Hui'an dialect

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Hui'an dialect
惠安话 / 惠安話
Native toChina
RegionMainly in Hui'an and parts of Quangang District (formerly part of Hui'an), South Fujian province.
Language codes
ISO 639-3
GlottologNone
Linguasphere79-AAA-jda

The Hui'an dialect (simplified Chinese: 惠安话; traditional Chinese: 惠安話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hūi-oaⁿ-ōe), is a variety of Chinese mostly spoken in Hui'an in South Fujian Province, China. It belongs to the Hokkien subgroup of Southern Min.[1]

Phonology[edit]

The Hui'an dialect has 14 phonemic initials and over 80 finals.[2][3]

Consonants[edit]

  bilabial alveolar velar glottal
plosive voiced /b/
/
/ɡ/
/
voiceless unaspirated /p/
/t/
/k/
/ʔ/
/
voiceless aspirated //
//
//
affricate voiceless unaspirated /ts/
voiceless aspirated /tsʰ/
fricative voiceless /s/
/
/h/
/
approximant /l/

The three voiced phonemes /b/, /l/ and /ɡ/ are realized as the nasal stops [m], [n] and [ŋ], respectively, before nasalized finals.[4][3]

The phoneme /l/ may be treated as a plosive, i.e. /d/.[5]

The alveolar phonemes /ts/, /tsʰ/ and /s/ are palatalized to [], [tɕʰ] and [ɕ], respectively, before /i/.[5]

Finals[edit]

/i/ /ĩ/ /iʔ/ /ĩʔ/
/u/ /uʔ/ /un/ /ut/
/a/ /ã/ /au/ /aʔ/ /ãʔ/ /auʔ/ /ãuʔ/ /am/ /an/ /aŋ/ /ap/ /at/ /ak/
/ai/ /ãi/ /ãiʔ/
/e/ // /eʔ/ /ẽʔ/ /em/ /en/ /eŋ/ /ep/ /et/
/o/ /oʔ/
/ɔ/ /ɔ̃/ /ɔ̃ʔ/ /ɔŋ/ /ɔk/
/ɯ/ /ɯʔ/
/ə/ /əʔ/ /ən/ /ət/
/iu/ /iũ/ /iuʔ/ /iũʔ/
/ia/ /iã/ /iau/ /iãu/ /iaʔ/ /iãʔ/ /iauʔ/ /iãuʔ/ /iaŋ/ /iak/
/io/ /ioʔ/
/iɔŋ/ /iɔk/
/ui/ /uĩ/ /uiʔ/ /uĩʔ/
/ua/ /uã/ /uai/ /uãi/ /uaʔ/ /uãiʔ/ /uan/ /uaŋ/ /uat/
/ue/ /ueʔ/
/m̩ʔ/ //
/ŋ̍ʔ/ /ŋ̍/

Grammar[edit]

The demonstrative system has five pairs of pronouns with a two-way distinction:[6][7]

Proximal Distal Translation
/ tsit7 (+ number) + numerative hit7 (+ number) + numerative this/that; these/those; this/that kind of
/ tsat8 hat8 this/that
/ tse2 2 this/that kind of (generic)
 tsuai2  huai2 these/those; this/that
种个 / 種個 tsiɔŋ3-2 e2 响个 / 響個 hiɔŋ3-2 e2 this/that kind of

Comparison with other varieties of Hokkien[edit]

Compared with the Quanzhou dialect (spoken in the central urban area of Quanzhou city), the greatest differences are present in the rimes:[8][9]

Hui'an Quanzhou Example
Hui'an Quanzhou
/em/ /iam/
/lem˨˦/ /liam˨˦/
/im/
/lem˨˦/ /lim˨˦/
/ep/ /iap/
/tsep˥/ /tsiap˥/
/ip/ /
/tsep˥/ /tsip˥/
/en/ /ian/ /
/en˧/ /ian˧/
/in/
/en˧/ /in˧/
/et/ /iat/
/tset˥/ /tsiat˥/
/it/ /
/tset˥/ /tsit˥/
/eŋ/ /iŋ/
/peŋ˧/ /piŋ˧/
/ən/ /un/ /
/gən˨˦/ /gun˨˦/
/ət/ /ut/
/hət˨˧/ /hut˨˦/

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chen 2008, p. 568.
  2. ^ Chen 2011, pp. 17–22.
  3. ^ a b Hui'an County Local Chronicles Editorial Board 1998, ch. 1, sec. 1.
  4. ^ Chen 2011, p. 18.
  5. ^ a b Chen 2011, p. 19.
  6. ^ Chen 2008, pp. 569–570.
  7. ^ Chen 2011, pp. 96.
  8. ^ Zhou 2006, pp. 1138–1139.
  9. ^ Hui'an County Local Chronicles Editorial Board 1998.

References[edit]

  • Chen, Weirong (2008). "Relative Clauses in Hui'an Dialect" (PDF). In Chan, Marjorie K.M.; Kang, Hana (eds.). Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-20). Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University. pp. 567–582.
  • Chen, Weirong (2011). The Southern Min Dialect of Hui’an: Morphosyntax and Grammaticalization (PhD). University of Hong Kong. doi:10.5353/th_b4642142.
  • Hui'an County Local Chronicles Editorial Board, ed. (1998). 惠安县志 (in Chinese). Volume 35: 方言. Beijing: China Local Records Publishing. ISBN 7-80122-352-7.
  • Zhou, Changji, ed. (2006). 闽南方言大词典 (in Chinese). Fuzhou: Fujian People's Publishing House. ISBN 7-211-03896-9.