While most human-powered watercraft use buoyancy to maintain their position relative to the surface of the water, a few, such as human-powered hydrofoils and human-powered submarines, use hydrofoils, either alone or in addition to buoyancy.
Oared craft include:
Two-oared sculled craft include:
- Adirondack guideboat
- Banks dory, Gloucester dory, and McKenzie River dory
- Sampans rowed by foot in Ninh Bình Province of northern Vietnam.
- Scull, Single scull, Double scull, Quad scull, and Octuple scull
- Row boat
Sweep-oared craft include:
Single-oar sculled craft include:
A paddle, with a blade on one or both ends, is held with both hands.
Paddled craft include:
- Canoe, Outrigger canoe, Umiak, Waka, Pirogue, Shikara, Dragon boat, and Dugout
- Kayak, Sea kayak, Flyak, and Baidarka
Pedals are attached to a crank and propelled in circles, or to a treadle and reciprocated, with the feet. The collected power is then transferred to the water with a paddle wheel, flippers, or to the air or water with a propeller.
Pedaled craft include:
- Amphibious cycle
- Pedal-powered kayak
- Pedal-powered submarine
- Pedal-powered hydrofoil
A pole is held with both hands and used to push against the bottom.
Poled craft include:
Other types of human-powered watercraft include:
Hand paddling surfboards
Polling a raft
Sculling a gondola
Paddling an umiak
Decavitator, the world's fastest human-powered watercraft, is a pedal-powered hydrofoil
Starting an AquaSkipper hydrofoil
Woman rowing sampan with her feet in Ninh Bình Province of northern Vietnam
- David Gordon Wilson (2007). "Pedal Power: Chapter 1 - Human Muscle Power in History". Green-Trust.Org. Retrieved 2011-07-27.
- "Sweep vs. Sculling". Virginia Boat Club. Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2011-07-27.
- Matthew Pike (January 30, 2018). "How Vietnamese Guides Row With Their Feet". TheCulturalTrip.com. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
They row with their feet. As Mrs. Gấm puts it: “Rowing boat by feet is much quicker and less exhausting than by hands.”
- Joseph Needham, Colin A. Ronan (1978). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521315609. Retrieved 2011-07-27.
- Mike Hanlon (June 4, 2004). "Hobie Pedal Kayak". GizMag. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
The sturdily constructed pedal/flipper mechanism operates like a penguin's fins - swinging laterally underneath the hull as you pedal.
- T. Edward Nickens (Mar 8, 2010). "How to Catch Big Game Fish—From a Kayak". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
It's outfitted with the MirageDrive propulsion system, a pedal-powered pair of flexible fins that function as oscillating foils—much like penguin and sea-turtle flippers.
- "Pedal-powered paddles a relaxing way to explore". The Daily Telegraph. Oct 30, 2008. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
Instead of a conventional paddle, these kayaks can be powered by a foot-pedal system which drives two under-keel fins. Inspired by penguin flippers, the fins swing side to side.
- Charlie Sorrel (Oct 19, 2010). "Pedal Powered Submarine Dives to 20-Feet". Wired. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
The Scubster is an underwater bike, a pedal powered submarine with twin propellors that push it through the water at a speedy 5mph.
- Timon Singh (Aug 25, 2010). "French Engineers Design a Pedal-Powered Submarine". Inhabitat. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
First there was the bicycle, then the pedalo boat, then the pedal-powered aircraft — and now, thanks to a team of French engineers, the world has the pedal-powered submarine.