Human T-lymphotropic virus 2

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A virus closely related to HTLV-I, Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-II) shares approximately 70% genomic homology (structural similarity) with HTLV-I.

It is found predominantly in Native Americans,[1] and South American Indian groups. And also in Asian countries. More common in Japan and Korea. It can be passed down from mother to child through breastmilk and genetically as well from either parent.

HTLV-II entry in target cells is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT1.[2]

Clinical significance[edit]

HTLV-II has not been clearly linked to any disease, but has been associated with several cases of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)- like neurological disease.

An impact on platelet count has been observed.[3]

In the 1980s, HTLV-2 was identified in a patient with an unidentified T cell lymphoproliferative disease that was described as having characteristics similar to the B cell disorder, hairy cell leukemia.[4] HTLV-2 was identified in a second patient with a T cell lymphoproliferative disease; this patient later developed hairy cell leukemia, but HTLV-2 was not found in the hairy cell clones.[5] The cause of hairy cell leukemia is not known, but it is no longer believed to be related to viral infections.


  1. ^ Roucoux DF, Murphy EL. "The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II". 
  2. ^ Manel N, Kim FJ, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini JL (November 2003). "The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a receptor for HTLV". Cell 115 (4): 449–59. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00881-X. PMID 14622599. 
  3. ^ Bartman MT, Kaidarova Z, Hirschkorn D, et al. (November 2008). "Long-term increases in lymphocytes and platelets in human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection". Blood 112 (10): 3995–4002. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-05-155960. PMC 2581993. PMID 18755983. 
  4. ^ Kalyanaraman VS, Sarngadharan MG, Robert-Guroff M, Miyoshi I, Golde D, Gallo RC (November 1982). "A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia". Science 218 (4572): 571–3. doi:10.1126/science.6981847. PMID 6981847. 
  5. ^ Rosenblatt JD, Giorgi JV, Golde DW, et al. (February 1988). "Integrated human T-cell leukemia virus II genome in CD8 + T cells from a patient with "atypical" hairy cell leukemia: evidence for distinct T and B cell lymphoproliferative disorders". Blood 71 (2): 363–9. PMID 2827811. 

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