Human coronavirus OC43

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Human coronavirus OC43
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Phylum: incertae sedis
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Betacoronavirus
Species: Betacoronavirus 1
Subspecies: Human coronavirus OC43

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a subspecies of enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus in the species Betacoronavirus 1 (genus Betacoronavirus, subfamily Coronavirinae, family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales).[1]


Four HCoV-OC43 genotypes (A to D), have been identified with genotype D most likely arising from recombination. The complete genome sequencing of two genotype C and D strains and bootscan analysis shows recombination events between genotypes B and C in the generation of genotype D. Of 29 strains identified, none belong to the more ancient genotype A. Molecular clock analysis using spike and nucleocapsid genes dates the most recent common ancestor of all genotypes to the 1950s. Genotype B and C date to the 1980s. Genotype B to the 1990s, and genotype C to the late 1990s to early 2000s.[contradictory] The recombinant genotype D strains were detected as early as 2004.[1]


Along with HCoV-229E, a species in the Alphacoronavirus genus, HCoV-OC43 are among the known viruses that cause the common cold. Both viruses can cause severe lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals such as those undergoing chemotherapy and those with HIV-AIDS.[2][3][4]


Coronaviruses have a worldwide distribution, causing 10–15% of common cold cases. Infections show a seasonal pattern with most cases occurring in the winter months.[5][6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Lau, Susanna K. P.; Lee, Paul; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tse, Herman; Lee, Rodney A.; So, Lok-Yee; Lau, Y.-L.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2011). "Molecular Epidemiology of Human Coronavirus OC43 Reveals Evolution of Different Genotypes over Time and Recent Emergence of a Novel Genotype due to Natural Recombination". Journal of Virology. 85 (21): 11325–37. doi:10.1128/JVI.05512-11. PMC 3194943. PMID 21849456.
  2. ^ Wevers, Brigitte A.; Van Der Hoek, Lia (2009). "Recently Discovered Human Coronaviruses". Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 29 (4): 715–24. doi:10.1016/j.cll.2009.07.007. PMID 19892230.
  3. ^ Mahony, James B. (2007). "Coronaviruses". In Murray, Patrick R.; Baron, Ellen Jo; Jorgensen, James H.; Landry, Marie Louise; Pfaller, Michael A. (eds.). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (9th ed.). Washington D.C.: ASM Press. pp. 1414–23. ISBN 978-1-55581-371-0.
  4. ^ Pyrc, K.; Berkhout, B.; Van Der Hoek, L. (2007). "Antiviral Strategies Against Human Coronaviruses". Infectious Disorders Drug Targets. 7 (1): 59–66. doi:10.2174/187152607780090757. PMID 17346212.
  5. ^ Van Der Hoek, L (2007). "Human coronaviruses: What do they cause?". Antiviral Therapyapy. 12 (4 Pt B): 651–8. PMID 17944272.
  6. ^ Wat, Dennis (2004). "The common cold: A review of the literature". European Journal of Internal Medicine. 15 (2): 79–88. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2004.01.006. PMID 15172021.

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