Human Tissue Authority
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The Human Tissue Authority (HTA) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health of the United Kingdom. It regulates the removal, storage, use and disposal of human bodies, organs and tissue for a number of scheduled purposes such as research, transplantation, and education and training.
It was created by the Human Tissue Act 2004 and came into being on 1 April 2005 and its statutory functions began on 1 April 2006. The authority was originally chaired by Baroness Hayman followed, in 2006, by Shirley Harrison, from January 2010-2018 by Baroness Diana Warwick and since March 2018 by Nicola Blackwood.
Its objectives are to:
- ...be the regulating authority for matters relating to activities such as anatomical and post-mortem examinations, transplantations and the storage of human material for education, training and research.
The Human Tissue Act
The Human Tissue Act 2004 repeals and replaces the Human Tissue Act 1961, the Anatomy Act 1984 and the Human Organ Transplants Act 1989 as they relate to England and Wales, and the corresponding Orders in Northern Ireland. The ULTRA (UK agency) and the post of HM Inspector of Anatomy were abolished and their functions transferred to the Authority.
The Act makes consent the fundamental principle underpinning the lawful storage and use of body parts, organs and tissue from the living or the deceased for specified health-related purposes and public display. It also covers the removal of such material from the deceased. It lists the purposes for which consent is required (the scheduled purposes).
The Act notably prohibited private individuals from covertly collecting biological samples, such as hair and fingernails, for DNA analysis, but excluded medical and criminal investigations from the offence.
Code of Conduct, and Jurisdiction
According to the Human Tissue Act, the HTA and its authority are governed by a code of conduct for the handling of human tissue, and the bodies of the deceased, but does not give the HTA authority over exhumed remains from archaeological sites.
The Act governs England, Wales and Northern Ireland. There is separate legislation in Scotland, the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006 and the Authority performs certain tasks on behalf of the Scottish Government (approval of living donation and licensing of establishments storing tissue for human application).
The Authority consists of a Chair and eleven Members. Nine members have been appointed by the Secretary of State for Health, one appointed by the Welsh Government, and one member is appointed by the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety in Northern Ireland.
The professional members of the board come from medical and scientific backgrounds, and the lay members bring a wide range of business, commercial and public sector experience.
The members of the authority are as follows:
- Nicola Blackwood (Chair)
- Amanda Gibbon
- Bill Horne
- Dr Lorna Williamson OBE
- Dr Stuart Dollow
- Glenn Houston
- Hossam Abdalla
- Professor Andy Hall
- Professor Anthony Warrens
- Professor Dame Sally Macintyre
- Professor Penney Lewis
- The Right Reverend Graham Usher
- "Arm's length bodies". GOV.UK. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- "Biographies: Nicola Blackwood". Human Tissue Authority. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- UK Parliament. Human Tissue Act as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
- "Codes of Practice and Standards". Human Tissue Authority. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- "Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006: A Guide to Its Implications tor NHS Scotland" (PDF). Human Tissue Authority. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- "Biographies | Human Tissue Authority". www.hta.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
- Human Tissue Authority
- Announcement of membership - Page at the Wellcome Trust announcing the Human Tissue Authority members.
- Chafea Transplantation and Transfusion brochure - Outlining around 50 EU-funded Projects and Actions for saving and improving the quality of life of citizens by facilitating transplantation and blood transfusion in the European Union. Produced by Chafea - the Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency.