Huldufólk

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Hidden people
Jumping after Hildur.jpg
Engraving of a man jumping after a female elf into a precipice.
GroupingMythological
Similar creaturesElf, huldra, fairy, mermaid, pixie, sprite, leprechaun
CountryIceland, Faroe Islands
HabitatVarious

Hidden people (huldufólk)[a] are elves in Icelandic and Faroese folklore.[1][2] They are supernatural beings that live in nature. They look and behave similarly to humans, but live in a parallel world.[3] They can make themselves visible at will.[4]

In Faroese folk tales,[5] hidden people are said to be "large in build, their clothes are all grey, and their hair black. Their dwellings are in mounds, and they are also called Elves."[6]

Some Icelandic folk tales caution against throwing stones, as it may hit the hidden people.[7]

In current-day Iceland, the overwhelming majority of the population does not take the idea of hidden people seriously.[4] Árni Björnsson [is], former director of the ethnological department of the National Museum of Iceland, suggests that some of those who claim to believe in hidden people do so since it is sure to pique the interest of the mass media.[4] The Icelandic Road Administration has called the media's reports about building and road projects being altered to prevent damaging the rocks where hidden people live[8][9] a misrepresentation.[10][4]

Terminology[edit]

The term huldufólk was taken as a synonym of álfar (elves) in 19th century Icelandic folklore. Jón Árnason found that the terms are synonymous, except álfar is a pejorative term. Konrad von Maurer contends that huldufólk originates as a euphemism to avoid calling the álfar by their real name.[11]

There is, however, some evidence that the two terms have come to be taken as referring to two distinct sets of supernatural beings in contemporary Iceland. Katrin Sontag found that some people do not differentiate elves from hidden people, while others do.[12] A 2006 survey found that "54% of respondents did not distinguish between elves and hidden people, 20% did and 26% said they were not sure."[13]

Origins[edit]

Terry Gunnell writes: "different beliefs could have lived side by side in multicultural settlement Iceland before they gradually blended into the latter-day Icelandic álfar and huldufólk."[14] He also writes: "Huldufólk and álfar undoubtedly arose from the same need. The Norse settlers had the álfar, the Irish slaves had the hill fairies or the Good People. Over time, they became two different beings, but really they are two different sets of folklore that mean the same thing."[15]

Precursors to elves/hidden people can be found in the writings of Snorri Sturluson[16] and in skaldic verse.[17] Elves were also mentioned in Poetic Edda,[18] and appear to be connected to fertility.[19]

The Christianization of Iceland in the 11th century brought with it new religious concepts. According to one Christian folk tale, the origins of the hidden people can be traced to Adam and Eve. Eve hid her dirty, unwashed children from God, and lied about their existence. God then declared: "What man hides from God, God will hide from man."[20] Other Christian folktales claim that hidden people originate from Lilith, or are fallen angels condemned to live between heaven and hell.[21]

In succession of Christianization, official opposition to dancing may have begun in Iceland as early as the 12th century, and the association of dancing with elves can be seen as early as the 15th century. One folktale shows the elves siding with the common people and taking revenge on a sheriff who banned dance parties. Aðalheiður Guðmundsdóttir concludes that these legends "show that Icelanders missed dancing".[22]

In the 13th and 14th centuries, books from mainland Europe reached Iceland, and may have influenced folktales about elves.[23]

Einar Ólafur Sveinsson writes: "Round about 1600 sources for hidden folk become so voluminous that we can readily define the beliefs and legends about them, and after that there is one source after another about them right down into the twentieth century."[24] According to Árni Björnsson, belief in hidden people grew during the 17th and 18th centuries when Iceland was facing tough times.[25]

Holidays[edit]

There are four Icelandic holidays considered to have a special connection with hidden people: New Year's Eve, Thirteenth Night (January 6), Midsummer Night and Christmas night.[26] Elf bonfires (álfabrennur) are a common part of the holiday festivities on Twelfth Night (January 6).[27][28][29] There are many Icelandic folktales about elves and hidden people invading Icelandic farmhouses during Christmas and holding wild parties.[30] It is customary in Iceland to clean the house before Christmas, and to leave food for the huldufólk on Christmas.[31] On New Year's Eve, it is believed that the elves move to new locations, and Icelanders leave candles to help them find their way.[32] On Midsummer Night, folklore states that if you sit at a crossroads, elves will attempt to seduce you with food and gifts; there are grave consequences for being seduced by their offers, but great rewards for resisting.[33]

Icelandic and Faroese folklore[edit]

Several scholars have commented on the connections between hidden people and the Icelandic natural environment. B.S. Benedikz, in his discussion of Jón Árnason's grouping of folktales about elves, water-dwellers, and trolls together, writes: "The reason is of course perfectly clear. When one's life is conditioned by a landscape dominated by rocks twisted by volcanic action, wind and water into ferocious and alarming shapes... the imagination fastens on these natural phenomena."[34]

Ólina Thorvarðardóttir writes: "Oral tales concerning Icelandic elves and trolls no doubt served as warning fables. They prevented many children from wandering away from human habitations, taught Iceland's topographical history, and instilled fear and respect for the harsh powers of nature."[35]

Michael Strmiska writes: "The Huldufólk are... not so much supernatural as ultranatural, representing not an overcoming of nature in the hope of a better deal beyond but a deep reverence for the land and the mysterious powers able to cause fertility or famine."[36] Pálsdóttir claims that in a landscape filled with earthquakes, avalanches, and volcanoes, "it is no wonder that the native people have assigned some secret life to the landscape. There had to be some unseen powers behind such unpredictability, such cruelty."[37] Alan Boucher writes: "Thus the Icelander's ambivalent attitude towards nature, the enemy and the provider, is clearly expressed in these stories, which preserve a good deal of popular—and in some cases probably pre-christian—belief."[38]

Robert Anderson writes that syncretism "is active in Iceland where Christianity, spiritism, and Icelandic elf lore have syncretized in at least a couple instances."[39]

Terry Gunnell notes that hidden people legends recorded in the 18th and 19th centuries showed them to be "near mirror-images of those humans who told stories about them—except they were beautiful, powerful, alluring, and free from care, while the Icelanders were often starving and struggling for existence. The huldufólk seem in many ways to represent the Icelander's dreams of a more perfect and happy existence."[40] Anthropologist Jón Haukur Ingimundarson claimed that hidden people tales told by 19th-century Icelandic women were a reflection of how only 47% of women were married, and "sisters often found themselves relegated to very different functions and levels of status in society... the vast majority of Icelandic girls were shunted into supporting roles in the household." He goes on to say that these stories justified the differences in role and status between sisters, and "inculcated in young girls the... stoic adage never to despair, which was a psychological preparedness many would need as they found themselves reduced in status and denied the proper outlet for their sexuality in marriage, thereby sometimes having to rely on infanticide to take care of the unsolicited and insupportable effects of their occasional amours, an element... related in huldufólk stories."[41]

Anna Pietrzkiewicz contends that the hidden people symbolize idealized Icelandic identity and society, the key elements of which are seeing the "past as a source of pride and nature as unique and pure."[42]

Hidden people often appear in the dreams of Icelanders.[43] They are usually described as wearing 19th-century Icelandic clothing,[44] and are often described as wearing green.[45]

In one version of modern Faroese folklore, the hidden people vanished in the 1950s when electricity was brought to the island.[46]

Contemporary Iceland[edit]

A survey of Icelanders born between 1870 and 1920 found that people did not generally believe in hidden people and that when they had learned about supernatural beings in their youth, those lessons had mostly been made for amusement.[47] About 10% seemed to actually believe in hidden people.[47] A survey from 1974 showed that among those born between 1904 and 1944, 7% were certain of the existence of hidden people.[47]

Several modern surveys have been made showing a surprising number of believers. Around 7–8% claim to be certain that elves exist, and around 45% claim it is likely or possible.[48][13][49][50]

These surveys have been criticized as being misrepresentative,[4] as journalists have claimed that they show that a majority of Icelanders believe in elves,[49] despite belief not being that serious.[4] Folklore professor Terry Gunnell has said: "Very few will say immediately that they 'believe' in such, but they won't deny it either."[51] Different ways of asking could elicit very different responses.[52]

Árni Björnsson claims the beliefs are simplified and exaggerated for the entertainment of children and tourists, and that it is a somewhat misrepresentative yet harmless trick used by the tourism industry to entice visitors.[4] The stories of elves may have been fun tales rather than beliefs.[4][47]

Tourism[edit]

The Icelandic Elf School in Reykjavík organizes five-hour-long educational excursions for visitors.[53][54]

Hafnarfjörður offers a "Hidden Worlds tour", a guided walk of about 90 minutes. It includes a stroll through Hellisgerdi Park, where the paths wind through a lava field planted with tall trees and potted bonsai trees in summer, and said to be peopled with the town's largest elf colony.

Stokkseyri has the Icelandic Wonders museum, where "Museum guests will walk into a world of the Icelandic elves and hidden people and get a glimpse of their life."[55]

Recent incidents[edit]

During road construction in Kópavogur in 1971, a bulldozer broke down. The driver placed the blame on elves living in a large rock. Despite locals not having been aware of any elves living in the rock, newspapers ran with the story, thus starting the myth that Icelandic road construction was often impeded by elves.[4]

In 1982, 150 Icelanders went to the NATO base in Keflavík to look for "elves who might be endangered by American Phantom jets and AWACS reconnaissance planes."[56] In 2004, Alcoa had to have a government expert certify that their chosen building site was free of archaeological sites, including ones related to huldufólk folklore, before they could build an aluminium smelter in Iceland.[57][58] In 2011, elves/huldufólk were believed by some to be responsible for an incident in Bolungarvík where rocks rained down on residential streets.[59][60][61] In 2013, proposed road construction from the Álftanes peninsula to the Reykjavík suburb of Garðabær, was stopped because elf supporters and environmental groups protested, stating that the road would destroy the habitat of elves and local cultural beliefs.[62]

Significant sites[edit]

Álfaborg, Iceland

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Icelandic and Faroese. From huldu- "pertaining to secrecy" and fólk "people", "folk"

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jón Árnason; George E. J. Powell; Eiríkur Magnússon (1866). "Introductory Essay". Icelandic Legends, Volume 2. London: Richard Bentley. pp. xlii–lvi. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  2. ^ Einar Ólafur Sveinsson; Einar G. Pétursson; Benedikt Benedikz; Anthony Faulkes (2003). The Folk-Stories of Iceland (PDF). University College London: Viking Society For Northern Research. pp. 170–183. ISBN 978-0-903521-53-6.
  3. ^ Efemia Hrönn Björgvinsdóttir (2014). Gjafir frá huldufólki (PDF) (Bachelor thesis) (in Icelandic). University of Iceland.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Árni Björnsson (26 September 2007). "False Myths concerning Iceland". The Beck Lectures on Icelandic Literature (audio recording of lecture; 1 hour 8 minutes; relevant section around 32–45 minutes). University of Victoria. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011.
  5. ^ See:
  6. ^ Dennis L. Gaffin (1996). In place: spatial and social order in a Faeroe Islands community. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-88133-879-9.
  7. ^ Anne Brydon (September 1991). The eye of the guest: Icelandic nationalist discourse and the whaling issue. Montreal: McGill University. p. 276.
  8. ^ a b c Sarah Lyall (13 July 2005). "Building in Iceland? Better Clear It With the Elves First". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  9. ^ See:
  10. ^ Viktor Arnar Ingólfsson (December 2007). "The Icelandic Road Administration (ICERA) and the Belief in Elves" (Word Document). Icelandic Road Administration. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019.
  11. ^ Katrin Sontag (2007). Parallel worlds: fieldwork with elves, Icelanders and academics. University of Iceland. pp. 13–14.
  12. ^ Katrin Sontag (2007). Parallel worlds: fieldwork with elves, Icelanders and academics. University of Iceland. pp. 15–18.
  13. ^ a b Erlendur Haraldsson (2011). "Psychic Experiences a Third of a Century Apart: Two Representative Surveys in Iceland with an International Comparison" (PDF). Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 75: 88 – via University of Iceland.
  14. ^ Terry Gunnell (2007). "How Elvish Were The Álfar?". The 13th International Saga Conference. Archived from the original on 2007-03-04. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
  15. ^ Marc Vincenz (27 May 2009). "To Be or Not to Be: Álfar, Elves, Huldufólk, Fairies and Dwarves: Are They Really All the Same Thing?". The Reykjavík Grapevine. Archived from the original on 2010-04-04. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  16. ^ Alaric Timothy Peter Hall (2004). The Meanings of Elf and Elves in Medieval England (PDF). Department of English Language, University of Glasgow. pp. 31–37.
  17. ^ Alaric Timothy Peter Hall (2004). The Meanings of Elf and Elves in Medieval England (PDF). Department of English Language, University of Glasgow. pp. 37–44.
  18. ^ Ármann Jakobsson (2006). "The Extreme Emotional Life of Völundr the Elf". Scandinavian Studies. 78 (3): 227–254. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  19. ^ Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson (1990). "Folk Narrative and Norse Mythology". Arv: Nordic yearbook of folklore. 46: 120. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  20. ^ D. L. Ashliman. "Origin of the Hidden People: Two Legends from Iceland by Jón Arnason". D. L. Ashliman's folktexts. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
  21. ^ Brian Pilkington; Terry Gunnell (2008). The Hidden People of Iceland. Reykjavík: Mál og menning. p. 4. ISBN 978-9979-3-2955-8.
  22. ^ Aðalheiður Guðmundsdóttir (2006). "How Icelandic legends reflect the prohibition on dancing" (PDF). Arv: Nordic yearbook of folklore. 61: 25–52. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  23. ^ Einar Ólafur Sveinsson; Einar G. Pétursson; Benedikt Benedikz; Anthony Faulkes (2003). The Folk-Stories of Iceland (PDF). University College London: Viking Society For Northern Research. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-903521-53-6.
  24. ^ Einar Ólafur Sveinsson; Einar G. Pétursson; Benedikt Benedikz; Anthony Faulkes (2003). The Folk-Stories of Iceland (PDF). University College London: Viking Society For Northern Research. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-903521-53-6.
  25. ^ David Wallis (19 September 1999). "The World: Gnome Is Where the Heart Is; What Little Elves Tell Icelanders". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2008.
  26. ^ Katrin Sontag (2007). Parallel worlds: fieldwork with elves, Icelanders and academics. University of Iceland. pp. 94–95.
  27. ^ "Álfabrenna í Bolungarvík". vikari.is. 4 January 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  28. ^ Bjarni Brynjólfsson (27 December 2007). "Charming Season". Iceland Review. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  29. ^ Jeffrey Cosser (1994). "Elves and electricity: Midwinter in Iceland". Scandinavian Review. 82 (3): 62–66. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  30. ^ Terry Gunnell (2004). "The Coming of the Christmas Visitors: Folk Legends Concerning the Attacks on Icelandic Farmhouses Made by Spirits at Christmas" (PDF). Northern Studies. 38: 51–75. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  31. ^ Kristiana Magnusson (13 December 1991). "As Christmas Bells Ring Out". Lögberg-Heimskringla. p. 16. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  32. ^ Merle Alexander (19 December 1995). "Christmas abounds with spirits". The Oregonian. pp. FD02.
  33. ^ Sigrún María Kristinsdóttir (6 January 2006). "Getting down with the elves". Yukon News. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  34. ^ B. S. Benedikz (1973). "Basic Themes in Icelandic Folklore". Folklore. 84 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1080/0015587x.1973.9716492. JSTOR 1260433.
  35. ^ Ólina Thorvarðardóttir (1999). "Spirits of the Land: A Tool for Social Education". Bookbird. 37 (4): 34. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
  36. ^ Michael Strmiska (October 2000). "Ásatrú in Iceland: The Rebirth of Nordic Paganism?". Nova Religio. 4 (1): 126. doi:10.1525/nr.2000.4.1.106. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  37. ^ Anna Heida Pálsdóttir (2002). History, Landscape and National Identity: A Comparative Study of Contemporary English and Icelandic Children's Literature (PDF). University of Coventry. p. 206. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-22. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
  38. ^ Alan Boucher (1977). Elves, trolls and elemental beings: Icelandic folktales II. Reykjavik: Iceland Review Library. p. 12. OCLC 4277414.
  39. ^ Robert Thomas Anderson (2005). The Ghosts of Iceland. Belmont, California: Thomson Wadsworth. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-534-61052-4.
  40. ^ Terry Gunnell (2007). Introduction. Hildur, Queen of the Elves. By Jane M. Bedell. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-56656-633-9.
  41. ^ Kevin Jon Johnsan (24 February 1995). "Huldufólk and Social History". Lögberg-Heimskringla. pp. 1, 6. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  42. ^ Anna Pietrzkiewicz (9 May 2009). "Huldufólk Beliefs in Iceland and the Problem of Isolation: Interpreting Supernatural Folklore in the Context of Building Identity" (PDF). Taking Shetland out of the Box: Island Cultures and Shetland Identity. Lerwick: 27.
  43. ^ Gabriel Turville-Petre (June 1958). "Dreams in Icelandic Tradition". Folklore. 69 (2): 102–3. JSTOR 1258718.
  44. ^ Brian Pilkington; Terry Gunnell (2008). The Hidden People of Iceland. Reykjavík: Mál og menning. p. 2. ISBN 978-9979-3-2955-8.
  45. ^ Anna Zanchi (2006). "The Colour Green in Medieval Icelandic Literature: Natural, Supernatural, Symbolic?". The 13th International Saga Conference. Durham and York: 5–6.
  46. ^ Susan Salter Reynolds (27 April 2003). "Hunting Whales in West L.A.: Political Correctness, Cultural Imperialism and the Long, Long Journey for the Real Taste of Blubber". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  47. ^ Erlendur Haraldsson (1975). "Results of a survey on psychic, religious and folkloric experiences and beliefs in Iceland". Archived from the original (DOC) on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  48. ^ a b "Skoöanakönnun DV um álfatrú: Meirihluti þjoðarinnar trúir á álfa og huldufólk" [The majority of the people believe in elves and hidden people]. DV (in Icelandic). 22 July 1998. p. 2. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  49. ^ Valdimar Hafstein (2000). "The Elves' Point of View: Cultural identity in contemporary Icelandic elf tradition" (PDF). Fabula. 41 (1–2): 87. doi:10.1515/fabl.2000.41.1-2.87. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  50. ^ Sveinn Birkir Björnsson; Terry Gunnell (6 October 2007). "Elves in Cultural Vocabulary". The Reykjavík Grapevine Online. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  51. ^ Kirsten Hastrup (2004). "Getting it right: Knowledge and evidence in anthropology". Anthropological Theory. 4 (4): 465–466. doi:10.1177/1463499604047921. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  52. ^ Douglas McArthur (13 March 1996). "Elfschool tries to make a believer out of everyone". The Globe and Mail.
  53. ^ Sally Kindberg (12 November 2000). "Elves are alive and well in Iceland". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  54. ^ "Icelandic Wonders — Elves, Trolls, Myths, Folklore". Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  55. ^ James M. Markham (30 March 1982). "Iceland's elves are enlisted in anti-NATO effort". The New York Times. pp. A2. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
  56. ^ Michael Lewis (April 2009). "Wall Street on the Tundra". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 9 March 2009.
  57. ^ Jonas Moody (18 March 2009). "Vanity Fair's Fishy Tales From Iceland". New York. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
  58. ^ "Angry Elves Said to Have Wreaked Havoc in West Fjords". Iceland Review Online. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  59. ^ "Icelandic town hopes angry elves have been soothed by songs". IceNews. 2 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  60. ^ Birgir Olgeirsson (24 June 2011). "Á von á frekari hamförum verði álfar ekki beðnir afsökunar: Segir veru hafa látist við gerð Bolungarvíkurganga". Dagblaðið Vísir (in Icelandic). Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  61. ^ Kashmira Gander (23 December 2013). "Road project in Iceland delayed to protect 'hidden' elves". The Independent. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  62. ^ Jesse Byock; Jon Erlandson (2005). "A Viking-age Valley in Iceland: The Mosfell Archaeological Project" (PDF). Medieval Archaeology. 49 (1): 196. doi:10.1179/007660905x54080. Retrieved 2008-12-26. When we dug our first test trench at Kirkjuhóll, Ólafur informed us that no agricultural machinery had ever been used on the knoll because of the reverence attached to Kirkjuhóll in oral memory as the site of an ancient church. To date this remains the case, a situation that is relatively rare on contemporary Icelandic farms which are highly mechanized. The same has held true for Hulduhóll, with oral story attaching to it the interdiction that it was to be left alone because it was inhabited by ‘the hidden people’ or elves.
  63. ^ a b c Fran Parnell; Etain O'Carroll (2007). Iceland. Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-74104-537-6.
  64. ^ Erla Stefánsdóttir (1993). Hafnarfjörður, huliðsheimakort. Hafnarfjörður: Ferðamálanefnd Hafnarfjörður. Archived from the original on 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
  65. ^ Gulli Amason (14 June 2001). "Travel: Land of the national elf service Far out: Hafnarfjörður, Iceland (where the hidden people live)". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
  66. ^ Sigurbjörg Karlsdottir. "Hidden world walks". Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
  67. ^ "Ferðamenn nýta sér þjónustu álfagöngufyrirtækisins Horft í hamarinn: Það er meira en augað sér". Morgunblaðið (in Icelandic). 13 February 2003. p. 17. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
  68. ^ Erla Stefánsdóttir (1993). Hafnarfjörður, huliðsheimakort. Hafnarfjörður: Ferðamálanefnd Hafnarfjörður. Archived from the original on 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 1. Colourful, kindly elves live near the swimming pool in particularly beautiful houses.
  69. ^ Erla Stefánsdóttir (1993). Hafnarfjörður, huliðsheimakort. Hafnarfjörður: Ferðamálanefnd Hafnarfjörður. Archived from the original on 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 4. Setbergshamar cliff is the home of dwarfs, elves and hidden people with their own elven workshops, churches, schools and libraries.
  70. ^ Elisa Mala (2008). "Global Psyche: Magic Kingdom; In Iceland, the land of elves, you're never alone". Psychology Today. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  71. ^ Markaðsstofa Austurlands. "East Iceland : Álfaborg". Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2009. Right by the village, the legally protected hill of Álfaborg, which the "fjord of Borg", Borgarfjörður eystri, is named after, rises about 30 m high. Accessed by an easy trail and with an observation point on top, Álfaborg is home to the queen of the Icelandic elves.
  72. ^ Fran Parnell; Etain O'Carroll (2007). Iceland. Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet. p. 261. ISBN 978-1-74104-537-6.
  73. ^ Bill Holm (2007). The windows of Brimnes: an American in Iceland. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. pp. 63–72. ISBN 978-1-57131-302-7. On the south face of the headland stand several basalt columns called Búðarbrekkur (the Shop Slope). Local lore has it that this is the church, shop, and dwelling of the elves.
  74. ^ Jonathan Wilcox; Zawiah Abdul Latif (2007). Cultures of the World: Iceland. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-7614-2074-3.
  75. ^ "Attraction: Stapafell". Visit Iceland. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  76. ^ "Attraction: Laugar in Saelingsdal". Visit Iceland. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011. At about 3 km from Laugar you may find the rocky hill Tungustapi, home of elves.
  77. ^ "Attraction: Londrangar basalt cliffs". Visit Iceland. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011. The farmers in the area never made or make hay on the hill, because it is said to belong to the elves living in the area.
  78. ^ Sigurður Kristjánsson (2002). "Áminning". Glettingur (in Icelandic). 12 (2): 30.
  79. ^ "Iceland Road Guide: Grímsey". Vegahandbókin ehf. 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2011. Grímsey is said to be the home of many elves or "hidden people", whose church is supposed to be at Nónbrík.
  80. ^ Diane Slawych (15 September 2004). "Gimli's hidden people". Canoe Travel. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  81. ^ Dilla Narfason (9 July 1993). "Huldufólk Found and Exposed in Gimli". Lögberg-Heimskringla. p. 2. Retrieved 7 June 2009.

Further reading[edit]