Hugh de Courtenay, 9th Earl of Devon
|Hugh de Courtenay, 9th Earl of Devon|
|Spouse(s)||Agnes de Saint John|
|Father||Sir Hugh de Courtenay|
|Mother||Eleanor le Despenser|
|Born||14 September 1276|
|Died||23 December 1340
Hugh de Courtenay (14 September 1276 – 23 December 1340) was the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (d. 28 February 1292) of Okehampton and Eleanor le Despenser (d. 30 September 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester. Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Fortibus, Countess of Devon, letters patent were issued dated 22 February 1335 declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'.
Hugh de Courtenay was born 14 September 1276, the son of Sir Hugh de Courtenay (d. 28 February 1292) of Okehampton by Eleanor le Despenser (d. 30 September 1328), sister of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester, an important adviser to King Edward II. He was the grandson of John de Courtenay (died c. 3 May 1274) of Okehampton by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. John's father, Robert de Courtenay (d.1242), the son of Reginald de Courtenay (d.1190) by Hawise de Curci (d.1219), the heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton), had married Mary de Redvers (sometimes called "de Vernon"), the daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon (d.1217).
On 28 February 1292, about the time of his marriage, Hugh succeeded to the Okehampton estate and to those de Redvers estates that had not yet been alienated to the Crown. He may then have been styled Earl of Devon, the first of the Courtenay family, although was not recognised in the de facto Earldom until 1333.
Campaign against Scotland, 1297–1300
He did homage to Edward I on 20 June 1297 and was granted his own livery. At the time the King was with his army crossing the Tweed into Scotland. It is probable that the honour was in acknowledgement of Hugh's military achievements. That July the English defeated and humiliated the Scots at Irvine. However the following year the tables were turned on the advent of the remarkable campaign of William Wallace.
The following February 6, 1298 he was summoned as a Lord in Parliament, and sat throughout the reign of Edward II and into the Mortimer Regency for Edward's son. He remained an important noble at Parliaments into the reign of Edward III. He was summoned as Hugoni de Curtenay with the confusing suffix of senior being known as Lord Courtenay.
Courtenay joined King Edward at the long siege of Caerlaverock Castle, just over the Solway Firth for a fortnight in July 1300. He proved himself a fine soldier and loyal adherent to the English crown. He had not been present at the disastrous encounter outside Stirling Castle in 1298, during which half the English contingent were killed, including commander Hugh Cressingham. But Edward was determined to march into Ayrshire to devastate Robert Bruce's estates. Unfortunately the English army melted away into the forests as the army moved further northwards. Courtenay may have been with the English King when he sat down in Sweetheart Abbey to receive Robert Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury who had travelled north with a demanding missive from Pope Boniface to cease hostilities. The King could not ignore this order. In September he disbanded troops and withdrew over the Solway Firth to Carlisle. The campaign had failed due to a shortage of money, so Parliament was recalled for January 1301. Before returning to London the English drew up a six months truce.
Parliament of 1301
Parliament met at Lincoln. The agenda included redrafting the Royal Forest Charter, which had no precedent since it was first introduced in the reign of Henry II, 150 years earlier. Local juries were expected to "perambulate the forests" to gather evidence. But the King needed money and was required by Parliament to surrender his absolute authority and ownership of what became community forests.
Campaigns against Scotland, 1301–1308
In 1306 the Prince of Wales was despatched into Scotland; the vanguard led by Aymer de Valence, the King's half uncle. On 22 May, Courtenay was knighted by the Prince, presumably for his efforts against the Scots. In June the English occupied Perth. On 19 June, Valence, who had cut a swathe through the Lowlands fell on the Scots army at Methven in the early dawn. The Bruce fled into the hills. Edward I was merciless as many prisoners were punished. That autumn the army returned to Hexham. The war was all but over: there were however sieges at Mull of Kintyre and Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire. Edward I committed many atrocities rounding up the Scots aristocracy and their women.
Then as Robert Bruce returned from exile in Ireland the English army started losing battles. The ailing King had one last campaign in which Courtenay played a major part. Struggling into the saddle to the Solway Firth, Edward I died at Burgh-on-Sands awaiting a crossing. In 1308 a new campaign was sent to quell Robert Bruce, and Courtenay was made a knight banneret, one of the King's elite household.
During the reign of Edward II he was made a Lord Ordainer, one of the ruling council in the Lords. He was appointed to the King's Council on 9 Augustus 1318. He was appointed the Warden of the coast of Devon and Cornwall in 1324 and then again in 1336, because his estates stretched across what is now Exmoor and Dartmoor. But he took the honours reluctantly and played a guarded game with King and Parliament. A veteran campaigner he aimed to ingratiate himself with the young Edward III, and so refused the Third Penny from the Exchequer. He was investigated; and on 22 February 1335 elevated to the Earldom of Devon, restored to his ancestral line.
Forty-one years after the death of his cousin, Isabel de Fortibus, Countess of Devon, letters patent were issued dated 22 February 1335 declaring him Earl of Devon, and stating that he 'should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do'. He was the 9th Earl of Devon, but the first in the Courtenay line.
Marriage & progeny
- John Courtenay (1300—1349), Prior of Lewes and Abbot of Tavistock.
- Hugh de Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon, who married Margaret de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford by Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile.
- Robert Courtenay (1309—1334), of Moreton
- Sir Thomas Courtenay (1311 — c. 1362), who married Muriel de Moels, daughter of Sir John, 4th Baron Moels.
- Eleanor Courtenay (c. 1309, Wootton, Devon — c. 1330), who married John de Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Codnor.
- Elizabeth Courtenay (c. 1313 — ?), who married Bartholomew de Lisle.
Death & burial
- Cokayne, George Edward (1916). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday IV. London: St. Catherine Press.
- "History of Parliament, 1386–1402", Parliamentary Trust, vol.II, A-C.
- Morris, Marc (2008) A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the forging of Britain. London: Hutchinson
- Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham I (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966373