From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Hulsanpes metatarsals.png
Right metatarsals and phalanx bone of the holotype
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Clade: Saurischia
Clade: Theropoda
Clade: Eumaniraptora
Family: Dromaeosauridae
Subfamily: Halszkaraptorinae
Genus: Hulsanpes
Osmólska, 1982
H. perlei
Binomial name
Hulsanpes perlei
Osmólska, 1982

Hulsanpes is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur from Mongolia that lived during the Late Cretaceous.[1]


Partial wall of the braincase

The fossil remains of Hulsanpes were found in 1970 by a Polish-Mongolian expedition to the Gobi Desert at Khulsan, Ömnögovi Province.[2]

The type species, Hulsanpes perlei, was named and described by Halszka Osmólska in 1982. The generic name means "foot from Khulsan", from the Latinized name of the type locality (Hulsan) + Latin pēs, "foot". The specific name honors the Mongolian paleontologist Altangerel Perle.[2]

Hulsanpes is based on holotype ZPAL MgD-I/173, uncovered in a layer of the Barun Goyot Formation, dating from the late Campanian (roughly 73 mya). It consist of a partial right foot and a braincase fragment from an apparently immature individual. It contains the second, third and fourth metatarsal and the first and partial second phalanx of the second toe. The longest bone, the third metatarsal, has a length of thirty-nine millimetres.[2]


Phalanx bone

Osmólska in 1982 placed Hulsanpes in the Dromaeosauridae.[2] Several features of the fossil were according to Osmólska too "primitive" for it to be a genuine bird, such as the lack of fusion of the metatarsals except in the distal region but this might partly be due to the young age of the individual. Although its juvenile nature is reminiscent of a miniature Velociraptor mongoliensis, and though these traits are plesiomorphic, it might still belong to another, non-avian, maniraptoran lineage besides Dromaeosauridae.[3] A 2004 phylogeny of Dromaeosauridae recovered Hulsanpes as a dromaeosaurid (due to a coding error for Sinovenator),[4] but Agnolin and Novas (2013) assign it to Averaptora incertae sedis based on the fact that the extremely gracile metatarsals are similar to Avialae and metatarsal III is proximally pinched.[5]

A study in 2017 found that Hulsanpes was a member of the enigmatic, basal subfamily Halszkaraptorinae.[1]

The cladogram below is based on the phylogenetic analysis conducted in 2017 by Cau et al. using updated data from the Theropod Working Group in their description of Halszkaraptor.[1]


Halszkaraptor Halszkaraptor reconstruction by Tom Parker.png



Unenlagiinae Austroraptor Reconstruction.jpg

Shanag Shanag.jpg

Zhenyuanlong Zhenyuanlong life restoration (white background).jpg

Microraptoria Microraptor Restoration.png




Dromaeosaurinae Utahraptor Restoration (flipped).png

Velociraptorinae Fred Wierum Velociraptor.png


  1. ^ a b c Cau, A.; Beyrand, V.; Voeten, D.; Fernandez, V.; Tafforeau, P.; Stein, K.; Barsbold, R.; Tsogtbaatar, K.; Currie, P.; Godrfroit, P. (6 December 2017). "Synchrotron scanning reveals amphibious ecomorphology in a new clade of bird-like dinosaurs". Nature. 552 (7685): 395–399. doi:10.1038/nature24679. PMID 29211712.
  2. ^ a b c d Osmólska, Halszka (1982): Hulsanpes perlei n. g. n. sp. (Deinonychosauria, Saurischia, Dinosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Barun Goyot Formation of Mongolia. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaeontologie, Monatshefte 1982(7): 440-448
  3. ^ Currie (2000)
  4. ^ Senter, Barsbold, Britt and Burnham, 2004. Systematics and evolution of Dromaeosauridae. Bulletin of Gunma Natural History Museum. 8, 1-20.
  5. ^ Federico L. Agnolín and Fernando E. Novas (2013). Avian ancestors. A review of the phylogenetic relationships of the theropods Unenlagiidae, Microraptoria, Anchiornis and Scansoriopterygidae. SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences: 1–96. ISBN 978-94-007-5636-6. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5637-3.


  • Currie, Philip J. (2000): Theropods from the Cretaceous of Mongolia. In: Benton, M. J.; Shishkin, M. A.; Unwin, D. M. & Kurochkin, E. N. (eds.): The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia: 434-455. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ISBN 0-521-54582-X PDF fulltext
  • Cau, A.; Madzia, D. (2018). Redescription and affinities of Hulsanpes perlei (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. PeerJ 6: e4868