|Died||before 197 BCE|
Hugronaphor (also known as Hurganophor, Haronnophris, Harmachis, Hyrgonaphor, Herwennefer, or Horwennefer) was an Upper Egyptian of apparently Nubian origin who led Upper Egypt in secession from the rule of Ptolemy IV Philopator in 205 BC. No monuments are attested to this king but along with his successor Ankhmakis (also known as Chaonnophris or Ankhwennefer) he held a large part of Egypt until 186 BC. A graffito dating to about 201 BC on a wall of the mortuary Temple of Seti I at Abydos, in which he is called by the Greek name Hyrgonaphor, is an attestation to the extent of his influence. He appears to have died before 197 BC.
The Abydene graffito, one of the few documents remaining from his reign, is written in Egyptian using Greek letters, the oldest testimony of a development which would end in the Coptic script replacing the native Egyptian demotic.
- Robert Steven Bianchi, Daily life of the Nubians, Greenwood Press, 2004, p. 224
- Günther Hölbl, History of the Ptolemaic Empire, Routledge, 2000, pp. 155ff.
- Willy Clarysse (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven), The Great Revolt of the Egyptians, Lecture held at the Center for the Tebtunis Papyri, University of California at Berkeley, on March 16, 2004, accessed 15 August 2006
- The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian by Joseph Mélèze-Modrzejewski, Princeton University Press 1997, p. 150