|Participant in Hukbalahap Rebellion|
Flag of the Hukbalahap
|Active||1940 – 1965|
|Area of operations||Central Luzon|
|Became||New Peoples Army|
|Allies|| Commonwealth of the Philippines (1942–1946)
United States of America (during World War II liberation)
|Opponents|| Empire of Japan (during World War II occupation)
Second Philippine Republic (1942–1945)
Government of the Philippines
The Hukbalahap (Filipino: Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapones, English: The Nation's Army Against the Japanese Soldiers), or Hukbong Laban sa Hapon (Anti-Japanese Army), was a Communist guerrilla movement formed by the peasant farmers of Central Luzon. They are popularly known simply as "Huks". They were originally formed to fight the Japanese, but extended their fight into a rebellion against the Philippine Government, known as the Hukbalahap Rebellion in 1946. It was finally put down through a series of reforms and military victories by Filipino President Ramon Magsaysay.
As originally constituted in 1942, the Hukbalahap was to be part of a broad united front resistance to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. This original intent is reflected in its name: "Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon", which means "People's Army Against the Japanese."
By 1950, the Communist Party of the Philippines PKP had resolved to reconstitute the organization as the armed wing of a revolutionary party, prompting a change in the official name to Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan, (HMB) or "Peoples' Liberation Army," likely in emulation of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
Notwithstanding this name change, the HMB continued to be popularly known as the Hukbalahap, and the English-speaking press continued to refer to it and its members, interchangeably, as "The Huks" during the whole period between 1945 and 1952.
The Hukbalahap movement has deep roots in the Spanish encomienda, a system of grants to reward soldiers who had conquered New Spain, established about 1570. This developed into a system of exploitation. In the 19th century, Filipino landlordism, under the Spanish colonization, arose and, with it, further abuses.:57 After the opening of ports in Manila, the Luzon economy was transformed to meet the demands for exports of rice, sugar, and tobacco. Landowners increased demands on farmers, who rented parcels of land. These demands included increased rents, demands for proceeds from the sale of crops, and predatory lending agreements to fund farm improvements.:24, 26 Only after the coming of the Americans were reforms initiated to lessen tensions between tenants and landlords. The reforms, however, did not solve the problems and, with growing political consciousness produced by education, peasants began to unite under educated but poor leaders. The most potent of these organizations was the Hukbalahap, which began as a resistance organization against the Japanese but ended as an anti-government resistance movement.
World War II
After the Japanese invasion, peasant leaders met on March 29, 1942 in a forest clearing located in Sitio Bawit, Barrio San Julian, at the junction of Tarlac, Pampanga, and Nueva Ecija provinces to form a united organization. "Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon" was chosen as the name of the organization. After the meeting, a military committee was formed with Luis Taruc (chairman), Castro Alejandrino (2nd in command), Bernardo Poblete ("Banal"), and Felepa Culala ("Dayang-Dayang" – an amazon whose unit had killed several Japanese soldiers) as members. Robert Lapham reports either Luis Taruc or Casto Alejandrino met with Col. Thorpe at his Camp Sanchez in the spring of 1942, and the conferees agreed to cooperate, share equipment and supplies, with the Americans providing trainers.:21,128–129 However, though the Huks fought the Japanese, they also "tried to thwart United States Army Forces in the Far East guerrillas", "therefore, they were considered disloyal and were not accorded U.S. recognition or benefits at the end of the war.":233
The strength of the Huk organization came from the mostly agrarian peasants of Central Luzon. Between March 1942 and August 1948, the Huks became a trained and experienced force, well-equipped and well-prepared for its guerrilla warfare. The initial force of 500 armed Huks which was organized into five squadrons had increased to a fully armed guerrilla force of 20,000 men.:40 The group's leaders, among them figurehead Luis Taruc, communist party Secretary General Jesus Lava, and Commander Hizon (Benjamin Cunanan), aimed to lead the Philippines toward Marxist ideals and communist revolution. The Hukbalahap Insurrection (1946–1954) was their attempt to take over the Philippines. The Hukhbalahap's methods were often portrayed by other guerrilla leaders as terrorist; for example, Ray C. Hunt, an American who led his own band of 3000 guerrillas, said of the Hukbalahap that
My experiences with the Huks were always unpleasant. Those I knew were much better assassins than soldiers. Tightly disciplined and led by fanatics, they murdered some Filipino landlords and drove others off to the comparative safety of Manila. They were not above plundering and torturing ordinary Filipinos, and they were treacherous enemies of all other guerrillas (on Luzon).
However, the Hukbalahap claimed that it extended its guerrilla warfare campaign for over a decade merely in search of recognition as World War II freedom fighters and former American and Filipino allies who deserved a share of war reparations.
After its inception, the group grew quickly and by late summer 1943 claimed to have 15,000 to 20,000 active men and women military fighters and 50,000 more in reserve. These fighters' weaponry was obtained primarily by stealing it from battlefields and downed planes left behind by the Japanese, Filipinos and Americans.:37 They fought Japanese troops, worked to subvert the Japanese tax-collection service, intercepted food and supplies to the Japanese troops, and created a training school where they taught political theory and military tactics based on Marxist ideas. In areas that the group controlled, they set up local governments and instituted land reforms, dividing up the largest estates equally among the peasants and often killing the landlords. In some cases, however, landlords were welcomed as participants in Huk resistance, swayed by anti-Japanese sympathies.:38
The Huk movement was notable for its inclusion of women peasants, who advocated for inclusion in the movement in resistance to word of Japanese war atrocities against women, including rape and mutilation. Many of these women fought, but the majority of the resistance remained in villages, collecting supplies and intelligence.:41 Women in the forest camps were forbidden from entering combat,:52 but often trained in first aid, communication/propaganda, and recruitment tactics.:50
When it became evident that Manuel Roxas, whom the Huks accused of having been a collaborator, would run for the presidency the Huks allied themselves with the Democratic Alliance, a new political party, and threw their support behind President Sergio Osmeña. When Roxas won the Presidency, he instituted a campaign against the Huks. The Huks, however, succeeded in electing Taruc and other members of the Democratic Alliance to Congress. After Taruc was unseated by the Liberal Party, the Huks retreated to the jungle and began their open rebellion. Between 1946 and 1949 the indiscriminate counterinsurgency measures by President Roxas ("mailed fist" policies) strengthened Huk appeal. The Philippine Army, Philippine Constabulary, and civilian guards attacked villages seeking out subversives.
In 1949, Hukbalahap members ambushed and murdered Aurora Quezon, Chairman of the Philippine Red Cross and widow of the Philippines' second president, Manuel L. Quezon, as she was en route to her hometown for the dedication of the Quezon Memorial Hospital. Several others were also killed, including her eldest daughter and son-in-law. This attack brought worldwide condemnation of the Hukbalahaps, who claimed that the attack was done by "renegade" members. The continuing condemnation and new post-war causes of the movement prompted the Huk leaders to adopt a new name, the 'Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan' or the 'People's Liberation Army' in 1950.
Public sympathies for the movement had been waning due to their postwar attacks. The Huks carried out a campaign of raids, holdups, robbery, ambushes, murder, rape, massacre of small villages, kidnapping and intimidation. The Huks confiscated funds and property to sustain their movement and relied on small village organizers for political and material support. The Huk movement was mainly spread in the central provinces of Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac, Bulacan, and in Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Laguna, Bataan and Quezon.
An important movement in the campaign against the Huks was the deployment of hunter-killer counter guerrilla special units. The "Nenita" unit (1946–1949) was the first of such special forces whose main mission was to eliminate the Huks. The Nenita Force was commanded by Major Napoleon Valeriano. The Nenita terror tactics which were not only committed against dissidents but also towards law-abiding people sometimes helped the Huks gain supporters as a consequence.
In July 1950, Major Valeriano assumed command of the elite 7th Battalion Combat Team (BCT) in Bulacan. The 7th BCT would develop a reputation toward employing a more comprehensive, more unconventional counterinsurgency strategy and reduced the random brutality against the civilian population.
In June 1950, American alarm over the Huk rebellion during the cold war prompted President Truman to approve special military assistance that included military advice, sale at cost of military equipment to the Philippines and financial aid under the Joint United States Military Advisory Group (JUSMAG). On 26 Aug. 1950, in an "anniversary celebration" of the Cry of Pugad Lawin, the Huks temporarily seized Santa Cruz, Laguna and Camp Makabulos, Tarlac, confiscating money, food, weapons, ammunition, clothing, medicine, and office supplies.:85–86 In September 1950, former USAFFE guerrilla, Ramon Magsaysay was appointed as Minister of National Defense on American advice. With the Huk Rebellion growing in strength and the security situation in the Philippines becoming seriously threatened, Magsaysay urged President Elpidio Quirino to suspend the writ of habeas corpus for the duration of the Huk campaign. On 18 Oct. 1950, Magsaysay captured the Secretariat, including the general secretary Jose Lava, following the earlier capture of the Politburo in Manila.:90
American assistance allowed Magsaysay to create more BCTs, bringing the total to twenty-six. By 1951, army strength had increased by 60 percent over the previous year with 1,047-man BCTs. Major military offensive campaigns against the Huks were carried out by the 7th, 16th, 17th, and 22nd BCTs.
Another major effort against the Huks was Operation "Knockout" of the Panay Task Force (composed of the 15th BCT, some elements of the 9th BCT and the Philippine Constabulary commands of Iloilo, Capiz and Antique) under the command of Colonel Alfredo M. Santos. The Operation conducted a surprise attack on Guillermo Capadocia, commander of the Huk Regional Command in the Visayas, erstwhile Secretary General and one of the founders of the PKP. Santos' masterstroke was the enlistment of Pedro Valentin, a local mountain leader who knew the people and the terrain like the back of his hand. Capadocia died on Panay,:98 of battle wounds, on September 20, 1952.
In 1954, Lt. Col. Laureño Maraña, the former head of Force X of the 16th PC Company, assumed command of the 7th BCT, which had become one of the most mobile striking forces of the Philippine ground forces against the Huks, from Valeriano who was now a colonel. Force X employed psychological warfare through combat intelligence and infiltration that relied on secrecy in planning, training, and execution of attack. The lessons learned from Force X and Nenita were combined in the 7th BCT.
With the all out anti-dissidence campaigns against the Huks, they numbered less than 2,000 by 1954 and without the protection and support of local supporters, active Huk resistance no longer presented a serious threat to Philippine security. From February to mid-September 1954, the largest anti-Huk operation, "Operation Thunder-Lightning" was conducted and resulted in the surrender of Luis Taruc on May 17. Further cleanup operations of guerillas remaining lasted throughout 1955, diminishing its number to less than 1,000 by year's end.
The Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan was again resurrected as Bagong Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan during the early 1960s, but the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas shifted from the use of armed struggle to parliamentary struggle. Guerrilla warfare against the government continued until its surrender along with the Party during Martial Law. The Agreement between the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas and the government lead to the recognition of the Huk Veterans with a share of war reparations and benefits.
After the Sino-Soviet split, the Maoists in the older pro-USSR PKP left in 1968 to form the new Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP). In 1969, the splinter CPP formed the New People's Army, with its Tagalog name Bagong Hukbong Bayan with the faction involving members of the HMB under Bernabe "Dante" Buscayno, and launched a "protracted people's war" that lasts to this day. In 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos cited this armed resistance movement as the reason for his imposition of martial law.
- Philippine resistance against Japan
- Philippine Constabulary (PC)
- Military History of the Philippines
- List of American guerrillas in the Philippines
- "The Huk Rebellion". Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.119, ISBN 0-521-62948-9, ISBN 978-0-521-62948-5
- Saulo, Alfredo B., Communism in the Philippines: an Introduction, Enlarged Ed., Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990, p. 31
- Saulo, Alfredo B., Communism in the Philippines: an Introduction, Enlarged Ed., Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990, p. 44
- Taruc, L., 1967, He Who Rides the Tiger, London: Geoffrey Chapman Ltd.
- Lanzona, Vina A. (2009). Amazons of the Huk rebellion gender, sex, and revolution in the Philippines ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 9780299230937. Retrieved 10 September 2016. – via Project MUSE (subscription required)
- Agoncillo1990, p. 441
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 448
- Lapham, R., and Norling, B., 1996, Lapham's Raiders, Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0813119499
- Breuer, William B. The Great Raid: Rescuing the Doomed Ghosts of Bataan and Corregidor. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2002)
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 451
- Martinez, p. 150
- Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1990) , History of the Filipino People (8th ed.), Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, ISBN 971-8711-06-6.
- Bautista, Alberto Manuel (1952), The Hukbalahap Movement in the Philippines, 1942-1952, University of California.
- Greenberg, Lawrence M. (1987), "V. RAMON MAGSAYSAY, EDWARD LANSDALE, AND THE JUSMAG", THE HUKBALAHAP INSURRECTION: A Case Study of a Successful Anti-Insurgency Operation in the Philippines, 1946-1955, United States Army Center of Military History, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 86-600597.
- Greenberg, Lawrence M. (1987), "VI. THE INSURRECTION - PHASE II (1950-1955)", THE HUKBALAHAP INSURRECTION: A Case Study of a Successful Anti-Insurgency Operation in the Philippines, 1946-1955, United States Army Center of Military History, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 86-600597.
- Manuel F. Martinez (2002). "Mission Possible:Assassinate Quezon – and Mrs. Quezon". Assassinations and Conspiracies: From Rajah Humabon to Imelda Marcos. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 138–152. ISBN 971-27-1218-4.
- McClintock, Michael (1992), "4. Toward a New Counterinsurgency: Philippines, Laos, Vietnam", Instruments of Statecraft: U.S. Guerella Warefare, Counterinsurgency, and Counterterrorism, 1940-1990, Pantheon Books.
- Valeriano, Napoleon D., "MILITARY OPERATIONS", Counter-Guerrilla Seminar Fort Bragg, 15 June 1961 – details how the Philippine Constabulary, aided by the Scout Rangers, defeated the Huk insurgency in Central Luzon.
- "IV. The Rebirth of the Army", (Title unknown).