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Hugh Darwen

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Hugh Darwen
Born1943 (age 80–81)
Occupation(s)author, lecturer, researcher, and consultant, specializing in relational database theory
Employer(until 2004) IBM
Known forRelational database theory

Hugh Darwen is a computer scientist who was an employee of IBM United Kingdom from 1967[1] to 2004, and has been involved in the development of the relational model.[2]



From 1978 to 1982 he was a chief architect on Business System 12, a database management system that faithfully embraced the principles of the relational model.[3] He worked closely with Christopher J. Date and represented IBM at the ISO SQL committees (JTC1 SC32 WG3 Database languages,[4] WG4 SQL/MM[5]) until his retirement from IBM. Darwen is the author of The Askew Wall[6] and co-author of The Third Manifesto, a proposal for serving object-oriented programs with purely relational databases without compromising either side and getting the best of both worlds, arguably even better than with so-called object-oriented databases.[7]

From 2004 to 2013 he lectured on relational databases at the Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick (UK),[8] and from 1989 to 2014 was a tutor and consultant for the Open University (UK)[9] where he was awarded a MUniv honorary degree for academic and scholarly distinction.[10] He was also awarded a DTech (Doctor in Technology) honorary degree by the University of Wolverhampton.[11] He later taught a database language designed by Chris Date and himself called Tutorial D.[12]



He has written two books on the card game bridge, both on the subject of double dummy problems, on which he has a website. Alan Truscott has called him "the world's leading authority" on composed bridge problems.[13] He was responsible for the double dummy column in Bridge Magazine and other UK bridge publications from 1965 to 2004.



His early works were published under the pseudonym of Andrew Warden: both names are anagrams of his surname.[clarification needed]

  • Darwen, Hugh (1973), Bridge Magic: double dummy problems, single dummy, sure tricks, curios and inferentials – and a monograph on squeezes, London: Faber & Faber, ISBN 978-0-571-10250-1, 213 pp. OCLC 461769096[14]
  • Darwen, Hugh (2021), A Compendium of Double Dummy Problems, double dummy bridge problems from 1896 to 2005, Toronto: Master Point Press, ISBN 978-1-77140-244-6, 331 pp. OCLC 1284983633[15]
  • ———————— (January 2006) [2005], The Askew Wall: SQL and The Relational Model (background to The Third Manifesto) (PDF), UK: University of Warwick.
  • ———————— (January 2009), An Introduction to Relational Database Theory (3rd ed.), BookBoon, ISBN 978-87-7681-500-4, 231 pp.
  • ———————— (November 2012), SQL: A Comparative Survey (2nd ed.), BookBoon, ISBN 978-87-403-0778-8, 169 pp.
  • Date, Christopher J.; Darwen, Hugh (March 1995), "The Third Manifesto", ACM SIGMOD Record, 24 (1), New York: ACM Press: 39–49, doi:10.1145/202660.202667, ISSN 0163-5808, S2CID 12145199, archived from the original (PostScript) on 19 March 2012, retrieved 16 November 2010
  • ————————; Darwen, Hugh (August 1998), "Preview of The Third Manifesto", Database Programming & Design, According to Date, 11 (8), San Francisco: Miller Freeman, ISSN 0895-4518, OCLC 89297479, retrieved 18 June 2007, 67 pp.
  • ————————; Darwen, Hugh (1998), Foundation for Object/Relational Databases: The Third Manifesto: a detailed study of the impact of objects and type theory on the relational model of data including a comprehensive proposal for type inheritance (1st ed.), Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-30978-5, LCCN 98010364, OCLC 38431501, LCC QA76.9.D3 D15994 1998, 496 pp.
  • ————————; Darwen, Hugh (2000), Foundation for Future Database Systems: The Third Manifesto: a detailed study of the impact of type theory on the relational model of data, including a comprehensive model of type inheritance (2nd ed.), Reading: Addison-Wesley Professional, ISBN 0-201-70928-7, LCCN 00035527, OCLC 43662285, LCC QA76.9.D3 D3683 2000, 547 pp.


  1. ^ Date & Darwen (1998b), Foundation for Object-Relational Databases, Reading: Addison-Wesley, archived from the original on 18 July 2011, retrieved 22 January 2011{{citation}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link).
  2. ^ Valles, Jose R. (2008), Oracle database administrators as internal customers: Customer satisfaction criteria applied to technical decision making, performance, and evaluation, p. 10, ISBN 978-0-549-34189-5, The relational model was originally conceived by Dr. Edgar F. Codd and subsequently maintained and developed by Hugh Darwen and Chris Date as a general model of data
  3. ^ Darwen, Hugh (November 1996), "Business System 12", System R, Paul McJones, retrieved 22 January 2011.
  4. ^ Mann, Douglas (17–28 May 2004), List of Delegates (MS Word), Xi'an, CN: ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 32.
  5. ^ Scarponcini, Paul; Darwen, Hugh, Minutes of the SQL/MM WG4 Meeting and FCD and CD Continuation Editing Meetings (PDF), Document register, Brisbane and Sydney: ISO/IEC JTC1 SC32 committee, 9 and 13–17 July 1998.
  6. ^ Darwen 2006.
  7. ^ Date & Darwen 1995.
  8. ^ Darwen, Hugh, Profile, LinkedIn, archived from the original on 15 July 2012.
  9. ^ Waugh, Kevin (2007), M359 Course Guide – Relational databases: theory and practice, Milton Keynes: The Open University.
  10. ^ "Open Eye: Time to honour a degree of openness". The Independent. London. 6 May 1999.
  11. ^ BCS Prize Winners, University of Wolverhampton, 1998, archived from the original on 9 October 2006.
  12. ^ Cartwright, David (12 October 2004). "A new approach to querying databases? the ABC of Tutorial D". Techworld.
  13. ^ Truscott, Alan (3 January 1974). "British Problemist Writes About 114 Game Quandaries". The New York Times.
  14. ^ "Bridge magic: double dummy problems, single dummy, sure tricks, curios and ...". Library of Congress Catalog Record. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  15. ^ "COMPENDIUM OF DOUBLE DUMMY PROBLEMS : double dummy bridge problems from 1896 to 2005". Library of Congress Catalog Record. Retrieved 05 November 2022.