A human chain is a form of demonstration in which people link their arms as a show of political solidarity. The chains can involve thousands of people, with the world record being claimed by a 2017 protest in Bihar, India, which was estimated to include 20 million people across 11,292 kilometres (7,017 mi).
List of notable human chains
|Date||Event||Location||Number of participants||Purpose|
|June 10, 2018||Human chain for Basque self-determination 2018||Basque Autonomous Community, Spain||175,000||Advocacy for a right of the Basques to decide their political status.|
|1983||Berkshire, England, United Kingdom||40,000 – 80,000||Protested siting of American nuclear missiles in West Germany.|
|May 25, 1986||Hands Across America||Across United States||5,000,000||Charitable event to raise money to fight hunger.|
|August 23, 1989||Baltic Way||Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania||2,000,000||Called for independence for Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Was followed by a similar chain on August 23, 1991, with people holding candles.|
|January 21, 1990||Reunion Day||Lviv–Kiev, Ukrainian SSR (now Ukraine)||450,000 (according to Soviet militsiya); around 3,000,000 (according to organizers)||Marking the 71st anniversary of the Act Zluky, an agreement unifying the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian National Republic.|
|August 1997||XII World Youth Day, 1997||Paris, France||400,000||A 36 km ring surrounding Paris facing outwards, symbolically calling for peace.|
|16 May 1998||Jubilee 2000 Human Chain||Birmingham, UK||70,000 – 100,000||The first Chain demonstration by Jubilee 2000, a coalition of church and faith groups, overseas development agencies and others at the G8 Summit in Birmingham, UK, to highlight the indebted poverty of many poor countries and the need for the G8, World Bank and IMF to act to remit that debt. The Chain surrounded Birmingham city center including the International Convention Center.|
|September 8, 1999||Protest against violence in East Timor||Lisbon||over 300,000||A 20 km ring connecting the United Nations delegation and the embassies of Russia, China, UK, France and the US in Lisbon, calling for the end of violence in East Timor.|
|2000||Latin American Jubilee 2000||Germany||50,000||Called for debt forgiveness for developing nations.|
|February 28, 2004||228 Hand-in-Hand Rally||Taiwan: from Keelung to Eluanbi (500 kilometers, 300 miles)||over 1,000,000 (over 2,000,000 according to organizers)||Commemoration of the February 28 Incident and protest of People's Republic of China missiles aimed at Taiwan.|
|July 25, 2004||Israeli Chain||Gush Katif (Jewish communities adjacent to the Gaza Strip, Israel), to the Western Wall, Jerusalem (90 kilometers)||130,000 (according to police); 200,000 (according to organizers)||Opposing Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's Disengagement Plan which involves dismantling of Jewish communities and settlements of Gush Katif.|
|December 11, 2004||'No Confidence' campaign to the BNP-led alliance government||Teknaf to Tentulia, Bangladesh||over 5 million people and 1,050 km (652.4 miles) long||The partipants were supporters of 14 opposition parties led by the Bangladesh Awami League to express their 'No Confidence' campaign to the BNP-led alliance government and to demand fresh polls.|
|May 1, 2006||Great American Boycott||New York City. (Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn Bronx)||12,000 (according to CNN )||Protesting H.R. 4437, a bill in Congress to toughen immigration checks.|
|February 25, 2008||Gaza Chain||Gaza||20,000 ||Protesting Israeli blockade of Gaza|
|September 1, 2008||"Stop Russia" campaign||Georgia||1,000,000 (according to the Georgian authorities)||Protesting Russian military intervention|
|October 24, 2008||2009 Tamil protests in India||Chennai, India||100,000 – 150,000||Protesting the violence against Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Civil War.|
|December 13, 2008||"Mumbai citizens form human chain to protest attacks"||Mumbai, India||60,000||Protesting Against the terror attacks that took place in Mumbai on the 26th of November 2008|
|January 28, 2009||2009 Tamil protests in Canada||Toronto, Canada||20,000||Protesting the violence against Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Civil War.|
|June 9, 2009||Green Chain, Iran's Presidential Election
2009 Iranian Election Protests
|Tehran, Iran||18,000 – 30,000||In support of Mir-Hossein Mousavi|
|October 2, 2009||Kerala CPM,
2009 ASEAN agreement Protest
|Kerala, India||3,000,000 - 4,000,000+ (30 to 40 lakh according to estimates made by organizers before the protest)||Protesting against the ASEAN and New Delhi free trade agreement|
|February 3, 2010||Telangana JAC,
Telangana Human Chain
|Andhra Pradesh, India||50,000||The people of Telangana formed a 500 kilometers-long human chain all along the National Highway number 7 from Adilabad on the northernmost tip of the region to Alampur on the borders of Kurnool district, to press their demand for forming a separate state.|
|December 10, 2012||Human Chain for Human Rights.||Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India||20,000 tribal students.||25 km long Human chain formed for Human Rights on Human Rights Day on December 10, 2012 by 20,000 tribal students of Kalinga Institute of Social Science (KISS) in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India .|
|September 11, 2013||Catalan Way Towards Independence||Throughout Catalonia||1,600,000||480 km long Human chain organized by the Assemblea Nacional Catalana for the independence of Catalonia.|
|November 29, 2013||Pro-European Union protests / Against Russian intervention||Various, largest from Ukraine to Subcarpathian Voivodeship. Also Lithuania - Latvia.||>2,000,000||Symbolic "linking" of Ukraine to the European Union|
|June 8, 2014||Human Chain For The Right to Decide of the Basque Country||Throughout Basque Country, from Durango to Iruñea-Pamplona||>150,000||123 km long Human chain organized by Gure Esku Dago for the Self-determination of the Basque Country.|
|October 1, 2015||Madhesh Human Chain||Mechi to Mahakali, Hulaki Rajmarg, Nepal.||>1,500,000||The 2015 Human Chain for Madhesh Movement was an organised protest in Nepal for pressurizing the government of Nepal to withdraw the discriminatory policies being institutionalized in the constitution that came in effect on 20 September 2015. The Madheshis the residents and indigenous population of Madhesh, the southern plains of Nepal, created world record in creating 1155 km of human chain to draw attention of Nepal government.|
|December 29, 2016||Kerala LDF,
2016 Indian Bank Note Demonetization Protest
|Kerala, India||1,000,000+ (10 lakh according to estimates made by the organizers)||Protesting against the demonetization of ₹500 (US$7.40) and ₹1,000 (US$15) banknotes|
|21 January 2017||Support for Total prohibition||Bihar, India||20 million people and 11,292 kilometres (7,017 mi)||The participants expressed support to implement and promote complete Prohibition of liquor and intoxicants in the territory of the State of Bihar and in favour of the law to be passed by Nitish Kumar Government by forming human chain of around 12,760 km across the state of Bihar.|
17 January 2016 Human chain to move 1400 sandbags Organised by 8xx BN in Singapore for defending their love ones
- Reunion of Ukraine (video) (in Ukrainian)
- "Mundo". an.com.br. Archived from the original on 2008-03-01.
- "Thousands march for immigrant rights - May 1, 2006". CNN.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- Protesters wave the flag in 'Stop Russia' campaign. The Financial Times. 2008-09-01.
- Georgians stage mass protest Archived 2008-09-14 at the Wayback Machine.. news.com.au. September 02, 2008.
- Rain highlights depth of emotions in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Net. 2008-10-24.
- Mumbai citizens form human chain to protest attacks. Times of India. 2008-12-13.
- Aulakh, Raveena (2009-01-28). "'They are killing innocent people'". Toronto: thestar.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- “”. "20 Km Human Chain in Tehran-June 8th". YouTube. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "BBC فارسی - ايران - زنجیره انسانی ۲۵ کیلومتری حامیان موسوی در تهران". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- IANS, Sep 30, 2009, 11.22am IST (2009-09-30). "CPM activists to form 500km human chain in Kerala to protest India, ASEAN free trade deal - India - The Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "Pix: 'Longest human chain' formed for Telangana: Rediff.com News". News.rediff.com. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "'Longest human chain' formed for Telangana". rediff news. February 2010.
- "25 km Human chain formed".
- "Human Chain Human Rights". Yahoo! News India.
- "1.600.000 persones, com a mínim" (in Catalan). 324.cat. 11 September 2013.
- "El recorregut de la cadena humana de l'Onze de Setembre ja és públic" (in Catalan). Vilaweb. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- Ukraine opposition demands leader resign after EU snub, Seven News (30 November 2013)
- "A human chain in Vilnius showed support of Ukraine". The Lithuania Tribune. Archived from the original on 2014-03-13.
- "Euskal kultura - News". Euskal kultura.
- 2015 Madheshi Human Chain
- REPUBLICA. "My Republica - UDMF says it formed world's longest human chain to protest constitution". Retrieved 2015-10-04.
- PTI, Dec 29, 2016, 8.26pm IST (2016-12-29). "http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/56240895.cms". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2016-12-29. External link in