Human chain (politics)
A human chain is a form of demonstration in which people link their arms as a show of political solidarity. The chains can involve thousands of people, with the world record being claimed in 2020 by Bihar, India, which was estimated to include 43 million people across 18,000 kilometres (11,000 mi)to support his government's efforts towards environment conservation and eradication of social evils.
List of notable human chains
|Date||Event||Location||Number of participants||Purpose|
|December 1982||Embrace the Base||RAF Greenham Common Newbury, Berkshire, England||30,000 (women)||Protested siting of American nuclear missiles in West Germany.|
|1 April 1983||14-mile (23 km) human chain||Greenham to Aldermaston and the ordnance factory at Burghfield||70,000 (40,000 – 80,000)||Protested siting of American nuclear missiles in West Germany.|
|May 25, 1986||Hands Across America||Across United States||5,000,000||Charitable event to raise money to fight hunger.|
|August 23, 1989||Baltic Way||Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania||2,000,000||Called for regaining independence for Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania from the Soviet Union. Was followed by a similar chain on August 23, 1991, with people holding candles.|
|January 21, 1990||Reunion Day||Lviv–Kiev, Ukrainian SSR (now Ukraine)||450,000 (according to Soviet militsiya); 3,000,000 (according to organizers)||Marking the 71st anniversary of the Act Zluky, an agreement unifying the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian National Republic.|
|August 1997||XII World Youth Day, 1997||Paris, France||400,000||A 36 km ring surrounding Paris facing outwards, symbolically calling for peace.|
|16 May 1998||Jubilee 2000 Human Chain||Birmingham, UK||70,000 – 100,000||The first Chain demonstration by Jubilee 2000, a coalition of church and faith groups, overseas development agencies and others at the G8 Summit in Birmingham, UK, to highlight the indebted poverty of many poor countries and the need for the G8, World Bank and IMF to act to remit that debt. The Chain surrounded Birmingham city center including the International Convention Center.|
|September 8, 1999||Protest against violence in East Timor||Lisbon||300,000+||A 20 km ring connecting the United Nations delegation and the embassies of Russia, China, UK, France and the US in Lisbon, calling for the end of violence in East Timor.|
|2000||Latin American Jubilee 2000||Germany||50,000||Called for debt forgiveness for developing nations.|
|February 28, 2004||228 Hand-in-Hand Rally||Taiwan: from Keelung to Eluanbi (500 kilometers, 300 miles)||1,000,000+ ( 2,000,000+ according to organizers)||Commemoration of the February 28 Incident and protest of People's Republic of China missiles aimed at Taiwan.|
|July 25, 2004||Israeli Chain||Gush Katif (Jewish communities adjacent to the Gaza Strip, Israel), to the Western Wall, Jerusalem (90 kilometers)||130,000 (according to police); 200,000 (according to organizers)||Opposing Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's Disengagement Plan which involves dismantling of Jewish communities and settlements of Gush Katif.|
|December 11, 2004||'No Confidence' campaign to the BNP-led alliance government||Teknaf to Tentulia, Bangladesh||5,000,000+ and||The participants were supporters of 14 opposition parties led by the Bangladesh Awami League to express their 'No Confidence' campaign to the BNP-led alliance government and to demand fresh polls. It was 1,050 km (652.4 miles) long.|
|May 1, 2006||Great American Boycott||New York City. (Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn Bronx)||12,000 (according to CNN )||Protesting H.R. 4437, a bill in Congress to toughen immigration checks.|
|February 25, 2008||Gaza Chain||Gaza||20,000 ||Protesting Israeli blockade of Gaza|
|September 1, 2008||"Stop Russia" campaign||Georgia||1,000,000 (according to the Georgian authorities)||Protesting Russian military intervention|
|October 24, 2008||2009 Tamil protests in India||Chennai, India||100,000 – 150,000||Protesting the violence against Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Civil War.|
|December 13, 2008||"Mumbai citizens form human chain to protest attacks"||Mumbai, India||60,000||Protesting Against the terror attacks that took place in Mumbai on the 26th of November 2008|
|January 28, 2009||2009 Tamil protests in Canada||Toronto, Canada||20,000||Protesting the violence against Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Civil War.|
|June 9, 2009||Green Chain, Iran's Presidential Election
2009 Iranian Election Protests
|Tehran, Iran||18,000 – 30,000||In support of Mir-Hossein Mousavi|
|July 2009||The Dolomites Embrace Africa||Tre Cime di Lavaredo – Auronzo di Cadore – Dolomites – Italy||6,000||To ask the G8 leaders to take care of Africa and drop the debt of the poor countries It was 6 km long.|
|October 2, 2009||Kerala CPM,
2009 ASEAN agreement Protest
|Kerala, India||3,000,000 – 4,000,000+ (according to estimates made by organizers before the protest)||Protesting against the ASEAN and New Delhi free trade agreement|
|February 3, 2010||Telangana JAC,
Telangana Human Chain
|Andhra Pradesh, India||50,000||The people of Telangana formed a 500 kilometers-long human chain all along the National Highway number 7 from Adilabad on the northernmost tip of the region to Alampur on the borders of Kurnool district, to press their demand for forming a separate state.|
|December 10, 2012||Human Chain for Human Rights.||Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India||20,000||25 km long Human chain formed for Human Rights on Human Rights Day on December 10, 2012 by 20,000 tribal students of Kalinga Institute of Social Science (KISS) in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India .|
|September 11, 2013||Catalan Way Towards Independence||Throughout Catalonia||1,600,000||480 km long Human chain organized by the Assemblea Nacional Catalana for the independence of Catalonia.|
|November 29, 2013||Pro-European Union protests / Against Russian intervention||Various, largest from Ukraine to Subcarpathian Voivodeship. Also Lithuania – Latvia.||2,000,000+||Symbolic "linking" of Ukraine to the European Union|
|June 8, 2014||Human Chain For The Right to Decide of the Basque Country||Throughout Basque Country, from Durango to Iruñea-Pamplona||150,000+||123 km long Human chain organized by Gure Esku Dago for the Self-determination of the Basque Country.|
|September 2015||The Dolomites Embrace Human Rights||Tre Cime di Lavaredo – Auronzo di Cadore – Dolomites – Italy||6,000||To celebrate Human Rights and the 40th Anniversary of Amnesty International Italian section It was 6 km long.|
|October 1, 2015||Madhesh Human Chain||Mechi to Mahakali, Hulaki Rajmarg, Nepal.||1,500,000+||The 2015 Human Chain for Madhesh Movement was an organised protest in Nepal for pressurizing the government of Nepal to withdraw the discriminatory policies being institutionalized in the constitution that came in effect on 20 September 2015. The Madheshis the residents and indigenous population of Madhesh, the southern plains of Nepal, created world record in creating 1155 km of human chain to draw attention of Nepal government.|
|17 January 2016||Human chain to move 1400 sandbags||Singapore||Defending their loved ones. Organised by 8xx BN|
|December 29, 2016||Kerala LDF,
2016 Indian Bank Note Demonetization Protest
|Kerala, India||1,000,000+ (according to estimates made by the organizers)||Protesting against the demonetization of ₹500 (US$7.40) and ₹1,000 (US$15) banknotes|
|21 January 2017||Support for Total prohibition||Bihar, India||20,000,000||The participants expressed support to implement and promote complete Prohibition of liquor and intoxicants in the territory of the State of Bihar and in favour of the law to be passed by Nitish Kumar Government by forming human chain of around 12,760 km across the state of Bihar. It was of the length of 11,292 km (7,017 mi).|
|June 10, 2018||Human chain for Basque self-determination 2018||Basque Autonomous Community, Spain||175,000||Advocacy for a right of the Basques to decide their political status.|
|1 January 2019||Vanitha Mathil (Women's wall)||Kerala, India||3,000,000 –5,000,000 (women)||The women's wall was formed for a distance of around 620 kilometers from Kasargod to Thiruvanathapuram to uphold gender equality and protest against gender discrimination. .|
|August 23, 2019||Hong Kong Way||Hong Kong||210,000||Advocacy for withdrawal of the extradition bill and for democratic elections. The chain was nearly 50 km (30 mi) and stretched through Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. It was held on the 30th anniversary of the Baltic Way Chain of Freedom, a peaceful gathering that called for independence from Soviet Russia.|
|October 27, 2019||2019–20 Lebanese protests||Lebanon coastline||170,000||Symbolize the unity of the Lebanese protesters against austerity, political corruption and sectarianism. It ran from Tripoli to Tyre.|
|January 26, 2020||Manushya Maha Sringhala||Kerala state||6,000,000 – 7,500,000||Republic Day, across the state of Kerala in India. The chain was organized by the ruling Communist Party of India (Marxist) led Left Democratic Front. The chain was formed to swear an oath to protect the Constitution of India and to demand the withdrawal of the Citizenship Amendment Act and non-implementation of the National Register of Citizens.A 700 km long human chain was formed on|
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