|This article is in the world's first Encyclopedia Naturalis Historia by Pliny the Elder [77-79 AD]:
see → NH Book 3.7.
Queen Victoria district, English-style suburb
|Motto: Portus Maris et Terrae Custodia|
Location of Huelva
|Comarca||Comarca metropolitana de Huelva|
|Founded||Tenth century BC|
|• Alcalde||Gabriel Cruz Santana (PSOE)|
|• Total||149 km2 (58 sq mi)|
|Elevation||54 m (177 ft)|
|• Density||1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)|
|Demonym(s)||onubense, (vulgarmente) choquero/a|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||21001 and otros|
Huelva (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈwelβa]) is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia. It is located along the Gulf of Cádiz coast, at the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. The city has been inhabited since 3000 BC. According to the 2010 census, the city had a population of 149,410 during that year. Huelva is home to Recreativo de Huelva, the oldest football club in Spain.
Location and history
A maritime town between the rivers Anas (modern Guadiana) and Baetis (modern Guadalquivir), it was situated on the estuary of the River Luxia (modern Odiel), and on the road from the mouth of the Anas to Augusta Emerita (modern Mérida).
The city may be the site of Tartessus; it was called Onoba by the Phoenicians . The Greeks kept the name and rendered it Ὄνοβα. It was in the hands of the Turdetani at the time of conquest by Rome, and before the conquest it issued silver coins with Iberian legends. It was called both Onoba Aestuaria or Onuba (used on coinage) during Roman times, or, simply, Onoba. The city was incorporated into the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. The Arabs then called it Walbah and ruled between 712-1250. It suffered substantial damage in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.
There are still some Roman remains. The city had a mint; and many coins have been found there bearing the name of the town as Onuba. Modern inhabitants are called Onubenses in Spanish. Part of a large wooden wheel that was originally used to drain a copper mine in Huelva was discovered in the late nineteenth century. Dating to the Roman times, it was donated by the British mining company Rio Tinto to the British Museum in 1889.
Mines in the countryside send copper and pyrite to the port for export. From about 1873, the most important company in the area was Rio Tinto, the British mining firm. The mining operations caused severe sulfure dioxide pollution and were frequently accompagnied by protests of local farmers, peasants and miners, allied under the anarchist syndicalist leader Maximiliano Tornet. On 4 February 1888, the Pavi Regiment of the Spanish Army opened fire on demonstrators at the village plaza of Rio Tinto. Historians estimate the number of deaths between 100 to 200. Environmentalists from the nearby Nerva village referred to 1888 as the "year of shots" a hundred years later in their protests against the province government's plans to site a large waste dump in a disused mine in the 1990s.
During World War II, the city was a hub of espionage activities led by members of the large British and German communities. German activity centered on reporting British shipping moving in and out of the Atlantic. Most famously, the city was the location where Operation Mincemeat allowed a body carrying false information to wash ashore. 
The body of Glyndwr Michael, the fictional "Major William Martin, Royal Marines," of the espionage operation is buried in the San Marco section of the cemetery of Nuestra Senora under a headstone that reads:
William Martin, born 29 March 1907, died 24 April 1943, beloved son of John Glyndwyr and the late Antonia Martin of Cardiff, Wales, DULCE ET DECORUM EST PRO PATRIA MORI, R.I.P.
Glyndwr Michael served as Major William Martin.
On 11 October 2005, Hurricane Vince made landfall in Huelva as a tropical depression.
The Port of Huelva is divided in two sectors: the inner port (in the city) and the outer port (the main one)
Inner Port (one wharf). Constructed in 1972, the East Wharf, replaced constructed harbour facilities of inferior quality between 1900 and 1910. At the moment it is the wharf used for smaller traffic including tourist boats.
Outer Port (six wharves). Was built starting in 1965, to the south of the River Tinto.
Huelva had a population of 149,410 in 2010. The city experienced a population boom in the nineteenth century, due to the exploitation of mineral resources in the area, and another with the construction of the Polo de Desarrollo in the 1960s. It had a population of 5,377 inhabitants in 1787, which had risen to only 8,519 by 1857. From 1887, the city experienced rapid growth, reaching 21,539 residents in 1900, 56,427 in 1940, and 96,689 in 1970. Rapid expansion occurred in the following decades and the population reached 141,479 by 1991.
In the last ten years, immigration both from abroad and from the surrounding area have sustained population growth. In 2007, the city reached the 145,000 mark, while the metropolitan area had nearly 232,000 inhabitants, encompassing the surrounding areas of Aljaraque, Moguer, San Juan del Puerto, Punta Umbría, Gibraleón, and Palos de la Frontera. The 2006 census recorded a foreign population of almost 5,000 people in the urban centre, the majority of whom were of Moroccan origin.
Huelva and its metropolitan area have a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate, characterized by very mild and wet winters and long warm to hot and dry summers. The average annual temperature is 23.9 °C (75.0 °F) during the day and 12.4 °C (54.3 °F) at night. The average annual precipitation is 525 mm (20.7 in) per year, there are about 52 rainy days per year. Extreme temperatures have been 43.8 °C (110.8 °F) recorded on 25 July 2004 and −3.2 °C (26.2 °F) recorded on 28 January 2005 at Ronda Este.
|Climate data for Huelva, Ronda Este 1981-2010|
|Record high °C (°F)||24.0
|Average high °C (°F)||16.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.0
|Average low °C (°F)||5.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−3.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||71
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||7||6||4||6||4||1||0||0||2||6||6||8||52|
|Average relative humidity (%)||77||74||68||65||62||57||51||55||61||69||73||78||66|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||165||171||229||255||296||341||367||340||268||211||176||151||2,970|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
Among the attractions to visit in this province are the Columbus sites. These sites include the city of Huelva, Moguer, Palos de la Frontera, and the Rábida Monastery. La Rábida is where Columbus sought the aid of the Franciscan brothers in advancing his project of discovery. They introduced him to local rich sailors (the Pinzón brothers), and, eventually, arranged a meeting in Seville with Ferdinand and Isabella.
The most well-known artists in Huelva have been: the poet and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature Juan Ramón Jiménez, the sculptor Antonio León Ortega, the writer Nicolas Tenorio Cerero and the painter Daniel Vázquez Díaz.
Other outstanding artists from Huelva include the painters José Caballero, Pedro Gómez y Gómez, Antonio Brunt, Mateo Orduña Castellano, Pablo Martínez Coto, Manuel Moreno Díaz, Juan Manuel Seisdedos Romero, Francisco Doménech, Esperanza Abot, José María Labrador, Sebastián García Vázquez, Pilar Barroso, Juan Carlos Castro Crespo, Lola Martín, Antonio Gómez Feu, Rafael Aguilera, and Florencio Aguilera Correa. Miguel Biez, called el Litri, is perhaps the town's most famous artist; he was gored in a bullfight in 1929.
Statue of the Pinzón Brothers in Palos de la Frontera, Huelva, Spain
- Carnaval, fiesta
- Festival de Cine Iberoamericano de Huelva
- Fiestas Colombinas, fiesta first week of August
- Fiestas de la Cinta, between 3–8 September
- San Sebastián, festival 20 January
- Semana Santa (Easter Week)
- Virgen de la Cinta, fiesta 8 September
- El Rocio Romeria pilgrimage, every seventh August, a statue of the Virgin of el Rocio travels at night from El Rocio to Almonte.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Huelva is twinned with:
- Antonine Itinerary, p. 431
- Greek: Ὄνοβα Αἰστουάρια, Ptolemy, ii. 4. § 5.
- Strabo, iii. p. 143, Pomponius Mela, iii. 1. § 5.
- Enrique Florez, Med. ii. pp. 510, 649; Théodore Edme Mionnet, i. p. 23, Suppl. p. 39; Sestini, Med. Isp. p. 75, ap. Friedrich August Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 340.
- British Museum Collection
- Ben Macintyre, Operation Mincemeat; How a Dead Man and a Bizarre Plan Fooled the Nazis and Assured an Allied Victory, Harmony Books, Chapter 8
- David Avery, Not on Queen Victoria's Birthday: The Story of the Rio Tinto Mines, Collins, London, 1974. p. 207; 6, pp. 83 ff.
- Joan Martinez-Alier, Mining conflicts, environmental justice, and valuation, in Journal of Hazardous Materials 86 (2001) 153–170
- Gladwell, Malcolm, Pandora's Briefcase, The New Yorker, May 10, 2010, reprised 2015.07.26 by Henry Finder in a New Yorker newsletter
- "Operation Mincemeat". The National Archives. February 1993.
- "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)".
- The Daily Dish, by Andrew Sullivan, retrieved on 20 August 2012
- "Geminações de Cidades e Vilas". Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-07-20.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
- Información sobre la Sierra de Aracena
- Huelva - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía
- City of Huelva Andalucia Destination
- Huelva municipal government Official Website (Spanish)
- A Travel Guide to Huelva (English)
- City of Huelva Andalucia Destination
- Huelva Hoy Daily Events in Spanish
- Huelva Cultura in Spanish
- Port Authority of Huelva Official web page with information about the port, its history and technical characteristics.
- Guía de autores onubenses (Local writers) Juntadeandalucia.es. Juan David Ayllón Burguillo (Spanish)
- Santa Bárbara de casa Huelva
- Adrian Fletcher's Paradoxplace – Convento de la Rábida Photo and History page
- Doñana Natural Park (Spanish)
- Sierra de Aracena Natural Park (Spanish)