|Created by||Ivan Sølvason and Niels Krogh Mortensen|
|Original work||Hugo (game show)|
Hugo i de Afskyelige Labyrinter |
Hugo: Troll Story (Poland)
Cadı Sila'ya Karşı (Turkey)
Hugo (Germany) |
Hugo Haftalık Çizgi Dergisi (Turkey)
A jugar con Hugo (Argentina)
Świat Przygód z Hugo (Poland)
|Films and television|
Hugo and the Diamond Moon (cancelled) |
Hugo – The World's Worst Comeback (seemingly cancelled)
|Television series||Hugo Safari|
|Musical(s)||The Magical Kingdom of Hugo|
Hugo series |
Hugo Rap! & Hugo Er En Skærmtrold (Denmark) |
Hugo the TV troll (skærmtrolden Hugo in Danish) is an international media franchise. The franchise was created by the Danish company Interactive Television Entertainment (ITE) in 1990 for the purpose of interactive television for children. It is based on the fictional character of Hugo, a friendly, small Scandinavian folklore troll fighting against evil, often to save his family. Since its premiere in 1990, the Hugo game show has been aired in more than 40 countries, spawning dozens of video games for various platforms. Hugo also spawned other merchandise, including dedicated magazines. As of 2012, the commercial parts of the franchise consist mostly of mobile games being published by the German company Hugo Games. An animated feature film is currently in development.
- 1 Content
- 2 History
- 3 Video game adaptations
- 4 Feature film adaptations
- 5 Theatrical and television spin-offs
- 6 Other media
- 7 Merchandise
- 8 Reception
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The show is set in contemporary fantasy universe. The franchise's titular protagonist Hugo is a one-meter-tall troll living in "troll forest" located somewhere in Scandinavia. Hugo's family includes his beloved wife Hugolina (Hugoline in the original Danish version) and their kids Rit (TrolleRit), Rat (TrolleRat) and Rut (TrolleRut). The main antagonist is the ancient evil witch named Scylla (Afskylia), who has had a grudge against the trolls for centuries. Scylla often kidnaps Hugo's family because she needs their presence to restore and keep her youth and beauty. The later-added characters are mostly non-human cartoon-like creatures and anthropomorphic animals, including Hugo's friends (such as Fernando the toucan and Jean Paul the chimpanzee) and more of Hugo's enemies, including Scylla's minions (chiefly her henchman Don Croco, a humanoid crocodile).
In 2001, a beaver minor enemy character received its own spin-off show, titled Stinky & Stomper. In the 2005 science fiction reboot Agent Hugo, Hugo became a futuristic James Bond-parody special agent as an employee of the organization R.I.S.K. to fight against high-tech enemies such as mad scientists and robots.
The idea for an interactive video game TV show was conceived in 1987 by Ivan Sølvason, founder of SilverRock Productions, former editor-in-chief of COMPuter magazine and creator of the interactive TV programs OsWALD and Super OsWALD, made for Nordisk Film's TV2 Denmark in 1988, and Niels Krogh Mortensen, an animator. Sølvason's small company SilverRock Productions, which was later renamed as Interactive Television Entertainment (ITE) ApS in 1992, developed the character of Hugo as well as the designated, custom-built computer hardware system that would convert telephone signals into remotely control the characters in the game and allow the interaction of the audience and the TV action without delay. Sølvason and Krogh Mortensen created the concept of "Hugo the TV troll" and the Hugo TV program targeted for the children audience between the ages of four to 14 was launched in September 1990.
Hugo was invented by Krogh Mortensen while he was biking to his grandmother from Hellerup to Gladsaxe in the spring of 1990. The character Hugo was originally supposed to be called Max, but the producer of Eleva2ren, John Berger, insisted on the name Hugo, forcing ITE to change the name and logo about one week before the premiere. The new name caused trademark problems, because it was already registered in most European countries by Hugo Boss, while ITE A/S were first in Denmark and Portugal and could potentially stop Hugo Boss from launching any products in these markets. Eventually, both companies made a coexistence agreement with the help of the ITE in-house lawyer Nina Wium. ITE also fought hard against any attempt to abuse the Hugo's "good name and reputation", resulting in more than 170 lawsuits against German producers and advertisers.
The programs were licensed for more than 40 (43 as of 2007) TV shows around the world, tailored to individual markets. Many of more than half billion viewers believed that the program is native to their countries, as Hugo spoke Danish only in Denmark. On German-language kabel eins, there was also a spin-off show titled Hexana-Schloss ("Hexana's [Scylla's] Castle"). A more advanced show Hugo: Jungle Island (Hugo Vulkanøen) premiered in January 1999. Some German Hugo items were released exclusively for the fanclub Den Faktyrlige Bogklub (Hugo's Book Club), which was established in co-operation with the German publisher Carlsen Verlag in 1999. A "giant" Hugo theme park also has been considered at one point circa 2000.
At first, Niels Krogh Mortensen was doing all of the graphics and animation, using Deluxe Paint on an Amiga computer. His brother, Lars Krogh Mortensen, later assisted him. They were later joined by Torben B. Larsen, Jonas Fromm, Claus Friese, Anders Morgenthaler, Jakob Steffensen, Jonas Raagaard, Stephen Meldal Foged, Martin Ciborowski, Ulla Gram Larsen, and many other 2D and 3D artists; eventually, over 100 people were working on developing Hugo for ITE. Niels Krogh Mortensen worked on Hugo between 1990 and 1998. During this time he usually directed and managed the projects; he also created storyboards and drew graphics. The Krogh Mortensen brothers and Jakob Steffensen left ITE in 1997 and founded their own company, Krogh Mortensen Animation A/S (KMA). KMA was later contracted to animate several more Hugo games.
In 2002, Sølvason sold ITE to the venture capital company Olicom A/S; Olicom then invested $22 million into the company, reduced the staff of ITE by a third to 60 employees and attempted to expand more into the U.S., UK, and Asian markets. Olicom in turn sold ITE in 2006, by then staffed by only 35 employees, to NDS Group, where it became NDS Denmark.
Hugo copyrights were acquired by the German game publisher Krea Medie A/S, a part of the media company Kraemedie. New Hugo owner Henrik Kølle stated in October 2012 that Hugo Games A/S "is happy that the traditional Hugo countries, where Hugo was aired in the '90s, still love Hugo and seemingly can’t get enough of him. [...] Angry Birds have shown us the way here, so now we are hard at work on, among other things, a film project, exciting licensing deals for toys and finally we hope to release another Hugo game in time for summer 2013." On 28 November 2012, Krea Medie was acquired by Egmont Group, but Hugo Games and the rights to Hugo were not part of the sale agreement with Egmont. A possible new Hugo live show was hinted in July 2014. Hugo Games is owned and managed by Henry Mallet, and was valued at DKK 56 million and generating an annual income of about DKK 10 million as estimated in September 2014 when the company was listed for investment as HUGO NewHold ApS.
Video game adaptations
Niels Krogh Mortensen and his brother Lars directed more than 30 Hugo games that sold more than 10 million copies, including over three million in Germany alone. The games were released for multiple platforms, including personal computers, game consoles and mobile phones, not counting numerous small browser games (first of which was released in 1996). Most of the tiles are the platform games or minigame compilations, but there are also several educational games. Distributors and partners included Egmont Interactive, Electronic Arts and Namco.
The first title in the long-running series of Hugo games was created in 1991 for the Commodore 64, followed by the games for the Amiga, PC (DOS and Microsoft Windows), Game Boy and PlayStation. The first 3D platform game (Hugo: Quest for the Sunstones) was published in 2000. In the early games Hugo attempts to free his family from the villainess Scylla in the same scenarios as the TV show. In the later games he usually foils her revenge plots and schemes to gain supreme powers. However, several of the games do not feature her at all. In some of them, Hugo's family members, friends or sometimes even enemies (in the multiplayer games) are featured as playable characters. In 2005, Hugo was rebranded as Agent Hugo for a new series of four 3D platform games.
Krea Medie games
In 2009, the new publisher, Krea Medie, released a complete reboot game Hugo – Magic in the Trollwoods (Hugo – Magi i Troldeskoven) with no connection with neither any of the Hugo show characters or the Agent Hugo series, featuring Hugo as a troll magician-in-training. It became the only game listed on the games' official website, all the previous content having been entirely removed.
In 2010, however, Krea released a game-making program that featured an original version of Hugo and the other classic characters. In 2011, the company's new owner Henrik Kølle said he hopes that release of a new video game would be "one of many exciting steps towards the new Hugo rise as a global brand." Krea has seemingly abandoned an idea of the reboot (which got removed from the official website) and successfully returned to the original version of the franchise with Hugo Retro Mania, featuring the original version of Hugo and a classic scenario of rescuing his family captured by Scylla the witch (renamed as "Sculla" in the English version). According to Krea's Henrik Kølle, "For the first time since acquiring Hugo, [Krea Medie] have developed a project tailored to Hugo". The task of developing new games was given to the specially created studio Hugo Games A/S. A 2015 game Ronaldo & Hugo: Superstar Skaters guest starred top footballer Cristiano Ronaldo.
Feature film adaptations
Hugo and the Diamond Moon (cancelled)
A canceled CGI-animated film titled Hugo and the Diamond Moon was planned in 1999 to be released at the end of 2002. Its budget was set at around 100 million DKK which at that time amounted to $12–20 million. It was written and expected to be directed by the Disney and Pixar veteran animator and musician Jørgen Klubien, and was storyboarded with over 8,000 sketches by Frank Madsen, Jørgen Klubien, Mike Cachuela and Mads Themberg. David Filskov, who did sound effects for Hugo for years, was on the film project as well. According to ITE's CEO, Jesper Helbrandt, they wanted to make a Hugo animated film for years. It was planned that the release of the film would be accompanied by a range of tie-in products, including toys and video games.
In the film, Hugo and his grandfather were supposed to "travel to a diamond moon" and the storyboards showed Hugo battling Scylla in space. The plot premise was described by Helbrandt as following: "Afskyelia [Scylla] have obtained a way to threaten Hugo and his forest friends. Therefore Hugo has to do something, and when he discovers a moon behind the moon we know today, he will set forth. Afskyelia chases after him. But I promise you, that unfortunately for her, the story is to end happily." The movie's basic plot premise resembles the educational game Hugo in Space, which was released in 2003, one year after the planned release of the movie. In this game, she plans to extract the rare magical black diamonds (first introduced in an action game Hugo: Black Diamond Fever in 2002) from an asteroid's core and become the most powerful witch of all time.
Hugo – The World's Worst Comeback
A new CGI film by Einstein Film (Ronal the Barbarian) and Anima Vitae (The Flight Before Christmas, Little Brother, Big Trouble: A Christmas Adventure) is currently in development and was officially announced when its teaser trailer was published on 20 February 2013. It is produced by Petteri Pasanen and Trine Heidegaard, directed by Philip Einstein Lipski and Mikko Pitkänen, and written by Tim John and Timo Turunen. Finnish film foundation SES gave 50,000 Euro for the project. It was also given development support from Creative Europe. The film is to start production in 2014 and its planned release date was 2016 but it was delayed.
Its plot premise is as follows: "A former TV-game show star, Hugo, now a hotel janitor and a single dad, gets lured into a comeback. His daughter, first enthralled by a celeb-dad, soon finds herself abandoned and to get her dad back home enters Hugo’s new show. Meanwhile Hugo’s old archenemy, the mountain troll Fredo, steals Hugo’s place in the show. Hugo’s daughter ends up fighting the raging mountain troll disguised as her dad on live TV, forcing Hugo to his ultimate quest: how to get rid of fame and save his daughter." Scylla will also have a part in the movie.
Theatrical and television spin-offs
- In 1996, a theatrical musical The Magical Kingdom of Hugo (הממלכה הקסומה של הוגו) was played in Tel Aviv, Israel, telling a story of a group of kids who were sucked into the television screen and summoned directly to Hugo's world, Trollandia, by the witch Griselda (גריזלדה, an Israeli name for Scylla). A recording of it was also commercially released on VHS in 1997, and a CD with the songs from the musical was released too.
- A Turkish theatrical adaptation for children ages 3–6 titled Hugo ve Tolga Abi Cadı Sila`ya Karşı ("Hugo and Tolga Against the Witch Scylla") was played in Istanbul in 2004-2005. Scylla (Sila) was played by Eda Özdemir.
A children's animated documentary series Hugo Safari was produced in 1999–2000, directed by Elsa Søby. It consists of three seasons wherein each contains seven episodes. The series was aired in several countries and was also released in home media by ITE on the DVD. Krae later released some of the episodes for free on the Internet and others for purchase as an iPhone/iPad application.
The characters of Hugo were also a subject of dedicated periodical magazines, such as Hugo News in Germany (1999–2003), A jugar con Hugo in Argentina (1995–2006), the weekly Haftalık Hugo in Turkey, and the monthly Świat Przygód z Hugo in Poland (2003–2010, along with its coloring book offshoot magazine Baw Się i Koloruj z Hugo).
Hugo music includes:
- Two German dance and hip hop albums released in 1990–1991, Hugo Rap! and Hugo Er En Skærmtrold.
- Charity album by various artists, DJ Hugo, released in Finland in 1993; it included Ace of Base ("Young and Proud"), DJ Bobo's ("Keep on Dancing!") and Double You ("Who's Fooling Who").
- Polish album Hugo i Przyjaciele Śpiewają Piosenki released in 2002. To promote Hugo video games, their Polish distributor Cenega Poland organized a concert tournee of Hugo together with Bartek Wrona of the boysband Just 5.
Numerous music album compilations by various artists saw a release in Germany during the mid-1990s, including Hugo Rap: Der Song Zur Interaktiven Gameshow (pop rap, 1994) and Hoppla Hugo (euro house, 1995); Hugo & The Witch – I Know It's Heaven (house, progressive trance, garage house, 1995); Hugo feat. Judith: Show me the Way (euro house, 1996); Hugo's Mega Dance (techno, euro house, euro pop, 1994), Hugo's Mega Dance 2 (techno, euro house, happy hardcore, hip hop, 1995), Hugo's Mega Dance '96 (techno, house, euro pop, 1996), Hugo's Mega Dance '96 – Frühlings-Hits (techno, euro house, happy hardcore, hip hop, 1996), Hugo's Mega Dance '96 – Die Dritte (techno, euro house, happy hardcore, hip hop, 1996), Hugo's Mega Dance '97 (techno, euro house, hip hop, synth-pop, 1997), and Hugo's Mega Dance '97 – Frühlings-Hits.
There is an Israeli comic book series Hugo and a Polish series of children's booklets Troll Story. There is also a Turkish audio story book (an audio book cassette released with an emulated children's book) Hugo: Cadı Sila'ya Karşı and a German Christmas story audio book Hugo og det Fortryllede Agern ("Hugo and the Enchanted Acorn").
- In the native country of the franchise, Denmark, the ITE-licensed merchandise included food products (such as ice cream and candy), as well as various other merchandise like puzzles, watches, backpacks, sticker books and activity books. The latter included the picture book Hugo i de afskyelige labyrinter (an adaptation of the original game) and a puzzle book Hugo i de fantastiske labyrinter (a loose adaptation of the video game Hugo: Cannon Cruise).
- Hugo merchandise in Germany included clothing items (T-shirts, sweathsirts, hoodies, socks), plush dolls (of Hugo and his family), PVC figures (of Hugo, his family, Fernando and Scylla), and posters.
- Hugo merchandise in Poland included various food products (such as chocolate bars by Groupe Danone, potato chips by Lorenz Snack-World, and juice drinks by SokPol), activity book series Księga Labiryntów Hugo, and various CD-ROMs (audio, graphics, minigames).
- Hugo merchandise in other countries included student kits in Israel and toys in Israel, vitamin drinks, tea, T-shirts, pins, candy and puzzles in Slovenia, a music cassette and sticker albums in Chile, the board game Hugo in Sweden, etc.
In the first Krea Medie / Hugo Games merchandise, Adimex released a line of Hugo Troll Race themed bath products in 2013. That same year, Hugo Games negotiated a new partnership with the Nordic games company Tactic for a full line of products including coloring books, activity books, sticker books and puzzles for Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden to come out in 2013 and 2014; the line is based on classic Hugo artworks. Also in 2014, Hugo themed biscuits were released by German company Karen Volf, based on the new games, and YOUNiik launched a shop with Hugo cover and case designs. A Hugo themed slot game was released in 2016.
The program won awards for a best entertainment show in eight countries, including the Golden Cable award for the best children's program in 1995 in Germany, a title for best rated children's show of all time in 1996 in Sweden, a 1999 Troféu Nova Gente award in Portugal, the TV Presenter of the Year award in 2001 and the Oireachtas TV Personality of the Year in 2004 Ireland, and Argentine's Martín Fierro Awards' Best Kids Show 2003. Hugo game sales exceeded 6 million copies by 2001 and 8.5 million copies by 2005. In 2012, mobile game Hugo Troll Race "has beaten all records when it comes to German game sales" by selling more than 1 million copies worldwide in just three days as "the fastest selling German game on the App Store of all time, and currently the most downloaded app in 25 countries."
In 2001, a 20-meter high effigy of Afskylia (Scylla) entered the Guinness Book of Records as the biggest witch dummy ever burnt at Sankt Hans (German Midsummer festival). In 2009, the Hugo franchise was selected to be a central part of German digital heritage exhibit at the Royal German Library. Vietnam Idol contestant Đức Anh Hugo (born Lê Đức Anh) changed his name after Hugo, as did the Vietnamese presenter, actress, singer and businesswoman Thanh Vân Hugo (born Thanh Vân), while the singer Uyên Linh's nickname Simla came from the Vietnamese name of Scylla.
- (in Danish) Hugos far bortadopterer tv-trolden, ComON, 16 July 2002.
- (in Danish) Mette Kühnell Petersen, Skærmtrolden Hugo _ Hvor blev han af?, TV 2 Programmer, 14 July 2012.
- "ITE Hugo". Web.archive.org. 1997-02-14. Archived from the original on 1997-02-14. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- Nico Schimmelpfennig. "Charaktere" (in German). Hugo-troll.de. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "Tom Westermann's portfolio". Westermann.se. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Agent Hugo". Web.archive.org. 2006-04-12. Archived from the original on 2006-04-12. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- "Årsrapport 2000/2001" (PDF) (in Danish). Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Nico Schimmelpfennig. "Firma Historie". Hugo-troll.de. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- Nico Schimmelpfennig. "Backstage – Hinter den Kulissen" (in German). Hugo-troll.de. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Hugo – an international, interactive TV star! (2001 ITE press release)
- "Krogh Mortensen Animation – Studio profile". Animation.dk. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- [dead link]
- "Hugo Jungle Island". Ite.dk. Archived from the original on 18 February 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- (in Danish) Hugos far er umulig at slå ud, Erhvervsbladet.dk, 5 September 2007.
- "Hugo Games raises $4 million for marketing new Hugo the troll games | Pocket Gamer.biz | PGbiz". Pocket Gamer.biz. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- (in Danish) Bjørn Schiønning, 20 år gamle Hugo hitter i udlandet, dr.dk, 21 December 2011.
- Nico Schimmelpfennig. "Julia Haacke (alias Hexana)" (in German). Hugo-troll.de. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "Interactive Television Entertainment". Web.archive.org. 2001-04-29. Archived from the original on 29 April 2001. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- "Den faktyrlige bogklub". Web.archive.org. 2005-02-03. Archived from the original on 3 February 2005. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- ITE milestones (2001 ITE release)
- Torben B. Larsen, Cope-Com – Developer and Publisher
- German Game Museum, Hugo på nye Eventyr.
- Hall of Light, Hugo på nye eventyr del2.
- "Jonas Fromm | Design". Fromm.dk. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- "claus friese . dk". Web.archive.org. 2005-03-12. Archived from the original on 12 April 2008. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- "Anders Morgenthaler – dr.dk/Tema/Tegneserier" (in Danish). Dr.dk. 18 January 2007. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- (in Danish) 40 i dag Uden for pædagogisk rækkevidde?, politiken.dk, 5 December 2012
- "3D Gallery". Computeranimation.dk. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- (in Danish) Entusiaster genskaber dansk spilklassiker, Computerworld, 10 August 2005.
- "Hugo Games – Portfolio". 3d.meldalfoged.dk. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- (in Danish) Casper Thomsen, Bag visitkortet: 3D-grafiker, Computerworld, 6 May 2004.
- "Mød Ulla | Virgil Kommunikation". Virgil.dk. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- [dead link]
- (in Danish) Reuters, Olicom tredoblede tab efter nedskrivning på portefølje, Euroinvestor.com, 28 August 2002.
- (in Danish) Søren Dietrichsen, Tv-trolden Hugo på nye eventyr i USA, Erhvervsbladet.dk, 4 September 2002.
- (in Danish) Søren Dietrichsen, Tv-trold overlever turbulent ejerskifte, Erhvervsbladet.dk, 26 June 2006
- NDS acquires German game design company ITE, PresseBox, 2 October 2006.
- "Online". germangameindustry.com. Retrieved 17 September 2012.[dead link]
- Mats Nylund, German Hugo the Troll an unprecedented success, MCV Nordic, 16 October 2012.
- (in Danish) Eva Obelitz Rode, Egmont køber Pixeline, business.dk, 28 November 2012.
- (in Danish) Mads Klougart, Silkeborg-firma solgt til medie-gigant, MJA.DK, 28 November 2012.
- "Hugo - Timeline Photos - Facebook". Facebook.com. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- "Skærmtrolden Hugo skal børsnoteres". www.business.dk. 1 September 2014.
- (in Danish) John G. Pedersen, Mobilspil med Hugo populært, Mobilsiden.dk, 1 March 2004.
- Nico Schimmelpfennig. "Spielen & Lernen" (in German). Hugo-troll.de. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Beth Winegarner, Namco, ITE bring two Hugo titles to the GBA, GameSpot, 18 January 2005.
- "Skærmtrolden Hugo – Lemon – Commodore 64". Lemon64.com. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Nico Schimmelpfennig. "Das Geheimnis des Kikurianischen Sonnensteins" (in German). Hugo-troll.de. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Nico Schimmelpfennig. "Agent Hugo" (in German). Hugo-troll.de. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "Hugo: Magic In The Troll Woods". GameSpot.com. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- (in Danish) 20 børnespil til ønskelisten, Fyens.dk, 10 December 2009.
- Nico Schimmelpfennig. "Hugo Spielewerkstatt". Hugo-troll.de. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- "Henrik Kolle acquires Krea Medie from Gyldendal – 2010/09/02 – Datamonitor Mergers and Acquisitions". AlacraStore.com. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- (in Spanish) HUGO, el primer juego interactivo de la historia de la televisión ha vuelto Archived 5 February 2013 at Archive.is, VirTual Gamers, 19 December 2011.
- (in Danish) Thomas Vigild, Skærmtrolden Hugo vender tilbage Archived 4 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Politiken.dk, 3 November 2011.
- (in Danish) Jesper Krogh Kristiansen, Seniortrold storsælger på iPhone og iPad, Eurogamer.dk, 21 December 2011.
- (in Danish) Peter Roelsgaard, Skærmtrold stryger til tops, Ekstra Bladet, 3 November 2011.
- "English – Hugo Retro Mania". Hugo-net.com. 27 June 2012. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Martin, Liam. "Cristiano Ronaldo teams with unlikely ally in new skating game for mobiles - Gaming News". Digital Spy. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- (in Danish) Søren Anker Madsen, Hugo går til filmen, www.b.dk, 7 October 1999.
- (in Polish) Hugo Polska: Historia Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine., hugopolska.pl
- Virginia Robertson (1 November 1999). "ITE makes feature foray with Hugo". Kidscreen.com. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- (in Danish) Jesper Pedersen, En helt, en ven og et sjovt dyr, Ruderstal Avis, 5 June 2008.
- "music, sound design and voice acting – about us". Epic Sound. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- (in Danish) Karim Pedersen, Dansk 3D-animeret spillefilm, Computerworld, 26 May October 1999.
- Animation World Network (30 November 1999). "HUGO AND THE DIAMOND MOON | AWN | Animation World Network". Anp.awn.com. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- (in Danish) ANIMATION: Storyboard til tegnefilm Archived 26 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Frank Madsen Studio
- (in German) Hugo im Weltraum, Hugo-Troll.de
- (in Danish) Play:Right Arkiv > Anmeldelser > Hugo: Black Diamond Fever
- "Announcement: New Hugo Movie !". Facebook.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "La figure emblématique des années 90 "Hugo" est de retour dans un long-métrage en 3D !". Focus on Animation.
- "Film concept" (PDF). Retrieved 1 August 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Nordisk Film & TV Fond :: Ten Nordic Projects at Cartoon Movie 2013". Nordiskfilmogtvfond.com. 22 March 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "GFM Films". Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- "Tuotantotukea vantaalaiskomedialle, Iron Skyn jatko-osalle ja Talvivaara-dokumenteille - Elokuvat - Kulttuuri - Helsingin Sanomat". Hs.fi. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- "Development support from Creative Europe". Anima Vitae.
- "Hugo to Cartoon Movie 2014 | Anima Vitae". Anima.fi. 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- "Question for Hugo Games - FAQ". Forum.hugogames.com. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
- "The Magical Kingdom of Hugo". Tevetpro.com. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "הממלכה הקסומה של הוגו". Ishim.co.il. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- "SABAH - 28/11/2004 - Hugo ve Tolga Abi Cadıya karşı". Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- İletişim, İstanbul. "Hugo ve Tolga Abi Cadı Sila`ya Karşı (Ç.O) - Tiyatro - istanbul.net.tr, İstanbul Rehberi, Kültür Sanat Etkinlikleri, Konser Tiyatro". Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Tiyatroları, Bakırköy Belediye. "BBT". Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Engaging Entertainment from ITE (2001 ITE press release)
- "Hugo Safari". KreaGAMES.dk. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- "Siden blev ikke fundet". KreaGAMES.dk. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Nico Schimmelpfennig (2000-07-15). "Magazine". Hugoswelt.de. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- "Jugando con Hugo". Web.archive.org. 2007-11-19. Archived from the original on 19 November 2007. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- "HUGO HAFTALIK ÇİZGİ DERGİSİ 1993 SAYI 5". Nadir Kitap. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- "Haftalık Hugo Dergisi 11. Sayı - 1993 - Alkışlarla Yaşıyorum". Alkislarlayasiyorum.com. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- "Ĺšwiat Przygă"D Z Hugo". Web.archive.org. 2010-04-12. Archived from the original on 2010-04-12. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- "Świat Przygód z Hugo #2007/02 - Aleja Komiksu". Komiks.nast.pl. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- (in Polish) Baw się i koloruj z Hugo cz. 8 książka, praca zbiorowa – Kolorowanki – Księgarnia internetowa, BookMaster.pl.
- "Skærmtrolden Hugo Discography at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Various - DJ Hugo". Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- (in Polish) Hugo i przyjaciele śpiewają piosenki – Merlin.pl
- "Wakacyjne koncerty z trollem Hugo". Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Hugo (3) – Hoppla Hugo (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Hugo (3) – Hugo Rap (Der Song Zur Interaktiven Gameshow) (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Hugo & The Witch – I Know It's Heaven at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Hugo (3) Featuring Judith (3) – Show Me The Way (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Various – Hugo's Mega Dance Various – Hugo's Mega Dance (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Various – Hugo's Mega Dance 2 (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Various – Hugo's Mega Dance '96 (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Various – Hugo's Mega Dance Frühlings-Hits '96 (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Various – Hugo's Mega Dance '96 Die Dritte (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Various – Hugo's Mega Dance '97 (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- (in German) Musik, Hugo-Troll.de
- (in Hebrew) הוג 1 – קורן שדמי | ספר בקטגוריית חוכמת חיים – בנושא הומור וסאטירה בוקנט חנות הספרים באינטרנט של רשת צומת ספרים, booknet.co.il
- Hugo : Cadı Sila'ya karşı / Yazan Oktay Can, National Library of Australia
- (in Danish) HUGO DYNAMIT, slikleksikon.org
- (in Danish) AFSKYLIA BOLCHER, slikleksikon.org
- (in German) Fan-Artikel, Hugo-Troll.de
- (in Danish) Hugo i de afskyelige labyrinter – Elsa Søby – Bog (9788762647541), adlibris.com
- (in Danish) Hugo i de fantastiske labyrinter – Bog (9788756295451), adlibris.com
- (in German) Kleidung, Hugo-Troll.de
- (in German) Plüschfiguren, Hugo-Troll.de
- "Hugo - AXSE". 13 November 2013. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- (in German) Poster, Hugo-Troll.de
- (in Polish) Danone wycofał marki Danio Batonik i Danao, Media Marketing Polska Magazyn Online, 8 September 2005.
- (in Polish) Promocja nowej kategorii produktów Hugo, wirtualnemedia.pl, 15 May 2006.
- (in Polish) Hugo – soczki dla spragnionych zabawy, wirtualnemedia.pl, 13 November 2007.
- (in Polish) HUGO COLA I ORANŻADKA – dwa nowe, odlotowe smaki wzbogacone witaminą C!, gieldaspozywcza.pl, 15 October 2010.
- (in Polish) Księga labiryntów HUGO cz. 2 + CD, dobreksiazki.pl
- (in Polish) Księga labiryntów HUGO cz. 3 + CD, Weltbild.pl
- ברנע, אור (6 April 2011). ""הלו! להתעורר שם!"". Retrieved 24 August 2016 – via Ynet.
- "ITE Customers". Web.archive.org. 1996-11-07. Archived from the original on 7 November 1996. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- "10 razones por las que Chile no olvidará a Hugo". 6 June 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Álbumes de la historia: Tributo a SALO - @192". 22 January 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Hugo | Board Game". Boardgamegeek.com. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "HUGO". Adimex.be. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Hugo the Troll Makes a Comeback | License! Global". Licensemag.com. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Hugo Games and Tactic in Nordic deal for Hugo the Troll books". Licensing.bizAccessdate=2015-06--05.
- "TACTIC". Tactic.net. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- "Photos from Jørgen Hoffmeister's post in... - Jørgen Hoffmeister - Facebook". Facebook.com.
- 4TRONYX Entertainment GmbH (18 November 2014). "YOUNiiK - Hugo shop". Youniik.com.
- "Hugo, Hugoline and Scylla only at CasinoHeroes – Free Spins gifts". Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "ITE Newsletter : Hugo Cannoncruise" (PDF). Web.archive.org. July 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-04-04. Retrieved 2015-06-05.
- "ITE's Troll invades Romania". C21media.net. 14 October 2005. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- (in Danish) Jesper Gimbel, Heksejagten går ind på Nordvestfyn – – Middelfart, Fyens Stiftstidende, 22 June 2007.
- AF Thomas Vigild. "Skærmtrolden Hugo invaderer Det Kgl. Bibliotek – Tjek.dk" (in Danish). Politiken.dk. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- (in Danish) Dansk Spilmuseum, Spilmuseum.dk.
- (in Danish) Den Danske Spilkanon Archived 12 February 2013 at Archive.is, Spilkanon.dk
- 24h.com.vn. "Thanh Vân Hugo và động lực để vượt qua sóng gió - Tin tuc suc khoe - - 808414". Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Uyên Linh 'hạ gục' khán giả Hà Nội - Văn hóa - Hậu trường -". Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- www.phucminhltd.com, Phúc minh -. "Chúng tôi không nhiễm virus "ngôi sao", Tin môi trường - Cổng thông tin về môi trường Việt Nam". Retrieved 24 August 2016.