Human-centered design (HCD) is a design and management framework that develops solutions to problems by involving the human perspective in all steps of the problem-solving process. Human involvement typically takes place in observing the problem within context, brainstorming, conceptualizing, developing, and implementing the solution.
Human-centered design is an approach to interactive systems development that aims to make systems usable and useful by focusing on the users, their needs and requirements, and by applying human factors/ergonomics, usability knowledge, and techniques. This approach enhances effectiveness and efficiency, improves human well-being, user satisfaction, accessibility and sustainability; and counteracts possible adverse effects of use on human health, safety and performance. ISO 9241-210:2010(E)
Human-centered design builds upon participatory action research by moving beyond participant's involvement and producing solutions to problems rather than solely documenting them. Initial stages usually revolve around immersion, observing, and contextual framing in which innovators immerse themselves with the problem and community. Consequent stages may then focus on community brainstorming, modeling and prototyping, and implementation in community spaces. Further, human-centered design typically focuses on integrating technology or other useful tools in order to alleviate problems, especially around issues of health. Once the solution is integrated, human-centered design usually employs system usability scales and community feedback in order to determine the success of the solution.
Rationale for adopting human-centered design
Using a human-centered approach to design and development has substantial economic and social benefits for users, employers and suppliers. Highly usable systems and products tend to be more successful both technically and commercially. In some areas, such as consumer products, purchasers will pay a premium for well-designed products and systems. Support and help-desk costs are reduced when users can understand and use products without additional assistance. In most countries, employers and suppliers have legal obligations to protect users from risks to their health, and safety and human-centered methods can reduce these risks (e.g. musculoskeletal risks). Systems designed using human-centred methods improve quality, for example, by:
- increasing the productivity of users and the operational efficiency of organizations;
- being easier to understand and use, thus reducing training and support costs;
- increasing usability for people with a wider range of capabilities and thus increasing accessibility;
- improving user experience;
- reducing discomfort and stress;
- providing a competitive advantage, for example by improving brand image;
- contributing towards sustainability objectives
Human-centered design may be utilized in multiple fields, including sociological sciences and technology. It has been noted for its ability to consider human dignity, access, and ability roles when developing solutions. Because of this, human-centered design may more fully incorporate culturally sound, human-informed, and appropriate solutions to problems in a variety of fields rather than solely product and technology-based fields. Typically, human-centered design is more focused on "methodologies and techniques for interacting with people in such a manner as to facilitate the detection of meanings, desires and needs, either by verbal or non-verbal means." In contrast, user-centered design is another approach and framework of processes which considers the human role in product use, but focuses largely on the production of interactive technology designed around the user's physical attributes rather than social problem solving.
Future advances in human-centered design
Human-centered design has been both lauded and critiqued for its ability to actively problem solve with affected communities. Critiques include the inability of human-centered design to push the boundaries of available technology by solely tailoring to the demands of present-day solutions, rather than focus on possible future solutions. In addition, human-centered design often considers context, but does not offer tailored approaches for very specific groups of people. New research on innovative approaches include youth-centered health design, which focuses on youth as the central aspect with particular needs and limitations not always addressed by human-centered design approaches.
Methods Created by Design Companies
Every design firm or organization has their own design process. Different disciplines use slightly different language and techniques, but ultimately all these processes are very similar. Here are a few examples:
- ISO 13407:1999 Human-centered design processes for interactive systems
- ISO 9241-210:2010 Ergonomics of human-system interaction -- Part 210: Human-centered design for interactive systems
- Stanford d.school
- The Human Centered Design Society
- User Experience Professionals Association (UXPA)
- Open IDEO
- Innovating for people: Handbook of human-centered design methods. (2012). Pittsburgh, PA: LUMA Institute, LLC.
- Matheson, G. O., Pacione, C., Shultz, R. K., & Klügl, M. (2015). Leveraging human-centered design in chronic disease prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48(4), 472-479.
- Buchanan, R. (2001). Human dignity and human rights: Thoughts on the principles of human-centered design. Design issues, 17(3), 35-39.
- Giacomin, J. (2014). What Is Human Centered Design? The Design Journal, 17(4), 606-623.
- Abras, C., Maloney-Krichmar, D., & Preece, J. (2004). User-centered design. Bainbridge, W. Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 37(4), 445-456.
- Norman, D. A. (2005). Human-centered design considered harmful. Interactions, 12(4), 14-19.