Hugh Nibley

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Hugh Nibley
Hugh Nibley.jpg
BornHugh Winder Nibley
(1910-03-27)March 27, 1910
Portland, Oregon, United States
DiedFebruary 24, 2005(2005-02-24) (aged 94)
Provo, Utah, U.S.[1]
Alma mater
OccupationScholar, historian, author, professor
EmployerBrigham Young University
Political partyDemocrat
Spouse(s)Phyllis Nibley
Children8

Hugh Winder Nibley (March 27, 1910 – February 24, 2005) was an American scholar and Mormon apologist who was a professor at Brigham Young University (BYU) for nearly 50 years. His apologist works, while not official positions of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), attempt to support the archaeological, linguistic, and historical claims of Joseph Smith.[citation needed]

A prolific author and professor of Biblical and Mormon scripture at BYU, he was considered a polyglot.[2] Nibley wrote and lectured on LDS scripture and doctrinal topics, publishing many articles in LDS Church magazines.

Early life and education[edit]

Hugh Nibley was born in Portland, Oregon, son of Alexander ("El") Nibley and Agnes Sloan. Among their other sons were Sloan Nibley, Richard Nibley, and Reid N. Nibley.[3] Their father Alexander was the son of Charles W. Nibley, Presiding Bishop of the church.[4] Alexander's mother, wife of Charles, was Rebecca Neibaur. Rebecca was the daughter of Alexander Neibaur, one of the first Jewish people to convert to Mormonism.[5] Alexander Nibley served as mission president of the Liège Conference.[6]

In 1917, Nibley's family moved to Medford, Oregon, where his father started to manage his father's sugar beet company. The next year at age eight, Nibley was baptized into the LDS Church. The family returned to Portland after the sugar beet factory failed in 1919. In 1920, the principal at Nibley's elementary school gave all of his students an IQ test. After seeing Nibley's high scores, the principal decided to privately tutor Nibley. Nibley's parents employed a music tutor and a French tutor for their children as well.[7]

Nibley's family moved to Los Angeles in 1921, where Nibley's father participated in the burgeoning real-estate market and was part of Los Angles's high society.[8] Nibley attended Alta Loma Middle School from 1921 until 1923. He graduated from Los Angeles High School in 1927,[9] where he was friends with John Cage.[10] Nibley was particularly interested in astronomy, art, and English. In order to see through his telescope unimpeded, he cut off his eyelashes. His interest in literature led him to study Old and Middle English, German, Latin, and Greek.[11] He spent the summer of 1925 working in a lumber mill.[12] In 1926, Nibely's poems appeared in the Improvement Era and The Lyric West.[13] That same year, his family moved to a mansion, and Nibley spent six weeks alone in the wilderness near Crater Lake.2002 Nibley took part and excelled in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).[14] The summer he was 17, he attended Brigham Young Academy's Aspen Grove summer school.[15]

Nibley's parents were worried about his social development and felt that an LDS mission would help him have more contact with people.[16] In November 1927, Nibley received his temple endowment, studied at the Salt Lake Mission Home to serve an LDS mission in Germany until 1929.[17] He spent his first three weeks in Germany learning German in Cologne with other missionaries.[18] After his mission, he received special permission to visit Greece for six weeks to contact other members of the LDS Church there.[19]

After his mission, Nibley majored in history at the still new University of California, Los Angeles. He also studied Latin, Greek, and Spanish and graduated in 1934 summa cum laude.[20] Nibley's grandfather, Charles, and his brother, Philip, died in 1931 and 1932 respectively. In June 1933, Nibley used his knowledge of shorthand and typing when he served a short-term mission in the northwestern states as the mission stenographer. He returned in time to start his PhD at University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) in September 1934.[21] In the 1936–1937 school year he received a fellowship that would have covered his tuition and housing. Nibley's father asked him to loan the money to him and did not repay it. He found a job translating Latin, but because his funds were severely limited, he moved from the expensive International House to a cheap apartment, where his neighbors spoke Arabic.[22] His dissertation "The Roman Games as a Survival of an Archaic Year Cult" was accepted and he graduated in 1938.[23]

Teaching at Claremont and military service[edit]

Nibley volunteered to teach at Claremont Colleges, and he taught without pay for the 1939–1940 school year, living frugally. The next year he was probably hired as an instructor, and taught history, social philosophy, modern European history, humanities, U.S. history, history of education, Greek, and German.[24] He taught alongside scholars fleeing from Germany, including Thomas Mann, and once co-taught a class with retired professor Everett Dean Martin. He acted as a secretary when prominent intellectuals spoke at the Committee on War Objectives and Peace Aims.[25] He studied more languages, including Irish, Babylonian, Russian, Italian, and Spanish. He sought out native speakers when possible to converse with.[26] He resigned from Claremont in June 1942.[27] Nibley's parents separated after they lost most of their money and had to sell their mansion in 1941.[28]

Nibley enlisted in the United States Army for World War II in 1942.[27] He completed weather observation school in March 1943 after he finished basic training.[29] His commanding officer recommended him for officer training, and he attended military intelligence training in the United States Army Intelligence Center in western Maryland.[30] He completed intelligence training on June 2. In August he started attending the second Order of Battle (OB) course.[31] Before leaving for Europe, he courted and proposed marriage to Anahid Iskian, but she refused.[32] Nibley became a Master Sergeant along with his fellow Order of Battle graduates.[32] After an OB training in Hyde Park Corner, he was assigned to help compile information on German officers for the June 1944 Order of Battle Book.[33] He instructed officers and other men in the 101st Airborne Division about the German Order of Battle.[34] He was part of the Utah Beach division during the D-Day invasion, and landed by glider at Eindhoven as part of Operation Market Garden.[35] Nibley gathered intelligence on German war movements from civilians, documents, and POWs.[36] He was the only survivor of OB team #5.[37] He visited Dachau concentration camp a few days after its liberation.[38]

After being discharged from the army, he went camping near Hurricane, Utah.[39] Improvement Era hired him as a managing editor, and he wrote a detailed response to Fawn M. Brodie's biography of Joseph Smith. The response, entitled No Ma'am, That's Not History positioned him as a defender of the historicity of the Book of Mormon, and impressed general authorities in the LDS Church. Dale Morgan, a historian who advised Brodie while she wrote the biography, found Nibley "intoxicated with his own language." Stanley S. Ivins criticized No Ma'am for misrepresenting Brodie. Juanita Brooks stated that Nibley's zeal caused him to "make some statements almost as far fetched as [Brodie's]."[40]

While living in Salt Lake City, Nibley improved his Russian by insisting that he and his Ukrainian roommate only speak Russian. Nibley promised to pay his roommate one cent for every mistake he made in Russian and two cents for every English word he spoke.[41]

Professor at Brigham Young University[edit]

Apostle John A. Widtsoe recommended Nibley to BYU President Howard S. McDonald, and he became a professor of religion and history at Brigham Young University in 1946.[42] He taught courses in Greek and Russian alongside Christian church history his first year.[43] He arranged for the purchase of over five hundred volumes on the early Christian church for the Harold B. Lee Library; these volumes now make up the library's Ancient Studies Reading Room. He also acquired volumes in Old Norse from the Icelandic community in Spanish Fork.[44] He was promoted to full professor in 1953.[45] Nibley considered leaving BYU to work at the University of Utah, but J. Reuben Clark proposed a few projects that Nibley could only work on at BYU. Wilkinson agreed that the university would finance two trips to university libraries per year for Nibley and Nibley stayed at BYU. However, this university did not finance two library trips a year for Nibley.[46] Nibley published in Western Political Quarterly, Western Speech, and Jewish Quarterly Review in the 1950s.[47]

For the 1959–1960 school year, Nibley taught at UC Berkeley as a visiting professor in humanities. He studied Egyptian with Klaus Baer, a brand-new faculty member. Nibley was the only student in the Coptic class after several weeks, and one of two students in the Egyptian class, which Nibley remembered as difficult.[48] UC Berkeley offered to employ him as a full professor at a higher salary than what he made at BYU. Nibley decided to stay at BYU, and requested to stop teaching language classes.[49] When Nibley returned to BYU, religion faculty were debating on whether a class on the Book or Mormon or on fundamental LDS Church doctrines should be the required religion class. The debate disillusioned Nibley, and when asked to give a prayer at the June 1960 graduation exercise, he started it by saying, "We have met here today clothes in the black robes of a false priesthood."[50] He published "The Passing of the Church: Forty Variations on an Unpopular Theme" in Church History in 1961. The article listed forty ways that the church established by Christ had fallen into apostasy. Robert M. Grant argued that Nibley had taken statements from church fathers out of context, though he admired Nibley's work. Other scholars commented on the article, but Nibley did not respond.[51] Nibley published articles in Revue de Qumran, Vigiliae Christianae, and Concilium: An International Review of Theology in 1965, 1966, and 1967, respectively.[52]

Retiring from a staff position in 1975, he continued working as a professor emeritus until 1994. He maintained a small office in the Harold B. Lee Library, working on his magnum opus, titled One Eternal Round, focusing on the hypocephalus ("Facsimile 2") in the Book of Abraham.[53]

Bedridden by illness for the last two years of his life, Nibley died on 24 February 2005 in his home in Provo, Utah at the age of 94.[1] His son Alex Nibley later edited his World War II memoirs, published in 2006. He gave the materials for his final book to FARMS in the fall of 2002, which was published in March 2010 as commemoration for what would have been his 100th birthday.[54]

Collaborations with the LDS Church[edit]

In 1957, Nibley's book An Approach to the Book of Mormon was the LDS Church's official lesson manual for Melchizedek priesthood lessons. The book drew parallels between events in the Book of Mormon and ancient Near Eastern traditions.[55] That year, Nibley received many letters with questions about religion from members who read his book. He compiled reports on various topics to answer frequently asked questions from readers and to inform general authorities.[56] After the manual was published, he was frequently gave speeches to local church congregations.[57]

Nibley published several series in the Improvement Era about the Book of Mormon for a general LDS audience. In 1954, Nibley discussed the circumstances around the early Christian apostasy in a series of thirty talks on a weekly devotional on KSL in 1954. He wrote a series for the Improvement Era on the same topic in 1955, and other series on the Jaredites and Book of Mormon criticism in the late 1950s.[47] He wrote another series on the Book of Mormon in the Improvement Era titled Since Cumorah.[58] In 1961, Nibley published The Myth Makers through Bookcraft. In the book, Nibley countered anti-Mormon assertions about Joseph Smith in the style of a classical apologist. Once again, general authorities were impressed with Nibley's writings, and when Irving Wallace's The Twenty-Seventh Wife was published, they asked Nibley to write a response. They asked university president Ernest Wilkinson to lighten Nibley's teaching load so he could have time for research; Wilkinson reported that Nibley's teaching load would be reduced to one class a semester, but faculty reports in 1963 and 1964 showed him teaching a full load of classes. Nibley enthusiastically studied historical material about Brigham Young. He published Sounding Brass: Informal Studies in the Lucrative Art of Telling Stories about Brigham Young and the Mormons, which addressed not only the claims in Wallace's book but many other claims about Brigham Young. The book includes the satirical chapter "How to Write an Anti-Mormon Book (A Handbook for Beginners)".[59]

Scholarship[edit]

Nibley, along with B. H. Roberts, is one of the most influential apologists within Mormonism, praised by Evangelical scholars Mosser and Owen.[60] Nibley's research included Egyptian, Hebrew, and early Christian histories. Often taking notes in Gregg shorthand and other languages, Nibley "insisted on reading the relevant primary and secondary sources in the original and could read Arabic, Coptic, Dutch, Egyptian, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Latin, Old Norse, Russian and other languages at sight." William J. Hamblin, a colleague at BYU, said, "Nibley's methodology consists more of comparative literature than history."[61] Douglas F. Salmon has examined in depth Nibley's comparative method, focusing on his work on Enoch.[62]

Nibley also wrote about LDS Temples, the historical Enoch, similarities between Christian Gnostic and Latter-day Saint beliefs, and what he believed to be anti-Mormon works. He wrote a brief and somewhat emotional response to Fawn M. Brodie's No Man Knows My History, titled No Ma'am, That's Not History.[63] He wrote many scholarly articles, including a widely referenced study of the Roman sparsiones.[64] His Berkeley dissertation was on Roman Festival Games. He has been published in Classical Journal, Western Political Quarterly, Western Speech, Jewish Quarterly Review, Church History, Revue de Qumran, Vigililae Christianae, The Historian, The American Political Science Review, and the Encyclopaedia Judaica. Possibly his most contentious essay was "The Passing of the Church: Forty Variations on an Unpopular Theme," from 1961.[65] He shifted from scholarly to LDS publications in the mid-sixties. He researched new translations of some significant Arabic and Egyptian words. These included: Itn - which should be globe, orb, sphere, rather than the usual "disk".[66][67][68]

Scholarly criticism[edit]

Kent P. Jackson and Ronald V. Huggins have criticized Nibley for misusing or misrepresenting sources, and poor citation,[69][70] though Shirley S. Ricks has defended Nibley on these points.[71] However, Jackson also complimented "his ability to see the big picture," and others who reviewed his works similarly stated that Nibley "does very well" in use of sources.[72]

Nibley has also been criticized for his use of evidence drawn from widely disparate cultures and time periods without proper justification.[73] Specifically, Douglas F. Salmon accuses him of "parallelomania" in his effort to connect the Book of Mormon to various ancient texts, noting:

The number of parallels that Nibley has been able to uncover from amazingly disparate and arcane sources is truly staggering. Unfortunately, there seems to be a neglect of any methodological reflection or articulation in this endeavor.[74]

Students[edit]

Notable students of Nibley include, Krešimir Ćosić, Avraham Gileadi, John Gee, Anthony E. Larson, and Benjamin Urrutia.

Personal life[edit]

Nibley met Phyllis Draper at BYU prior to teaching his first classes there. They married in September 1946[75] and had eight children.

Martha Beck's claims[edit]

Nibley's daughter Martha Beck published Leaving the Saints: How I Lost the Mormons and Found My Faith in 2005, describing her departure from the LDS Church, and claiming in 1990 she had recovered repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse by her father.[76] The allegations received national publicity.[77] Nibley had long been aware of the allegations and denied them.[78] Beck's seven siblings responded saying the accusations were false.[79][80] Boyd Petersen, Nibley's biographer and son-in-law, also rejected Beck's claims.[81] In his response to Leaving the Saint, he points out other inconsistencies and instances of hyperbole in the book.[82]

Social and political viewpoints[edit]

Nibley was an active Democrat and an ardent conservationist, often criticizing Republican policies. He was strongly opposed to the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War.[83] He authored Approaching Zion, critiquing capitalism and socialism, and endorsing the law of consecration.

Nibley was also bothered by a perceived culture the unthinking, sometimes dogmatic application of the Brigham Young University's honor code, particularly the hairstyle and dress standards.[84][85][86][85]

Nibley further criticized LDS culture for a supposed acceptance of kitsch art over high art, for sermons favoring jingle-like phrases over doctrine, and for demolishing pioneer-era structures for new construction.[87]

Publications[edit]

  1. No Ma'am That's Not History; (pamphlet, 1946)
  2. Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites; (Hardcover, 1952)
  3. The Myth Makers; (Hardcover 1961)
  4. What Is a Temple?; The Idea of the Temple in History; (pamphlet, 1963)
  5. An Approach to the Book of Mormon; (Hardcover, 1964)
  6. Since Cumorah; SBN: 87747-240-8 (Hardcover, 1967)
  7. The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri; An Egyptian Endowment; ISBN 0-87747-485-0 (Hardcover, 1975)
  8. Nibley on the Timely and the Timeless; Classic Essays of Hugh W. Nibley; ISBN 0-88494-338-0 (Hardcover, 1978)
  9. Abraham in Egypt; ISBN 0-87747-865-1 (Hardcover, 1981)
  10. Old Testament and Related Studies; ISBN 0-87579-032-1 (Hardcover, 1986)
  11. Enoch the Prophet; ISBN 0-87579-047-X (Hardcover, 1986)
  12. The World and the Prophets; ISBN 0-87579-078-X (Hardcover, 1987)
  13. Mormonism and Early Christianity; ISBN 0-87579-127-1 (Hardcover, 1987)
  14. Lehi in the Desert/The World of the Jaredites/There Were Jaredites; ISBN 0-87579-132-8 (Hardcover, 1988)
  15. An Approach to the Book of Mormon; ISBN 0-87579-138-7 (Hardcover, 1988)
  16. Since Cumorah; ISBN 0-87579-139-5 (Hardcover, 1988)
  17. The Prophetic Book of Mormon; ISBN 0-87579-179-4 (Hardcover, 1989)
  18. Approaching Zion; ISBN 0-87579-252-9 (Hardcover, 1989)
  19. Ancient State: The Rulers & the Ruled; ISBN 0-87579-375-4 (Hardcover, 1991)
  20. Tinkling Cymbals and Sounding Brass: The Art of Telling Tales about Joseph Smith and Brigham Young; ISBN 0-87579-516-1 (Hardcover, 1991) (includes No, Ma'am, That's Not History)
  21. Temple and Cosmos: Beyond This Ignorant Present; ISBN 0-87579-523-4 (Hardcover, 1992)
  22. Brother Brigham Challenges the Saints; ISBN 0-87579-818-7 (Hardcover, 1994)
  23. Abraham in Egypt; ISBN 1-57345-527-X (Hardcover, 2000)
  24. Apostles and Bishops in Early Christianity; ISBN 1-59038-389-3 (Hardcover, 2005)
  25. The Message of Joseph Smith Papyri: An Egyptian Endowment; ISBN 1-59038-539-X (Hardcover, 2006)
  26. Eloquent Witness: Nibley on Himself, Others, and the Temple; ISBN 1-60641-003-2 (Hardcover, 2008)
  27. An Approach to the Book of Abraham; ISBN 1-60641-054-7 (Hardcover, 2009)
  28. One Eternal Round; ISBN 1-60641-237-X (Hardcover, 2010)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Moore, Carrie A. (February 26, 2005). "Revered LDS scholar Hugh Nibley dies at 94". Deseret Morning News. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
  2. ^ Moore, Carrie A. (2005-02-25). "Revered LDS scholar Hugh Nibley dies at 94". DeseretNews.com. Retrieved 2016-10-15.
  3. ^ "Obituary: Hugh W. Nibley". Deseret News. February 28, 2005. Retrieved 2014-08-28.
  4. ^ Peterseon 2002, pp. 12–13.
  5. ^ Jenson, Andrew. LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, Vol 4, p. 355; 193
  6. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 19.
  7. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 26–29.
  8. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 49–50.
  9. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 52–54; 412.
  10. ^ Petersen, p. 60.
  11. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 52–54.
  12. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 61.
  13. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 55–56.
  14. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 60.
  15. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 64.
  16. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 85.
  17. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 87; 412.
  18. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 88.
  19. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 95.
  20. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 105–108.
  21. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 108–110.
  22. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 112–114.
  23. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 117.
  24. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 136.
  25. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 138–139.
  26. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 140–142.
  27. ^ a b Petersen 2002, p. 147.
  28. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 144–145.
  29. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 171–172.
  30. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 172–173.
  31. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 178–179.
  32. ^ a b Petersen 2002, p. 180.
  33. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 187–188.
  34. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 189–190.
  35. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 193–199.
  36. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 200.
  37. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 202.
  38. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 203–204.
  39. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 223.
  40. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 225–227.
  41. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 228–227.
  42. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 229–231.
  43. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 236.
  44. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 239.
  45. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 271.
  46. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 273–274.
  47. ^ a b Petersen 2002, pp. 263–264.
  48. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 289–290.
  49. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 291–292.
  50. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 293.
  51. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 296–297.
  52. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 299.
  53. ^ Nibley, Alex, "Sergeant Nibley PhD: Memories of an Unlikely Screaming Eagle". Salt Lake City: Shadow Mountain, 2006. ISBN 1-57345-845-7.
  54. ^ "Contributions Sought for Completion of the Collected Works of Hugh Nibley" Insights, Volume 27, Issue 2. Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute
  55. ^ Welch, John W. (April 1985). "Hugh Nibley and the Book of Mormon". Ensign.
  56. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 263.
  57. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 265.
  58. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 296.
  59. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 298–299.
  60. ^ "FARMS Review of Books 11/2 (1999)". Retrieved 2016-10-15.
  61. ^ Hamblin, William J. (1990) "Time Vindicates Hugh Nibley Archived 2006-09-05 at the Wayback Machine.". FARMS Review of Books. Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute. Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 119-127.
  62. ^ Salmon, Douglas F. "Parallelomania and the Study of Latter-day Scripture: Confirmation, Coincidence, or the Collective Unconscious?" Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. Salt Lake City, Utah. Summer 2000. Volume 33, Number 2, pp. 129-156.
  63. ^ Nibley, Hugh W., No, Ma'am, That's Not History, Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute
  64. ^ Nibley, Hugh, "Sparsiones," The Classical Journal 40.9 (Jun., 1945), 515-543
  65. ^ Louis Midgley, "Hugh Winder Nibley: Bibliography and Register," in By Study and Also by Faith: Essays in Honor of Hugh W. Nibley, ed. John M. Lundquist and Stephen D. Ricks (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1990), 1:xv—lxxxvii.
  66. ^ Dr. Hugh Nibley, class lecture notes, Brigham Young University, 1969–72.
  67. ^ Since Cumorah (1988), ISBN 0-87579-139-5 - page 214
  68. ^ Benjamin Urrutia, "The Name Connection," New Era, June 1983, 39
  69. ^ Kent P. Jackson, "Review of Hugh Nibley, Old Testament and Related Studies," BYU Studies 28 no. 4 (1988): 115-17
  70. ^ Ronald V. Huggins, "Hugh Nibley's Footnotes," Salt Lake City Messenger no. 110 (May 2008): 9-21.
  71. ^ Riks, Shirley. "A Sure Foundation". Retrieved 11 Jan 2016.
  72. ^ "Hugh Nibley/Footnotes". FairMormon.org. FairMormon. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  73. ^ Olson's review of Nibley's Abraham in Egypt in Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 15.4 (1982), 123-125.
  74. ^ Salmon, Douglas F., "Parallelomania and the Study of Latter-day Saint Scripture: Confirmation, Coincidence, or the Collective Unconscious?", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Volume 33, Number 2, Summer 2000, pg. 129, 131.
  75. ^ Petersen 2002, pp. 235.
  76. ^ Wyatt, Edward (2005-02-24). "A Mormon Daughter's Book Stirs a Storm". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
  77. ^ "Daughter's Denunciation of Historian Roils Mormon Church". The Washington Post. 2005-05-09. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
    "Memoir details alleged sex abuse in Mormon home". Daily Herald (Utah). 2005-03-12. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
    "Saint Misbehavin'". Phoenix New Times. 2005-04-21. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
  78. ^ "Rebel Mormon's memoir ignites a furor". The Salt Lake Tribune. 2005-02-05. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
  79. ^ "Nibley Family's Response to Martha Beck's Leaving the Saints". Brigham Young University. 2005. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
  80. ^ Lythgoe, Dennis (2005-02-05). "Nibley siblings outraged over sister's book". Deseret News. Retrieved 2007-04-24. (Reactions of individual siblings)
  81. ^ Petersen 2002, p. 400–401.
  82. ^ Petersen, Boyd (2005), Response to Leaving the Saints, Maxwell Institute of Religion
  83. ^ Petersen 2002.
  84. ^ Waterman, Brian and Kagel, Brian Kagel. The Lord's University: Freedom and Authority at BYU. Signature Books. 1998. ISBN 1-56085-117-1[page needed]
  85. ^ a b Hugh Nibley Approaching Zion. The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, Vol 9. Deseret Book Co. 1998. ISBN 0875792529. Page 54, 57.
  86. ^ Hugh Nibley What is Zion? A Distant View. http://emp.byui.edu/wightmang/Select_quotes/ZionRiches.htm
  87. ^ Nibley, Hugh (1983-08-19). "Leaders and Managers". Speeches. Brigham Young University. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-14. If the management does not go for Bach, very well, there will be no Bach in the meeting; if management favors vile, sentimental doggerel verse extolling the qualities that make for success, young people everywhere will be spouting long trade-journal jingles from the stand; if the management's taste in art is what will sell—trite, insipid, folksy kitsch—that is what we will get; if management finds maudlin, saccharine commercials appealing, that is what the public will get; if management must reflect the corporate image in tasteless, trendy new buildings, down come the fine old pioneer monuments.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]