Hohhot (Chinese: 呼和浩特; pinyin: Hūhéhàotè; Mongolian: Kökeqota; Khalkha: Хөх хот Höh hot, /xɵxˈxɔtʰ/), abbreviated Hushi (Chinese: 呼市; pinyin: Hūshì), formerly known as Kweisui (simplified Chinese: 归绥; traditional Chinese: 歸綏; pinyin: Guīsuí), is the capital of Inner Mongolia in North China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural centre. Its population was 2,866,615 inhabitants at the 2010 census, of whom 1,980,774 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made up of 4 urban districts.
The name of the city in Mongolian means "Blue City"—Kuku-Khoto in Mongolian—although it is also wrongly referred to as the "Green City." The color blue in Mongol culture is associated with the sky, eternity and purity; in Chinese, the name can be translated as Qīng Chéng (Chinese: 青城), literally, "Blue/Green City." The name has also been variously romanized as Kokotan, Kokutan, Kuku-hoton, Huhohaot'e, Huhehot, Huhhot, or Köke qota.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Transport
- 8 Education
- 9 Sports
- 10 Notable landmarks
- 11 See also
- 12 Footnotes
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
Marco Polo reports traveling to the Province of Tenduc, which has been identified as the region around the modern-day Hohhot. His itinerary took him from Tangut nation he called the "Kingdom of Egrigaia" (in modern-day Ningxia), and he took a route eastward into Tenduc.[a]
Ming and Qing era
In 1557, the Tümed Mongol leader Altan Khan began building the Da Zhao Temple in the Tümed plain in order to convince the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) government of his leadership of the southern Mongol tribes. The town that grew up around this temple was called the "Blue Town" (Kokegota in Mongolian). The Ming had been blockading the Mongols' access to Chinese iron, cotton, and crop seeds, in order to dissuade them from attacking the northern China plain. But in 1570, Altan Khan successfully negotiated the end of the blockade by the establishment of a vassal-tributary relationship with the Ming, for which the Ming renamed Kokegota to Guihua (Chinese: 歸化; pinyin: Guīhuà; Wade–Giles: Kweihua; literally: "Return to Civilization") in 1575. The population of Guihua grew to over 150,000 in the early 1630s as local Mongol princes encouraged the settlement of Han Chinese merchants. Sometimes Mongol armies attacked Guihua, such as the total razing of the city by Ligdan Khan in 1631. Altan Khan and his successors constructed temples and fortress in 1579, 1602 and 1727. The Tümed Mongols had long been semiagricultural there. Hui merchants gathered north of the gate of the city's fortress, building a mosque in 1693. Their descendants forms the nucleus of the modern Huimin district.
After the Manchus founded the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Kangxi Emperor (reigned 1661–1722) sent troops to control the region, which was interesting to the Qing as a center of study of Tibetan Buddhism. The Qing dynasty built a strong garrison town near Guihua's northeast called Suiyuan (綏遠), supervising southwestern Inner Mongolia in 1735–39 against Mongol attacks from the north.:13 Guihua and Suiyuan became Guihua County (歸化縣) of Qing China. French missionaries established a Catholic church in Guihua in 1874, but the Christians were forced to flee to Beijing during the antiforeign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901.
In 1913, the government of the new Republic of China united the garrison town of Suiyuan and the old town of Guihua as Guisui (Kweisui) (歸綏; Guīsuī; Kweisui). Guisui town was the center of Guisui County (歸綏縣) and the capital of Suiyuan Province in northern China. A bubonic plague outbreak in 1917 and the connection of Guisui to railway links in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Hebei and Beijing helped renew the economy of Guisui town, by forming links between eastern China and western China's Xinjiang province.:15 In 1918, the American specialist of Inner Asia Owen Lattimore noted Guisui's ethnic composition as "A town purely [Han] Chinese except for the Lama monasteries ... the Tümeds are now practically nonexistent and the nearest Mongolians are to be sought at 50 or 60 miles distance on the plateau.":15 During the progressive Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s, the Japanese created the puppet state of Mengjiang headed by Prince De, who renamed Guisui to "Blue City" ("Hohhot" or Huheshi). After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China renamed the city back to its original name, Guisui.:16 The Communist Party of China's forces drove out the Republic's General Fu Zuoyi in Suiyuan during the Chinese Civil War. After the Chinese Revolution in 1949, Guisui was renamed Hohhot.:16
People's Republic era
During the Civil War, in order to gain the support of separatist Mongols, the Communists established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in Mongol-minority areas from the Republic's provinces of Suiyuan, Xing'an, Chahar, and Rehe. Guisui was chosen as the region's administrative centre in 1952, replacing Zhangjiakou. In 1954, the new China renamed Guisui to Hohhot, though with a different Chinese pronunciation of Huhehaote.:16
The city has seen significant development since China's reform and opening began. The city's far east side began development around 2000 and is now home to an artificial lake called Ruyi He, a large number of condominiums mostly built by the biggest local real estate company Gold Horse International Inc., the municipal government, and most of the Autonomous Region's government buildings. The Hohhot City Stadium was built on the city's north side, finished in 2007.
A city with a rich cultural background, Hohhot is known for its historical sites and temples and is one of the major tourist destinations of Inner Mongolia. It is also nationally known as the home of China's dairy giants Mengniu and Yili, and was declared "Dairy Capital of China" by the China Dairy Industry Association and the Dairy Association of China in 2005.
Hohhot features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), marked by long, cold and very dry winters, hot, somewhat humid summers, strong winds (especially in spring) and monsoonal influence. The coldest month is January, with a daily mean of −11.6 °C (11.1 °F), while the July, the hottest month, averages 22.6 °C (72.7 °F). The annual mean temperature is 6.73 °C (44.1 °F), and the annual precipitation is 398 millimetres (15.7 in), with more than half of it falling in July and August alone. Variability can be very high, however: in 1965 Hohhot recorded as little as 155.1 mm (6.11 in) but six years before than, as much as 929.2 mm (36.58 in), including 338.6 mm (13.33 in) in July of that year. Hohhot is a popular destination for tourists during the summer months because of the nearby Zhaohe grasslands. More recently, due to desertification, the city sees sandstorms on almost an annual basis. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 58 percent in July to 71 percent in October, sunshine is abundant year-round, the city receives 2,862 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −32.8 °C (−27 °F) to 38.9 °C (102 °F).
|Climate data for Hohhot (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−11.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−16.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−30.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||2.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.5||2.8||3.4||3.7||6.0||8.9||12.9||12.7||8.3||4.5||2.4||1.8||69.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||58||52||46||37||39||47||61||66||62||59||59||59||53.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||180.7||198.3||245.5||268.6||294.5||291.3||264.9||255.2||252.1||244.8||195.3||171.0||2,862.2|
|Percent possible sunshine||61||66||67||68||66||65||58||60||68||71||66||60||64.7|
|Source #1: China Meteorological Administration|
|Source #2: Weather China|
The city is administratively at the prefecture-level, meaning that it administers both its urban area and the rural regions in its vicinity. The administrative area includes 4 counties, 4 districts, and a county-level banner; they are further divided into 20 urban sub-districts, and 96 townships. The data here represented is in km² and uses data from 2010 Census.
|English Name||Mongolian||Simplified Chinese||Pinyin||Area||Population||Density|
|ᠬᠣᠳᠣᠩ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Qotoŋ Arad-un toɣoriɣ)
|ᠰᠢᠨᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Sin-e Qota toɣoriɣ)
|Yuquan District||ᠢᠤᠢ ᠴᠢᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Iui čiuvan toɣoriɣ)
|Saihan District||ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
|Togtoh County||ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
|Wuchuan County||ᠦᠴᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
|Horinger County||ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Qorin Ger siyan)
|Qingshuihe County||ᠴᠢᠩ ᠱᠦᠢ ᠾᠧ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Čiŋ šüi hė siyan)
|Tumed Left Banner
(Tumed Jun Banner)
|ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Tümed Jegün qosiɣu)
|土默特左旗||Tǔmòtè Zuǒ Qí||2,765||312,532||113|
|Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.|
According to the 2010 Census, the population of Hohhot reached 2,866,615, counting 428,717 inhabitants more than in 2000 (the average annual demographic growth for the period 2000–2010 was of 1.63 percent). Its built-up (or metro) area is home to 1,980,774 inhabitants (4 urban districts). The urban population of Huhhot is increasing rapidly in recent 20 years.
The majority of the population of Hohhot are Han Chinese, representing 87.16 percent of the total population in 2010. Most Han in Hohhot, if their ancestry is traced several decades back, have ancestors from Shanxi, northeast China, or Hebei. Most Mongols in the city speak Standard Chinese. A survey from 1993 of the Inner Mongolia University found that only 8 percent of Tümed Mongols (the majority tribe in Hohhot) could speak the Mongolian language.:15 A significant portion of the population is of mixed ethnic origin. According to the anthropologist William Jankowiak, who wrote the book Sex, Death, and Hierarchy in a Chinese City (1993) about Huhehot, there is "relatively little different between minority culture and Han culture" in the city. with differences concentrating around minor attributes like food and art choices, and similarities abounding over fundamental issues in ethics, status, life goals, and worldview.:5
Ethnic groups in Hohhot, according to the 2000 census, were:
Hohhot is a major industrial center within Inner Mongolia. Hohhot, together with Baotou and Ordos, account for more than 60 percent of the total industrial output of Inner Mongolia. After Baotou and Ordos, Hohhot is the third-largest economy of the province, with GDP of RMB 247.56 billion in 2012, up 11.0 percent year on year. Hohhot accounted for approximately 15.5 percent of the province's total GDP in 2012. Hohhot is also the largest consumer center in the region, recording ¥102.2 billion retail sales of consumer goods in 2012, an increase of 14.9 percent from 2011. Huhhot has been a central developmental target for the China Western Development project that the Central Government is pursuing. There are many famous enterprises located in Hohhot, including China's biggest dairy producer by sales revenue Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group and China Mengniu Dairy Co.
As the economic center in Inner Mongolia, Huhhot has expanded its urban area since the 1990s. The CBDs in the city increased rapidly all around the major districts. The completion of the new office tower for Huhhot Municipal Government in Eastern Huhhot region marked a shift of the city center to the east. Hailiang Plaza (海亮广场), a 41-floor tower constructed in the city center, became one of the few notable department stores for luxury merchandise in the city.
Major Development Zones
- Hohhot Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Hohhot Export Processing Zone
Due to its relatively diverse cultural make-up, and despite its characteristics as a mid-sized Chinese industrial city, the Hohhot street scene has no shortage of ethnic minority elements. Tongdao Road, a major street in the old town area, is decorated with Islamic and Mongol exterior designs on all its buildings. A series of government initiatives in recent years have emphasized Hohhot's identity with ethnic minority groups, especially in increasing Mongol-themed architecture around the city. All street signs as well as public transportation announcements are regulated to be in both Chinese and Mongolian.
Older Hohhot residents mostly tend to converse in raw Hohhot dialect, a branch of the Jin language from neighbouring Shanxi province. This spoken form can be difficult to understand for speakers of other Mandarin Chinese dialects. The newer residents, mostly concentrated in Xincheng and Saihan Districts, speak Hohhot-based Mandarin, the majority also with a noticeable accent and some unique vocabulary.
Food specialty in the area is mostly focused on Mongol cuisine and dairy products. Commercially, Hohhot is known for being the base of nationally renowned dairy giants Yili and Mengniu. The Mongol drink suutei tsai ("naicha" 奶茶 in Chinese, "milk tea" in English), which has become a typical breakfast selection for anyone living or visiting the city. The city also has rich traditions in the making of hot pot and shaomai, a type of traditional Chinese dumpling served as dim sum.
Hohhot's Baita International Airport (IATA:HET) is about 14.3 km (8.9 mi) eastwards from the city centre by car. It has direct flights to larger domestic cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Chengdu, etc. It also has international flights to Taichung, Hong Kong, and to Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Hohhot lies on the Jingbao Railway from Beijing to Baotou, and is served by two railway stations: Hohhot Railway Station and Hohhot East Railway Station. The line began operation since 1921. Trains to Beijing link to destinations to the south and the northeast. The most prominent rail link with Beijing is the overnight K90 train, which has served the Hohhot-Beijing line since the 1980s and is referred to colloquially as the "9-0". Westbound trains go through Baotou and Lanzhou. There are also rail links to most major Inner Mongolian cities and to Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Because the quickest trip to Beijing takes around six and a half hours despite the close distance of the cities, plans for high-speed rail has been discussed for years, and construction of a high-speed railway station began in 2008. The station was completed in 2011 and initially serviced only ordinary lines. In January 2015, CRH opened its first D-series (dongchezu) route in Inner Mongolia in the Baotou-Hohhot-Jining corridor, shortening travel time between Inner Mongolia's two largest cities a mere 50 minutes. This line reached a maximum speed of 200 km/h between Hohhot and Baotou. Another high-speed rail linking Hohhot to Zhangjiakou and the planned Beijing-Zhangjiakou 200 km/h railway is due for completion in 2017, and designed to operate at 250 km/h.
An expressway built in 1997 links Hohhot with Baotou, then known as the Hubao Expressway. In recent years this expressway has been expanded eastwards to Jining and Zhangjiakou, and onto Beijing as part of the G6 Beijing–Lhasa Expressway (Jingzang Expressway). The city is en route of China National Highway 110, which runs from Yinchuan to Beijing. China National Highway 209 begins in Hohhot and is southbound towards southern China, with its southern terminus in Guangxi. Hohhot is connected to its northern counties through the Huwu Highway, which was completed in 2006. Previously travel to the northern counties consisted of lengthy navigation through mountainous terrain.
Hohhot's major north–south thoroughfares are called road(Lu) and its east–west thoroughfares are called street(Jie). This is roughly equivalent to dividing roads into "street" and "avenue" designation according to direction, a practice used in some North American cities. The largest elevated interchange is near the site of the city's Drum Tower(Gulou), after which it is named. Several major streets are named after Inner Mongolian leagues and cities; among these, Hulun Buir, Jurim(now Tongliao), Juud(Now Chifeng), Xilin Gol, and Xing'an run north–south, while Bayannaoer, Hailar, Ulanqab and Erdos runs east–west.
The city's public transit system is composed of nearly one hundred bus routes and a large fleet of taxicabs, which are normally green or blue. The bus fare is 1 yuan. The taxi fare begins at 8 yuan.
Universities located in Hohhot include:
- Inner Mongolia University, only 211 Project University in Inner Mongolia.
- Inner Mongolia University of Agriculture
- Inner Mongolia Normal University
- Inner Mongolia University of Technology
- Inner Mongolia College of Medicine
- Inner Mongolia College of Finance and Economics
- Hohhot College of Education
- Hohhot College of Police
- Honder College of Inner Mongolia Normal University
Top High Schools located in Hohhot include:
Hohhot didn't have a professional soccer team until Shenyang Dongjin F.C. relocated in Hohhot and changed their name to Hohhot Dongjin in 2012. They played at Hohhot City Stadium, which was newly built in 2007. The club finished in the bottom of the league this season and relegated to League Two. After playing half a season at Hohhot in 2013, the team relocated in Liaoning and chose Benxi City Stadium as their new home court.
On 14 January 2015, Taiyuan Zhongyou Jiayi F.C. moved to the city of Hohhot and changed their name to Nei Mongu Zhongyou F.C. The team play in China League One and chose Hohhot City Stadium as their home in 2015. The team was first established as Shanxi Jiayi F.C. on 8 October 2011.
There were over 50 Ming and Qing Buddhist temples and towers in Guihua and Suiyuan.
- Zhaojun Tomb (昭君墓), located about nine kilometers south of the city center. It is said to be the tomb of Wang Zhaojun, a woman from the Han Empire who married a Xiongnu Chanyu (king).
- Temple of the Five Pagodas (五塔寺), completed in 1732 with architecture very similar to that of Indian temples. On its walls there are more than 1,500 figures of Buddha.
- Da Zhao Temple (大召), a Buddhist monastery constructed in 1579, the oldest in the city.
- Inner Mongolia Museum (內蒙古博物院), main exhibits include dinosaur fossils, historical artifacts of nomadic peoples, and the cultural life of modern nomadic peoples.
- Altan Khan statue - impressive statue to the city's founder
- Qingcheng Park (青城公園), formerly People's Park, in the city center
- Great Mosque of Hohhot (清真大寺)
- Baita Pagoda (白塔)
- Residence of Gurun Princess Kejing (固倫恪靖公主府)
- Explanatory notes
- Hohot, also known in Chinese as Guīhuà or Kweihwa, or by the Mongolian name Kuku-hoton. See below
- "城市概况". City of Hohhot. April 12, 2013.
- 呼和浩特市2012年国民经济和社会发展统计公报. 呼和浩特市统计局 (in Chinese). 1 April 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
- Solovʹev, Sergeĭ Mikhaĭlovich (1998), History of Russia, 23, Academic International Press, p. 178
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Edition (1977), Vol. I, p. 275.
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- Perkins (1999), p. 212.
- Chinese "qing" has traditionally been a color between "blue" and "green" in English, leading some modern sources to translate Qing Cheng into English as "Green City" instead of "Blue City," including, for example, the official website of Hohhot.
- Beazley, Charles (1949), The Dawn of Modern Geography: From the middle of the thirteenth to the early years of the fifteenth century (c.A.D. 1260-1420), p. 88,
Tenduc is probably the Kweihwa- cheng of the modern Chinese, the Kuku-khotan (or Kuku-hoton) of the Mongols
- DeFrancis, John (1993), In the Footsteps of Genghis Khan, University of Hawaii Press, p. 57, ISBN 9780824814939,
near the present Guihua
- "Dazhao Temple". Travel China Guide. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
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- Jankowiak, William R (1993). Sex, Death, and Hierarchy in a Chinese City: An Anthropological Account. Columbia University Press. pp. 5, 11–16.
- Traditional dwellings and settlements review: journal of the International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments. International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments. 1998. p. 12. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
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- Profile of Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Company Limited
- Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Incorporated. April 2001. p. 510. ISBN 978-0-7172-0134-1. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Huhehaote rainfall
- 中国气象科学数据共享服务网 Archived 2 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
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- (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
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- Yili, Mengniu, Bright Dairy lose their status as 'national brands', China Central Television (22 September 2008)
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- Hsiung, Deh-Ta. Simonds, Nina. Lowe, Jason.  (2005). The food of China: a journey for food lovers. Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-681-02584-4. p 38.
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