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- The models are first presented in Huisman J., Olff H. & Fresco L.F.M. (1993). A hierarchical set of models for species response analysis. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 37-46
- Oksanen's introduction of HOF models, and software to compute them
- extended (7 models including bimodal) HOF models , see Jansen F. & Oksanen J. (2013) How to model species responses along ecological gradients - Huisman-Olff-Fresco models revisited. Journal of Vegetation Science 24: 1108–1117.