are located just north of the West Side Yard on the block bounded by 33rd Street to the south, 10th Avenue to the east, 34th Street to the north, and 11th Avenue to the west. 50 Hudson Yards and 55 Hudson Yards are respectively located on the east and west side of the block.[79] Work on the foundation of the 985-foot-tall (300 m) 50 Hudson Yards began in May 2018.[80] The 780-foot-tall (240 m) 55 Hudson Yards started construction on January 22, 2015,[81] and topped out in August 2017.[82]

Manhattan West[edit]

Renovated 450 West 33rd Street building in Manhattan West, home to the Associated Press.

Brookfield, a Canadian asset manager, is developing the second-largest project in Hudson Yards. Dubbed "Manhattan West" it will comprise six buildings, two of which are pre-existing structures undergoing substantial renovations.[83] The project will include three office buildings, two residential buildings, and one hotel.[84] The two principal office buildings and a public green space, open year-round, will be placed on a platform over covered tracks that lead from the West Side Yard to Penn Station. To facilitate construction Brookfield announced that it would use prefabricated parts to build the platform.[85] Despite its considerable scale, Manhattan West has been referred to as "somewhat eclipsed"[86] and "overshadowed"[87] by the larger Hudson Yards.[86][87]

The Spiral[edit]

In early 2014, real estate firm Massey Knakal announced a conceptual supertall with a 1,220,000-square-foot (113,000 m2) capacity and 108 stories that would soar over 1,800 feet on the north side of 34th Street between Hudson Boulevard and Tenth Avenue in order to show the potential of a site that it intended to sell.[88] Dubbed Hudson Spire and designed by MJM+A architects, it would be the tallest tower in the Western Hemisphere if completed. The site was later purchased by Tishman Speyer on April 30, 2014, along with two adjacent properties for a total space of 2,850,000 square feet (265,000 m2).[89][90]

The plans for The Spire were later replaced with plans designed by Bjarke Ingels Group, dubbed The Spiral. The building started construction in June 2018, and its design includes terraces to provide green space. Tishman has secured pharmaceutical company Pfizer as an anchor tenant.[91]

Associated developments[edit]

Even before the opening of any of the rail yard buildings, many businesses in the area have seen increased profits due to the project's construction. The Hudson Yards redevelopment program catalyzed plans to build new buildings along the future Hudson Boulevard. There has also been a development boom in the vicinity of the rail yard development.[92] Among these are 3 Hudson Boulevard (formerly the GiraSole), located on 34th Street and Eleventh Avenue.[93] 3 Hudson Boulevard is under construction, although it lacks an anchor tenant.[94]

In February 2015, the Chetrit Group, headed by Meyer and Joseph Chetrit, announced that it wanted to spend US$29 million to expand one Hudson Yards development site to 373,068 square feet (34,659.2 m2). It would add about 200,000 square feet (19,000 m2) of space to a site between 11th Avenue, 37th and 38th Streets, and Hudson Boulevard that previously allowed 173,000 square feet (16,100 m2) of retail space. A buyer would be able to split the space between two buildings.[95]

In June 2015, Tishman Speyer bought another lot between West 36th and 37th Streets on 11th Avenue; the lot was zoned for a 735,000 square feet (68,300 m2) residential and hotel property.[96] It is next to a lot—zoned for a planned residential tower—that was bought in 2012 by Lalezarian Properties for $46.5 million,[97] Tishman Speyer's land is also close to a lot owned by former New York Governor Eliot Spitzer, who bought the lot in 2013 and plans at least 414,000 square feet (38,500 m2) of new development space.[98]

Two other new Related buildings, One Hudson Yards and Abington House, are adjacent the Phase 1 buildings, but are unrelated to the Hudson Yards project.[99] Another Related development also on the West Side dubbed "Hudson Residences" is under construction at the same time as Hudson Yards.[100]

List of buildings[edit]

Below is a list of buildings constructed, planned, or proposed for the broader Hudson Yards neighborhood (from Northwest to Southeast):

Street Address Building Name Building Use Construction Started Completed Date Architectural Height Height (Stories) Status Developer / Architect
650 West 42nd Street River Place Residential 1999 40 Completed Silverstein Properties
635 West 42nd Street Atelier Residential 2007 46 Completed Moinian Group
620 West 42nd Street Silver Towers Residential 2009, June 653 ft. (199m) 60 Completed Silverstein Properties
605 West 42nd Street Sky Residential 2008/2013 2016 656 ft. (200m) 71 Completed Moinian Group
520 West 41st Street Residential 2015 2020 1,100 ft. (335m) 106 Postponed Silverstein Properties
350 West 42nd Street The Orion (skyscraper) Residential 2004 2006 604 ft (184 m) 58 Completed CetraRuddy / Extell Development Company
450 West 42nd Street MiMA (including Yotel) Residential
including Hotel
2007 2011 669 ft. (204m) 63 Completed Related
555 Tenth Avenue 555Ten Residential 2016 610 ft. 53 Topped Out Extell Development Company /
SLCE Architects
528 West 39th St /
476 Eleventh Avenue
Mixed-Use In Development Rockrose
509 West 38th Street Residential 2014 2017 361 ft. (110m) 30 Topped Out Imperial Companies /
BKSK Architects
470 Eleventh Avenue Hudson Rise Hotel
(Chinese Lantern Building)
Hotel 47 In Development/
Litigation[101]
Kuafu Properties and Siras Development
550 West 37th Street Offices In Development Tishman Speyer
541 West 37th Street In Development Chetrit Group
505 West 37th Street Residential 2009 44 Completed TF Cornerstone
455 West 37th Street Residential 2008 32 Completed TF Cornerstone
515 West 36th Street Residential 2018 38 Under Construction Lalezarian Properties /
Ismael Levya Architects
517 West 35th Street In Development Related
451 Tenth Avenue /
511 West 37th Street
Mixed-Use In Development Eliot Spitzer
444 Tenth Avenue Four Points by Sheraton Hotel 2017 17 Completed Maddd Equities /
Aufgang Architects
445 West 35th Street Residential 12 In Development Maddd Equities /
Aufgang Architects
411 West 35th Street Residential 2013 2016 12 Topped Out Maddd Equities /
Aufgang Architects
555 West 34th Street 3 Hudson Boulevard Offices 2016 2019 1,034 ft. (315m) 66 Under Construction Moinian Group /
FXFOWLE Architects
550 West 34th Street 55 Hudson Yards Offices 2015, January 2018 780 ft. (240m) 51 Under Construction Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox and Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates
435 Tenth Avenue The Spiral Offices 1,005 ft. 65 In Development Tishman Speyer /
Bjarke Ingels Group
461 West 34th Street Hudson Yards' Marriott Courtyard Hotel Hotel 312 ft. (95m) 29 Under Construction David Marx
424 Tenth Avenue 50 Hudson Yards[102] Offices 2017 985 ft. (300m) 58 Designed Related /
Foster + Partners
35 Hudson Yards
Equinox Tower
Mixed-Use 1,000 ft. (300m) 79 Under Construction Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox and David Childs
30 Hudson Yards Offices 2015 2019 1,296 ft. (395m) 92 Topped Out Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox
The Shops at Hudson Yards Retail 2018 7 Under Construction Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox /
Elkus Manfredi Architects
10 Hudson Yards Offices 2012-12-04 2016 878 ft. (268m) 52 Completed Related /
Kohn Pedersen Fox
15 Hudson Yards Residential 2014-12-04 2018 917 ft. (280m) 71 Under Construction Related /
Diller Scofidio + Renfro, David Rockwell, and mael Levya Architects
Culture Shed Performing Arts Center 2015 2019 6 Under Construction Related /
Diller Scofidio + Renfro and David Rockwell
Western Rail Yards Hudson Yards Phase 2 Residential Towers, Office Building, School, & Retail 2024 In Development Related
NE Manhattan West Complex One Manhattan West Offices 2020 1,216 ft. (370m) 66 Under Construction Brookfield /
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
SE Manhattan West Complex Two Manhattan West Offices 2020 994 ft. (303m) 60 Planned Brookfield /
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
435 West 31st Street The Eugene[103] Residential 2017, March 702 ft. (214m) 62 Completed Brookfield /
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
Four Manhattan West Hotel Planned Brookfield
450 West 33rd Street Five Manhattan West Offices 2014 (renovation) 1969,
renovated 2016
1,216 ft. (370m) 16 Under Construction Brookfield /
Davis Brody Associates
Renovation: REX
360 Tenth Avenue Offices In Development Frank McCourt /
SHoP Architects
312 Eleventh Avenue Ohm Residential 2010 34 Completed Douglaston Development /
Stephen B. Jacobs Group
530 West 30th Street One Hudson Yards Residential 2015 2017 367 ft. 33 Leasing Related /
Davis Brody Bond
500 West 30th Street Abington House Residential 2012 2014, April 325 ft. (99m) 33 Completed Related /
Robert A.M. Stern
529 West 29th Street Residential (Affordable Artist Housing) 2013 15 Completed Related /
Ismael Leyva Architects

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Hudson Yards Adopted Zoning Map". No. 7 Subway Extension—Hudson Yards Rezoning and Development Program Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). New York City Department of Buildings. p. 4. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Chapter 9: Architectural Historic Resources". No. 7 Subway Extension—Hudson Yards Rezoning and Development Program Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). New York City Department of Buildings. p. 4. Retrieved July 24, 2018.; Chapter 11: Figures
  3. ^ West Side Railyards / Hudson Yards Rezoning
  4. ^ IN THE MATTER of an application submitted by the Department of Small Business Services on behalf of the Hudson Yards Business Improvement District pursuant to Section 25-405(a) of the Administrative Code of the City of New York, as amended, concerning the formation of the Hudson Yards Business Improvement District, Borough of Manhattan, Community District 4
  5. ^ Paul Crowell, "'Palace' Plan Out; Bigger One Urged," New York Times, January 6, 1956.
  6. ^ Robert E. Bedingfield, "U.S. Steel Weighs Midtown Project," New York Times, August 4, 1964.
  7. ^ George Horne, "670-Million, 40-Year Waterfront Plan To Alter West Side Is Urged by Mayor; Convention Center, Docks and Housing Would Be Built," New York Times, April 26, 1963.
  8. ^ Stern, Michael (December 8, 1970). "6th and Last Part of Master Plan on City Released; Volume on Manhattan Urges Building of Offices Along 48th St. Transit Line Westward Pattern Set Condemnation of Big Tracts Intended to Insure Public Use of Some of Area". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
  9. ^ Richard Witkin, "State Will Cancel Some Road Projects," New York Times, November 4, 1971.
  10. ^ Tomasson, Robert E. (February 18, 1973). "Developers Turning to West Midtown". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
  11. ^ Darnton, John (February 14, 1973). "Convention Center Model Unveiled Here With Pride; A Dissenting View". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
  12. ^ "Developer Proposes a Convention Center in Midtown". The New York Times. December 18, 1975. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
  13. ^ Kaiser, Charles (April 29, 1978). "Convention Site At West 34th St. Chosen by Koch; He and Carey Outline Plans for Center". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
  14. ^ Marilyn Bender, "The Empire and Ego of Donald Trump," New York Times, August 7, 1983.
  15. ^ Voboril, Mary (March 26, 2005). "The Air Above Rail Yards Still Free". Newsday. New York.
  16. ^ Gregory P. Benz, et. al., "West Side Manhattan Transitway Study," Transportation Research Board, Special Report No. 221, May 8–11, 1988.
  17. ^ Oser, Alan. "Perspectives: The West 30's; Land Uses Near the Convention Center." The New York Times. New York. February 4, 1990. Section 10, page 9, column 2.
  18. ^ Buder, Leonard. "Area Near Javits Center Is Rezoned." The New York Times. New York. February 24, 1990. Section 1, page 29, column 2.
  19. ^ Lyons, Richard. "Postings: For Pioneers?; Housing Near Javits Center." The New York Times. New York. July 2, 1989. Section 10, page 1, column 4.
  20. ^ "Hudson Yards Master Plan: Preferred Direction" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. February 2003. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  21. ^ "HKNA plan" (PDF). Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  22. ^ City of New York, Hudson Yards financing proposal, July 12, 2004.
  23. ^ Purnick, Joyce (January 2, 2005). "What Rises in the West? Uncertainty". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
  24. ^ "City Set to Create West Side Development Unit". The New York Times. February 9, 2004. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  25. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (June 22, 2004). "City Unveils Gigantic Plan To Transform Far West Side". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  26. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (December 21, 2009). "Rezoning Will Allow Railyard Project to Advance". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2009.
  27. ^ V. Bagli, Charles (March 22, 2005). "Jets and Rivals Increase Bids for Railyards". The New York Times. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  28. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (August 28, 2008). "Dreaming of Stadiums and Souvenirs". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  29. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (January 11, 2005). "Mayor and Council Reach Deal on West Side Development". Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  30. ^ Hope, Bradley (November 19, 2007). "Proposals for Hudson Yards Reach High, Green". The New York Sun. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  31. ^ a b c d Mitchell L. Moss (November 2011). "HOW NEW YORK CITY WON THE OLYMPICS" (PDF). Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service. New York University. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  32. ^ Brenzel, Kathryn (October 10, 2016). "Biggest Real Estate Projects NYC | 66 Hudson Boulevard". Therealdeal.com. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  33. ^ Lisberg, Adam (November 19, 2007). "Plans For The Old West, Five major developers lay out visions for Hudson Yards". Daily News. New York.
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Further reading

External links[edit]

Project websites:

Descriptions:

Maps: