July 26, 2009
|Headquarters||Los Angeles, California|
|Area served||United States|
|Revenue||$1 billion (2013)|
|Owner||NBCUniversal Television Group (32%)
Fox Broadcasting Company (36%)
Disney–ABC Television Group (32%)
|Parent||NBCUniversal (Comcast) (32%)
Fox Entertainment Group (21st Century Fox) (36%)
Disney Media Networks (The Walt Disney Company) (32%)
"Anywhere, Anytime""For the Love of TV"
|Alexa rank||292 (May 2015[update])|
|Type of site||Video on demand|
No advertising ($11.99/month)
|Registration||Not required for public content, but affords additional personalization features.
Registration and subscription required for Hulu Plus content.
|Users||apx.6 million Hulu Plus subscribers (2014) Unknown number of free content viewers.|
|Available in||English, Japanese, Portuguese, Korean|
|Launched||October 29, 2007
(Hulu Syndication Network)|
March 12, 2008 (Hulu.com destination site)
Hulu is an American online company and partially ad-supported streaming service offering a selection of TV shows, clips, movies, and other streaming media on Hulu.com. Hulu subscribers can access episodes in HD (when available) from ABC, the CW, Fox, and NBC the day after they air, using Internet-connected computers, game consoles, set-top boxes, smartphones, tablets, TVs, and other devices for a monthly subscription fee.
As of 2015[update] Hulu is offered only to users in Japan and the United States and its overseas territories. Other regions are blocked by IP address location. Hulu provides video in Flash Video format, including many films and shows that are available in 288p, 360p, 480p, and in some cases, 720p or 1080p HD (high-definition video). Hulu also provides web syndication services for other websites including AOL, Facebook, MSN, Myspace, Yahoo!, and Comcast's XfinityTV.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Viewership
- 4 Programming
- 5 Availability
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
In Mandarin, Hulu has two interesting meanings, each highly relevant to our mission. The primary meaning interested us because it is used in an ancient Chinese proverb that describes the Hulu as the holder of precious things. It literally translates to "gourd," and in ancient times, the Hulu was hollowed out and used to hold precious things. The secondary meaning is "interactive recording." We saw both definitions as appropriate bookends and highly relevant to the mission of Hulu.
It should also be noted that "hulu" is also a Sumerian word meaning "to strike the eyes; blinker, winker, one with vision problems".
The Hulu venture was announced in March 2007 with AOL, Comcast, Facebook, MSN, Myspace, and Yahoo! planned as "initial distribution partners". Jason Kilar was named the CEO in June 2007. The name Hulu was chosen in late August 2007, when the website went live, with an announcement only and no content. It invited users to leave their email addresses for the upcoming beta test. In October, Hulu began the private beta testing by invitation, and later allowed users to invite friends. Hulu launched for public access in the United States on March 12, 2008. The first product to launch was the HULU Syndication network, which was designed and developed by the NBCUniversal team from New York, on October 29, 2007, followed by the Hulu.com destinations site.
Hulu began an advertising campaign during NBC's broadcast of Super Bowl XLIII with an initial ad starring Alec Baldwin titled "Alec in Huluwood". The ad intended to humorously reveal "the shocking secret behind Hulu", portraying the site as being an "evil plot to destroy the world" by suggesting that Baldwin is really an alien in disguise. Advertisements have since aired featuring Eliza Dushku, Seth MacFarlane, Denis Leary, and Will Arnett.
In 2007, Providence Equity Partners, the owner of Newport Television, became one of the earliest "outside" investors by purchasing a 10 percent stake in the company for US$100 million equity investment, before the company was known as "Hulu". With its investment came a seat on the board of directors, where Providence was said to act as an "independent voice on the board". In October 2012, Providence sold its 10 percent stake to "Hulu's media owners" and ceased participation in the board.
Early in 2010, Hulu chief executive Jason Kilar said the service had made a profit in two quarters and that the company could top $100 million in revenue by summer 2010, more than its income for all of 2009. ComScore says monthly video streams reached 903 million in January 2010, over three times the figure for a year earlier, and second only to YouTube.
On June 21, 2011, The Wall Street Journal reported that an "unsolicited offer" caused Hulu to begin "weighing whether to sell itself." On October 13, 2011 however, Hulu and its owners announced that they would not sell the company, as none of the bidders offered an amount that was satisfactory to its owners.
It was reported that in 2011 Hulu made $420 million. The figure was $80 million short of the predicted revenue.
The vacant CEO post was officially filled by former Fox Networks President Mike Hopkins on October 17, 2013.
Following the start of its service, Hulu signed deals with several new content providers making additional material available to consumers.
Starting August 15, 2011, viewers of content from Fox and related networks are required to authenticate paid cable or satellite service wherever Fox streams episodes, including on Hulu, to be able to watch them the morning after the first airing. Non-subscribers will see those episodes delayed a week before they are viewable.
Hulu Subscription Service
At an industry conference held on October 21, 2009, News Corporation Deputy Chairman Chase Carey stated that Hulu "needs to evolve to have a meaningful subscription model as part of its business" and that it would likely start charging for at least some content by 2010. Carey's comment jibes with other News Corp. heads, including Rupert Murdoch who has expressed a desire to charge for content with a number of online units.
The Hulu monthly subscription service was launched in beta (preview) on June 29, 2010 and officially launched on November 17, 2010. Like the free version of Hulu, the content available with a Hulu subscription also contains limited advertising. However, it offers an expanded content library including full seasons, day-after access to current season content and more episodes of shows available through the free Hulu. A Hulu subscription also provides subscribers with a wider array of viewing choices. The free Hulu is only available on PCs and laptops, while a Hulu subscription allows viewers to access Hulu through all Hulu-supported devices including set-top boxes, smart TVs, gaming consoles, mobile devices and more. A little more than a year after the launch of the Hulu subscription service, the number of paying subscribers reached 1.5 million. By 2015, Hulu reached a 50 percent increase in subscribers and announced that the service had reached nearly 9 million paying subscribers. 
On April 29, 2015, Hulu announced to the press that they would do away with the "Plus" brand name to reduce confusion between the paid and free plans.
The Wall Street Journal reported in July 2015 that Hulu was exploring an advertising-free subscription option for around $12 to $14 a month. This was confirmed as going forward as of September 2, 2015, with a "No Commercials" plan priced at $11.99, $4 more than the $7.99 monthly rate for a "Limited Commercials" subscription, though several highlight network series would retain pre-roll and post-roll ad pods.
The company claims that Hulu now has millions of viewers on more than 400 million internet-connected devices in the US, including TVs, smartphones, gaming consoles, and set-top boxes.
Computers and laptops: The hulu.com website is built to host content directly in a web browser. To watch Hulu one needs:
- Adobe Flash Player 10.1.53.64 or above
- Chrome, Firefox 15.0 or above, Internet Explorer 10.0 or above, or Safari 5.0 or above
- Linux, Macintosh OS X 10.5 or above, or Microsoft Windows XP SP2 or above
- Amazon Fire TV
- Apple TV
- Funai Streaming Player
- Google Chromecast using a smartphone or tablet app
- Google Nexus Player
- Netgear Media Players
- RCA Media Players
- Roku Streaming Player
- Tivo Premiere: TiVo DVR boxes (Premiere, Premiere XL, Premiere Elite, and Roamio models)
- Android (4.x or higher; select 3.x and 2.x devices)
- iPad (3rd generation or higher)
- iPhone (3GS, 4, 4S, 5, 5S, 5C, 6, and 6 Plus)
- iPod (3rd, 4th, and 5th gen)
- Kindle Fire, Kindle Fire HD and Fire HDX
- Nook (Nook Tablet, Nook HD/HD+, Samsung Galaxy NOOK)
- Amazon Kindle Fire & Kindle Fire HD
- Android Phones / Tablets: Available on Android 4.x; select 3.x and 2.x devices
- Apple iOS: Available on the iTunes App Store for the iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch running iOS version 4 or higher.
- Nintendo 3DS
- PlayStation Vita
- Windows 8/Windows Phone 8: Available on Tablets Laptops and Desktops
Televisions (networked-enabled Smart Tvs) / Blu-ray Players:
- Denon Blu-rays
- Dynex Blu-rays
- LG Tvs/Blu-rays
- Marantz Blu-rays
- Panasonic Tvs/Blu-rays
- Philips Tvs
- Samsung Tvs/Blu-rays
- Sharp TVS
- Sony Tvs/Blu-rays
- Toshiba Blu-rays
- Vizio Tvs/Blu-rays
Viewership numbers for the site are tracked by measurement firms such as ComScore, Nielsen ratings, and Quantcast. In partnership with comScore, Hulu is the first digital company to receive multi-platform measurement at an individual level that includes co-viewing for living room devices. When factoring this in, Hulu's reach among A18-49 increases 50 percent.
However, the reliability of these metrics has been drawn into question, partly due to widely divergent estimates. For example, between May and June 2010, ComScore updated its scoring methodology and its estimates for Hulu dropped from 43.5 million unique viewers to 24 million in a single month. In a comScore digital trends report in 2010, comScore's Digital Year in Review report found that Hulu was watched twice as much as viewers who watched on the websites of the five major TV networks combined.
Hulu distributes video on its own website and syndicates its hosting to other sites, and allows users to embed Hulu clips on their websites. In addition to NBC, ABC and Fox programs and movies, Hulu carries shows from networks such as A&E, Big Ten Network, Bravo, E!, Fox Sports 2, FX, G4, Ion Television, NFL Network, Oxygen, RT America, Fox Sports 1, Esquire Network, SundanceTV, Syfy, USA Network, NBCSN, and online comedy sources such as Onion News Network. Hulu retains between thirty and fifty percent of advertising revenue generated by the shows it distributes.
In November 2009, Hulu also began to establish partnerships with record labels to host music videos and concert performances on the site, including EMI in November 2009, and Warner Music Group in December 2009.
In early March 2010, Viacom announced that it was pulling two of the website's most popular shows, The Colbert Report and The Daily Show, off Hulu. The programs had been airing on Hulu since late 2008. A spokesman for Viacom noted that "in the current economic model, there is not that much in it for us to continue at this time. If they can get to the point where the monetization model is better, then we may go back." In February 2011, both shows were made available for streaming on Hulu again.
As of January 17, 2011, Hulu has streamed its own in-house web series The Morning After, a light-hearted pop-culture news show. It is produced by Hulu in conjunction with Jace Hall's HDFilms and stars Brian Kimmet and Ginger Gonzaga. Producing the show is a first for the company, which in the past has been primarily a content distributor.
On January 16, 2012, Hulu announced that it would be airing its first original script based program, titled Battleground, scheduled to air in February 2012. The program will air on Hulu's free web service rather than on the subscription-based Hulu Plus. Battleground is described as a documentary-style political drama.
Later that same month, Hulu announced it would air The Fashion Fund, a six-part reality series, and the winner of the show will receive $300,000 to start their career.
To continue with its original programming movement, Hulu announced that there will be a total of seven original programs that are planned to air on its service: Battleground, Day in the Life, and Up to Speed, and a were previously mentioned; and on April 19, Hulu added four more shows to its list: Don't Quit Your Daydream, Flow, The Awesomes, and We Got Next. Some of these programs began airing in 2012, while others will premiere over the next few years.
On May 21, 2012, Hulu announced it would be bringing Kevin Smith to its line-up of original programming. Smith hosts a movie discussion show titled Spoilers, which began airing in the summer of 2012.
On July 12, 2014, it was announced that Hulu had signed a three-year deal purchasing exclusive online streaming rights to the South Park library. Through the deal, the South Park Studios website became powered by the Hulu video and advertising experience. Along with this, the domain name changed from "southparkstudios.com" to "southpark.cc.com". Previously, the show had been removed from Netflix, along with other titles. The new site launch caused a few technical issues, but everything was fixed and fans are able to watch full, uncensored  episodes and clips again on southpark.cc.com and Hulu. For viewers outside the US, episodes and clips still stream through the “classic” South Park player and nothing changed aside from the new site design. A handful of countries have their own localized versions of South Park sites – fans in these countries can continue to watch episodes and interact with other fans exactly as before.
It was announced that beginning in September 2014, following the premiere of the 18th season, only 30 select episodes will be featured for free viewing at a time on the website, with new episodes being available for an entire month starting the day following their original airings. The entire series is available for viewing on the Hulu subscription service.
Networks and channels
- A+E Networks: A&E, Fyi, History
- AMC Networks: AMC
- ANO TV-Novosti: RT America
- CBS content in Japan and now the US
- Discovery Communications: Animal Planet, Discovery Channel, Discovery en Español, Discovery Digital Networks, Destination America, Investigation Discovery, TLC
- Fox Entertainment Group: Fox, Fox News Channel, Fox Business Network, FX, FX Movie Channel, FXX, National Geographic Channel
- NBCUniversal: CNBC, MSNBC, NBC, Oxygen, Syfy, USA Network
- Showtime (TV network) Showtime
- Turner Broadcasting System/Warner Brothers: Adult Swim, Cartoon Network, The CW, TNT
- Viacom Media Networks: BET, Comedy Central, MTV, Nickelodeon, TV Land, VH1
- The Walt Disney Company: ABC, Disney Junior
Producers and distributors
- 21st Century Fox
- CBS Corporation
- Green Apple Entertainment
- Media Blasters
- Nutri Ventures Corporation
- Sentai Filmworks
- Sony Pictures
- Time Warner
- Viz Media
- All My Children (2013)
- The Booth at the End (2011 US & Japan)
- Coronation Street (2013–present)
- Deadbeat (2014–present)
- East Los High
- Fresh Meat (2012 US Only)
- Home and Away (2015–present)
- The Hotwives (2014–present)
- Line of Duty
- Little Mosque on the Prairie
- Misfits (2011 US Only)
- Mongrels (2011 US Only)
- Moone Boy (2013–present)
- Mother Up! (2013–present)
- Neighbours (2014–present)
- One Life to Live (2013)
- The Only Way Is Essex
- Pramface (2012 US Only)
- Prisoners of War
- The Promise (2013)
- Rev. (2011 US Only)
- Spy (2011 US Only)
- The Straits
- The Thick of It (2012 US Only)
- Whites (2011 US Only)
- The Yard (2011 US Only)
In 2013, Nippon Television Network Corporation (Nippon TV) acquired Hulu’s Japan business. The transaction, which is subject to certain regulatory conditions, marked Nippon TV’s entry into the SVOD (Subscription Video On Demand) business. Through the acquisition, the Hulu service continues to offer Japanese consumers premium content, including Hollywood and Japanese films and dramas and popular television programming. Additionally, Nippon TV’s popular shows and original exclusive content launched on the Hulu service in Japan, expanding its content offering. Japanese users have access to a library of popular television shows such as the CSI franchise, Grey's Anatomy, Prison Break, and Ugly Betty, and as well as movies such as Armageddon, Men in Black, and Pirates of the Caribbean.
Hulu was planning on launching in the UK and Ireland in September 2009, but as of April 2010 these had been abandoned for the foreseeable future after failure to sign any content deals. In July 2010, the Financial Times revealed that Hulu had been working on plans for an international launch of Hulu Plus for several months, and had identified the UK and Japan as markets where its free website and subscription model could feasibly work. Hulu chief executive Jason Kilar expressed his belief that the US model could be replicated elsewhere, saying "We won't be satisfied until this is a global service." Hulu's first expansion into an international market took place with the launching of service in Japan on September 1, 2011.
Hulu is unable to launch in Canada, due to the relative small size of Canada's online advertising market, and because Canada's television networks already have the exclusive online streaming rights in Canada to several titles offered on Hulu, including mainstream American television network programs. The absence of Hulu in the Canadian market raised concerns by fans of the sitcom The Mindy Project when it was cancelled by Fox in the spring of 2015 and subsequently picked up by Hulu; the show's Canadian broadcaster, City, subsequently announced it would continue to air the series in Canada. At present, Canadian consumers have access to several other streaming systems, including a Canadian version of Netflix, Shomi, CraveTV and Crackle.
- "Hulu's Billion-Dollar Milestone: A Sign Of Just How Far Behind Netflix It Has Fallen" Forbes, December 19, 2013
- ""NBC Officially Owns 32 Percent of Hulu (Until Comcast Acquires It)" Page 17 of 26; Accessed February 14, 2010". Thebigmoney.com. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- ""NBC Officially Owns 32 Percent of Hulu (Until Comcast Acquires It)" Page 17 of 26; Accessed February 14, 2010". Thebigmoney.com. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- "Hulu.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "Today at the Hulu Upfront". Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Hulu.com Opens to Public". Press Room (Press release). Hulu. 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2008-03-28. External link in
- Kramer, Staci D. (April 30, 2009). "It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets". Retrieved October 30, 2009.
- Although NBCUniversal is a major shareholder (32%) of Hulu, by the Federal Communications Commission, NBCUniversal and Comcast are required not to exercise any right to influence the conduct or operation of Hulu. "Neither Comcast nor C-NBCU shall exercise any right to influence the conduct or operation of Hulu, including those arising from agreements, arrangements or operation of its equity interests (e.g., board seats, voting for directors or other shareholder matters, management and veto rights, etc.) and C-NBCU shall as and from the date of this Order hold its interest in Hulu solely as an economic interest." (MO&O, 1/20/11, FCC Grants Approval of Comcast-NBCU Transaction, Comcast Corporation and NBC Universal, Federal Communications Commission)
- Kilar, Jason (2008-05-14). "What's in a Name?". Retrieved 2010-07-17.
- "The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary". Retrieved 2015-05-10.
- "NBC Universal and News Corp. Announce New Online Video Venture". Press Room (Press release). Hulu. 2007-03-22. Retrieved 2008-03-28. External link in
- Nat Worden (2007-03-22). "Google's Still on Top". TheStreet.com. Retrieved 2007-08-29.
- Nat Worden (2007-08-29). "Google's New Foe: Hulu". TheStreet.com. Retrieved 2007-08-29.
- "Hulu Debuts Via Private Beta". Press Room (Press release). Hulu. 2007-10-29. Retrieved 2008-03-28. External link in
- "Hulu TV Ads: Alec in Huluwood". Hulu. Hulu. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- McCarthy, Caroline (January 26, 2009). "Hulu to shock the world with Super Bowl ad". CNET News. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
- Brady, Shirley (August 29, 2007). "NBC and Fox Jump Through Hulu Hoop". Cable360.net. Archived from the original on December 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-29.
- Lawler, Ryan (May 12, 2012). "It’s Done: Early Hulu Investor Providence Equity Partners Has Sold Its Stake For $200M". techcrunch.com. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
- Stelter, Brian; Stone, Brad (2010-04-05). "Hulu, the online-video hub, contemplates its future". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Grotticelli, Michael (2010-04-26). "Hulu plans subscription service". Broadcast Engineering. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- U.S. video viewing site Hulu plans an IPO: report[dead link]
- Dealbook (2010-08-16). "Hulu Is Said to Be Ready for an I.P.O". Dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- VASCELLARO (2011-06-21). "Website Hulu Considers Sale". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
- Parr, Ben (October 13, 2011). "Hulu Is No Longer For Sale". Mashable. Mashable, Inc. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Van Grove, Jennifer (January 31, 2012). "Hulu CEO Jason Kilar: Original programming is an important part of the agenda.". VentureBeat.
- "Mike Hopkins Named CEO of Hulu". Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Brian Stelter, The New York Times. "Fox to Limit Next-Day Streaming on Hulu to Paying Cable Customers". July 26, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- Wasserman, Todd, Mashable 
- "Hulu BBC Deal, A Positive Step After Some Cloudy Times". CEOWORLD Magazine. 18 September 2013.
- Atkinson, Claire (2009-10-21). "Chase Carey: Hulu to Charge in 2010". Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
- Sandoval, Greg (22 October 2009). "More signs Hulu subscription service is coming". Media Maverick. CNET. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- Stelter, Brian (29 June 2010). "Hulu Unveils Subscription Service For $9.99 a Month". New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Stelter, Brian (27 November 2010). "Hulu Drops Prices to Compete With Netflix". New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Nakashima, Ryan January 13, 2012. "Hulu Plus ends year with 1.5 million subscribers".
- Mike Hopkins April 29, 2015. "Hulu Announces Overall Growth and Unveils New Content Deals at 2015 Upfront Presentation".
- "Hulu closes in on 9 million paid subscribers". CNET. CBS Interactive.
- Peterson, Tim (April 29, 2015). Advertising Age http://adage.com/article/media/hulu-drop-hulu-brand-picks-seinfeld/298305/. Retrieved September 13, 2015. Missing or empty
- "Hulu Explores Adding Ad-Free Option to Its Service". Wall Street Journal. July 16, 2015.
- "Hulu - About". Hulu. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
- Wallenstein, Andrew (2 September 2015). "Hulu Adds (Mostly) Ad-Free Subscription Service". Variety. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- "Hulu Plus Devices". Hulu.com.
- Dawn C. Chmielewski (26 Jul 2010). "Hulu's sharp decline in viewership underscores inconsistency in measuring size of online audience". LA Times. Retrieved 1 Nov 2013.
- Schonfeld, Erick (7 Feb 2011). "ComScore: Hulu Is Watched Twice As Much As The 5 Major TV Networks Online Combined". TechCrunch.
- Rebecca Dana and Emily Steel (2008-03-11). "Can Hulu Find Its Mojo With Viewers?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
- "ABC to offer shows on Hulu". The Live Feed. April 30, 2009.
- Albanesius, Chloe (November 18, 2009). "Hulu, EMI Strike Deal for Music Videos, Concerts". PC Magazine. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
- Albanesius, Chloe (December 23, 2009). "Hulu, Warner Music Sign Deal for Music Content". PC Magazine. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
- New York Daily News article: "Comedy Central's 'The Daily Show' and 'The Colbert Report' off Hulu."
- Multichannel News article: "Dauman: Vivendi Could Return To Hulu."
- Liz Shannon Miller (2011-01-18). "New Series The Morning After Nudges Hulu Into Production". GigaOM. Retrieved 2011-05-02.
- Rother, Larry, January 16, 2012, "Hulu Announces First Original-Script-Based Program".
- Poggi Jeanine January 27, 2012. Hulu Adds Unscripted Series 'The Fashion Fund,' Accelerating Original Content Effort."
- Perez, Sarah (April 19, 2012). "Hulu Announces Four More Original Series". TechCrunch.
- Wasserman, Todd (May 21, 2012). "Hulu to Launch New Show With Kevin Smith Plus 9 Other Titles". Mashable.
- "Hulu and South Park Announce Exclusive Multi-Year Content Licensing Deal at 2014 Television Critics Association Summer Press Tour - Business Wire". businesswire.com.
- "South Park - Watch Full Episodes, Clips & More". southparkstudios.com.
- "South Park - Watch Full Episodes, Clips & More". cc.com.
- "Netflix removes South Park and other titles from its library". Know Your Mobile.
- "South Park – New Site FAQs". cc.com.
- Smiley, Minda (May 14, 2015). "AT&T strikes deal with Hulu to offer subscription service to its customers". The Drum. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Why can't I use Hulu internationally?". Hulu.com. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Nippon TV Acquires Hulu Service in Japan". Businesswire. 2014-02-27.
- "Hulu launches its first overseas operation in Japan". Asia Pacific Arts. 2011-09-01.
- Barnett, Emma. Hulu 'abandons UK plans' after broadcaster talks collapse, The Daily Telegraph, April 27, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- Garrahan, Matthew. Hulu eyes launching global pay platform, Financial Times, July 8, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Laughlin, Andrew. Hulu 'puts UK launch back on agenda', Digital Spy, July 9, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- "Summary Box: Hulu launches video subscription service in Japan". Washington Post. September 1, 2011. Retrieved September 2, 2011.[dead link]
- "Mindy Project staying on City despite being dropped by Fox". Toronto Star. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
|Look up 葫芦 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Hulu Japanese site (Japanese)
- "With Hulu, Older Audiences Lead the Way", The Wall Street Journal