Hugh Latimer Dryden
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Hugh Dryden, 1959
|Born||July 2, 1898|
|Died||December 2, 1965 (aged 67)|
|Alma mater||Johns Hopkins University|
|Awards||Daniel Guggenheim Medal (1950)|
Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy (1955)
Elliott Cresson Medal (1960)
John Fritz Medal (1963)
|Thesis||Air forces on circular cylinders, axes normal to the wind, with special reference to the law of dynamical similarity (1919)|
|Influenced||Paul C. Donnelly|
Dryden was born in Pocomoke City, Maryland, the son of Samuel Isaac and Nova Hill Culver Dryden, and was named after a popular local Methodist clergyman. During the financial panic of 1907, his father lost his job and the family moved to Baltimore, Maryland.
As a student, Dryden excelled in mathematics. He graduated from Baltimore City College, a high school, at the age of 14, and was the youngest student ever to graduate from that school. He was awarded the Peabody Prize for excellence in mathematics. With a scholarship, he was admitted to Johns Hopkins University and graduated with honors after only three years. He earned a M.S. in physics in 1916. His thesis was titled, "Airplanes: An Introduction to the Physical Principles Embodied in their Use."
In 1918, Dryden joined the National Bureau of Standards, becoming an inspector of gauges. With the help and influence of Dr. Joseph S. Ames, he obtained a transfer to the bureau's Wind Tunnel division, and began taking graduate courses in fluid dynamics to complete his Ph.D. In 1919 at the age of 20, he was awarded his degree in physics and mathematics from Johns Hopkins University, the youngest person ever to have received a doctorate from that institution. His thesis was on the "Air Forces on Circular Cylinders".
In 1920 Dryden was appointed the director of the Aerodynamics Division of the National Bureau of Standards, a newly created section. Collaborating with Dr. Lyman J. Briggs, he performed studies of airfoils near the speed of sound. He also performed pioneering aerodynamics research on the problems of airflow, turbulence, and especially the boundary layer phenomenon. His work contributed to the design of the wings for the P-51 Mustang, as well as other aircraft designed during World War II.
By 1934, Dryden was appointed the bureau's Chief of the Mechanics and Sound Division, and in 1939 he became a member of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).
With the start of World War II, Dryden served in an advisory capacity to the Air Force. He led the development of the "Bat", a radar-homing guided bomb program that was successfully employed in combat in April, 1945 to sink a Japanese destroyer.
After the war, Dryden became the Director of Aeronautical Research for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1946. While at the NACA he supervised the development of the North American X-15, a rocket plane used for research and testing. He also established programs for V/STOL aircraft, and studied the problem of atmospheric reentry.
He held the position of Director of NACA, NASA's predecessor, from 1947 until October 1958. In addition he served on numerous government advisory committees, including the Scientific Advisory Committee to the President. From 1941 until 1956 he was editor of the Journal of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences. After NACA became NASA, he became the Deputy Director of that organization, serving until his death.
After John Glenn's orbital flight, an exchange of letters between President John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premiere Nikita Khrushchev led to a series of discussions led by Dryden and Soviet scientist Anatoli Blagonravov. Their talks in 1962 led to the Dryden-Blagonravov agreement, which was formalized in October of that year, the same time the two countries were in the midst of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The agreement was formally announced at the United Nations on December 5, 1962. It called for cooperation on the exchange of data from weather satellites, a study of the Earth's magnetic field, and joint tracking of the U.S. Echo II balloon satellite.. Unfortunately, as the competition between the two nation's manned space programs heated up, efforts to further cooperation at that point came to an end. They would be revived in 1969 by NASA Administrator Thomas Paine and led to the 1975 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
He died from cancer on December 2, 1965.
Michael Gorn, chief historian at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, described Dryden as a quiet, reserved man who was self-effacing and diligent. He was patient, a good teacher, and effective when collaborating with others. He was also a devout Methodist, who, as a result, had a dislike of self-promotion. He served as a lay minister for his entire adult life. He was married to Mary Libbie Travers, and the couple had four children.
Tom Wolfe, writing in 2009 at the 40th anniversary of the launch of Apollo 11, credited Dryden with having been the individual who spoke up, with President John F. Kennedy in April, 1961, and suggested that manned flight to the moon was the way to "catch up" with the Soviets in the space race. Wolfe describes President Kennedy as having been in "a terrible funk" at the time of the meeting with James E. Webb, the NASA administrator, and Dryden, his deputy, as the president wrestled with the string of Soviet "firsts" in space flight which had started with Sputnik 1 in 1957 and, that month in 1961, had extended to include human earth-orbital flight. Within a month of the meeting with Webb and Dryden, President Kennedy announced the Apollo Project-scale goal of putting a man on the moon within 10 years, the goal that Apollo 11 was ultimately to meet. In setting the goal, the president did not credit Dryden's input, according to Wolfe.
Dryden was portrayed by George Bartenieff in the 1998 TV miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.
Dryden published over a hundred papers and articles.
- "Turbulence and the Boundary Layer", Wright Brothers Lecture, 1938.
- "The Role of Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow in Fluid Mechanics", 1941, proceedings University of Pennsylvania Bicentennial Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Statistical Methods in Engineering.
- "Recent advances in the mechanics of boundary layer flow", Academic Press Inc., New York, 1948.
- Dryden, Hugh L., and Abbott, Ira H., "The design of low-turbulence wind tunnels", NACA, Technical Note 1755, Nov 1949.
- "General Survey of Experimental Aerodynamics", 1956, Dover.
- "The International Geophysical Year: Man’s most ambitious study of his environment," National Geographic, February 1956, pp. 285–285.
- "Footprints on the Moon", National Geographic, March 1964, pp. 356–401.
Awards and honors
- President's Certificate of Merit.
- Daniel Guggenheim Medal, 1950.
- Wright brothers memorial trophy, 1956.
- Baltimore City College Hall of Fame, 1958.
- Career Service Award from the National Civil Service League, 1958.
- Elliott Cresson Medal from The Franklin Institute, 1960.
- Langley Gold Medal from the Smithsonian Institution, 1962.
- National Medal of Science award in Engineering, 1965.
- Inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1976.
- Inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame in 1973.
- Sixteen honorary doctorates.
- Member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
- Member of the National Academy of Sciences.
- Founding Member of the National Academy of Engineering.
- The NASA Flight Research Center was renamed the NASA Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Center on March 26, 1976. This was rescinded on March 1, 2014 when the center was renamed the "Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center."
- The crater Dryden on the Moon is named after him.
- The Western Aeronautical Test Range at the facility was renamed the NASA Hugh L. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range.
- Dryden, Hugh Latimer (1916). Airplanes: an introduction to the physical principles embodied in their use (M.S.). The Johns Hopkins University. OCLC 30460745.
- Dryden, Hugh Latimer (1919). Air forces on circular cylinders, axes normal to the wind, with special reference to the law of dynamical similarity (Ph.D.). The Johns Hopkins University. OCLC 30460743 – via ProQuest.
- "The First Dryden-Blagonravov Agreement - 1962". NASA History Series. NASA. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "SP-4209 The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project". NASA History Series. NASA. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "One Giant Leap to Nowhere" Op-Ed by Tom Wolfe, The New York Times, July 18, 2009 (7/19/09 p. WK11 of NY ed.). Retrieved 7/19/09.
- "Founding members of the National Academy of Engineering". National Academy of Engineering. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- National Science Foundation - The President's National Medal of Science
- Locke, Robert (October 6, 1976). "Space Pioneers Enshrined". Las Vegas Optic. Las Vegas, New Mexico. Associated Press. p. 6 – via Newspapers.com.
- Sprekelmeyer, Linda, editor. These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame. Donning Co. Publishers, 2006. ISBN 978-1-57864-397-4.
- An Act to Redesignate the Dryden Flight Research Center as the Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center and the Western Aeronautical Test Range as the Hugh L. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range
- Michael Gorn, "A Powerful Friendship: Theodore von Kármán and Hugh L. Dryden", NASA TM-2003-212031.
- Michael H. Gorn, "Hugh L. Dryden's Career in Aviation and Space", 1996, Washington, D.C., Monographs in Aerospace History.
- Official NASA biography
- Hugh L. Dryden's Career in Aviation and Space, by Michael H. Gorn
- New Mexico Museum of Space History
- National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir