Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect. It is measured using a stadiometer, usually in centimetres when using the metric system, or feet and inches when using the imperial system.
When populations share genetic background and environmental factors, average height is frequently characteristic within the group. Exceptional height variation (around 20% deviation from average) within such a population is sometimes due to gigantism or dwarfism, which are medical conditions caused by specific genes or endocrine abnormalities.
The development of human height can serve as an indicator of two key welfare components, namely nutritional quality and health. In regions of poverty or warfare, environmental factors like chronic malnutrition during childhood or adolescence may result in delayed growth and/or marked reductions in adult stature even without the presence of any of these medical conditions.
- 1 Determinants of growth and height
- 2 Process of growth
- 3 Height abnormalities
- 4 Role of an individual's height
- 5 History of human height
- 6 Average height around the world
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Determinants of growth and height
The study of height is known as auxology. Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the health of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations. Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to differences among populations. Average height is relevant to the measurement of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations.
Attributed as a significant reason for the trend of increasing height in parts of Europe are the egalitarian populations where proper medical care and adequate nutrition are relatively equally distributed. Changes in diet (nutrition) and a general rise in quality of health care and standard of living are the cited factors in the Asian populations. Malnutrition including chronic undernutrition and acute malnutrition is known to have caused stunted growth in various populations. This has been seen in North Korea, parts of Africa, certain historical Europe, and other populations. Developing countries such as Guatemala have rates of stunting in children under 5 living as high as 82.2% in Totonicapán, and 49.8% nationwide.
Height measurements are by nature subject to statistical sampling errors even for a single individual.[clarification needed] In a clinical situation, height measurements are seldom taken more often than once per office visit, which may mean sampling taking place a week to several months apart. The smooth 50th percentile male and female growth curves illustrated above are aggregate values from thousands of individuals sampled at ages from birth to age 20. In reality, a single individual's growth curve shows large upward and downward spikes, partly due to actual differences in growth velocity, and partly due to small measurement errors.
For example, a typical measurement error of plus or minus 0.5 cm may completely nullify 0.5 cm of actual growth resulting in either a "negative" 0.5 cm growth (due to overestimation in the previous visit combined with underestimation in the latter), up to a 1.5 cm growth (the first visit underestimating and the second visit overestimating) in the same elapsed time period between measurements. Note there is a discontinuity in the growth curves at age 2, which reflects the difference in recumbent length (with the child on his or her back), used in measuring infants and toddlers and standing height typically measured from age 2 onwards.
Height, like other phenotypic traits, is determined by a combination of genetics and environmental factors. A child's height based on parental heights is subject to regression toward the mean, therefore extremely tall or short parents will likely have correspondingly taller or shorter offspring, but their offspring will also likely be closer to average height than the parents themselves. Genetic potential and a number of hormones, minus illness, is a basic determinant for height. Other factors include the genetic response to external factors such as diet, exercise, environment, and life circumstances.
Humans grow fastest (other than in the womb) as infants and toddlers, rapidly declining from a maximum at birth to roughly age 2, tapering to a slowly declining rate, and then during the pubertal growth spurt, a rapid rise to a second maximum (at around 11–12 years for female, and 13–14 years for male), followed by a steady decline to zero. On average, female growth speed trails off to zero at about 15 or 16 years, whereas the male curve continues for approximately 3 more years, going to zero at about 18–20. These are also critical periods where stressors such as malnutrition (or even severe child neglect) have the greatest effect.
Moreover, the health of a mother throughout her life, especially during her critical period and pregnancy, has a role. A healthier child and adult develops a body that is better able to provide optimal prenatal conditions. The pregnant mother's health is important for herself but also for the fetus as gestation is itself a critical period for an embryo/fetus, though some problems affecting height during this period are resolved by catch-up growth assuming childhood conditions are good. Thus, there is a cumulative generation effect such that nutrition and health over generations influences the height of descendants to varying degrees.
The age of the mother also has some influence on her child's height. Studies in modern times have observed a gradual increase in height with maternal age, though these early studies suggest that trend is due to various socio-economic situations that select certain demographics as being more likely to have a first birth early in the mother's life. These same studies show that children born to a young mother are more likely to have below-average educational and behavioural development, again suggesting an ultimate cause of resources and family status rather than a purely biological explanation.
It has been observed that first-born males are shorter than later-born males. However, more recently the reverse observation was made. The study authors suggest that the cause may be socio-economic in nature.
Nature versus nurture
The precise relationship between genetics and environment is complex and uncertain. Differences in human height is 60%–80% heritable, according to several twin studies and has been considered polygenic since the Mendelian-biometrician debate a hundred years ago. A genome-wide association (GWA) study of more than 180,000 individuals has identified hundreds of genetic variants in at least 180 loci associated with adult human height. The number of individuals has since been expanded to 253,288 individuals and the number of genetic variants identified is 697 in 423 genetic loci. In a separate study of body proportion using sitting-height ratio, it reports that these 697 variants can be partitioned into 3 specific classes, (1) variants that primarily determine leg length, (2) variants that primarily determine spine and head length, or (3) variants that affect overall body size. This gives insights into the biological mechanisms underlying how these 697 genetic variants affect overall height.
The effect of environment on height is illustrated by studies performed by anthropologist Barry Bogin and coworkers of Guatemala Mayan children living in the United States. In the early 1970s, when Bogin first visited Guatemala, he observed that Mayan Indian men averaged only 157.5 centimetres (5 ft 2 in) in height and the women averaged 142.2 centimetres (4 ft 8 in). Bogin took another series of measurements after the Guatemalan Civil War, during which up to a million Guatemalans fled to the United States. He discovered that Maya refugees, who ranged from six to twelve years old, were significantly taller than their Guatemalan counterparts. By 2000, the American Maya were 10.24 cm (4.03 in) taller than the Guatemalan Maya of the same age, largely due to better nutrition and health care. Bogin also noted that American Maya children had relatively longer legs, averaging 7.02 cm (2.76 in) longer than the Guatemalan Maya (a significantly lower sitting height ratio).
The Nilotic peoples of Sudan such as the Shilluk and Dinka have been described as some of the tallest in the world. Dinka Ruweng males investigated by Roberts in 1953–54 were on average 181.3 centimetres (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in) tall, and Shilluk males averaged 182.6 centimetres (6 ft 0 in). The Nilotic people are characterized as having long legs, narrow bodies and short trunks, an adaptation to hot weather. However, male Dinka and Shilluk refugees measured in 1995 in Southwestern Ethiopia were on average only 1.764 m and 1.726 m tall, respectively. As the study points out, Nilotic people "may attain greater height if priviledged with favourable environmental conditions during early childhood and adolescence, allowing full expression of the genetic material." Before fleeing, these refugees were subject to privation as a consequence of the succession of civil wars in their country from 1955 to the present. The tallest living married couple are ex-basketball players Yao Ming and Ye Li (both of China) who measure 228.6 cm (7 ft 6 in) and 190.5 cm (6 ft 3 in) respectively, giving a combined height of 419.1 cm (13 ft 9 in). They married in Shanghai, China, on 6 August 2007.
The people of the Dinaric Alps (mainly Albanians and South Slavs) are on record as being the tallest in the world, with a male average height of 185.6 cm (6 ft 1.1 in) and female average height of 170.9 cm (5 ft 7.3 in).
Process of growth
|This section does not cite any sources. (February 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Growth in stature, determined by its various factors, results from the lengthening of bones via cellular divisions chiefly regulated by somatotropin (human growth hormone (hGH)) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Somatotropin also stimulates the release of another growth inducing hormone Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mainly by the liver. Both hormones operate on most tissues of the body, have many other functions, and continue to be secreted throughout life; with peak levels coinciding with peak growth velocity, and gradually subsiding with age after adolescence. The bulk of secretion occurs in bursts (especially for adolescents) with the largest during sleep.
The majority of linear growth occurs as growth of cartilage at the epiphysis (ends) of the long bones which gradually ossify to form hard bone. The legs compose approximately half of adult human height, and leg length is a somewhat sexually dimorphic trait, with men having proportionately longer legs. Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed. The majority of growth during growth spurts is of the long bones. Additionally, the variation in height between populations and across time is largely due to changes in leg length. The remainder of height consists of the cranium. Height is sexually dimorphic and statistically it is more or less normally distributed, but with heavy tails. It has been shown that a log-normal distribution fits the data equally well, besides guaranteeing a non-negative lower confidence limit, which could otherwise attain a non-physical negative height value for arbitrarily large confidence levels.
|This section does not cite any sources. (February 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Most intra-population variance of height is genetic. Short stature and tall stature are usually not a health concern. If the degree of deviation from normal is significant, hereditary short stature is known as familial short stature and tall stature is known as familial tall stature. Confirmation that exceptional height is normal for a respective person can be ascertained from comparing stature of family members and analyzing growth trends for abrupt changes, among others. There are, however, various diseases and disorders that cause growth abnormalities.
Most notably, extreme height may be pathological, such as gigantism resulting from childhood hyperpituitarism, and dwarfism which has various causes. Rarely, no cause can be found for extreme height; very short persons may be termed as having idiopathic short stature. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2003 approved hGH treatment for those 2.25 standard deviations below the population mean (approximately the lowest 1.2% of the population). An even rarer occurrence, or at least less used term and recognized "problem", is idiopathic tall stature.
If not enough growth hormone is produced and/or secreted by the pituitary gland, then a patient with growth hormone deficiency can undergo treatment. This treatment involves the injection of pure growth hormone into thick tissue to promote growth.
Role of an individual's height
Height and health
Certain studies have shown that height is a factor in overall health while some suggest tallness is associated with better cardiovascular health and shortness with longevity. Cancer risk has also been found to grow with height.
Nonetheless, modern westernized interpretations of the relationship between height and health fail to account for the observed height variations worldwide. Cavalli-Sforza and Cavalli-Sforza note that variations in height worldwide can be partly attributed to evolutionary pressures resulting from differing environments. These evolutionary pressures result in height related health implications. While tallness is an adaptive benefit in colder climates such as found in Europe, shortness helps dissipate body heat in warmer climatic regions. Consequently, the relationships between health and height cannot be easily generalized since tallness and shortness can both provide health benefits in different environmental settings.
At the extreme end, being excessively tall can cause various medical problems, including cardiovascular problems, because of the increased load on the heart to supply the body with blood, and problems resulting from the increased time it takes the brain to communicate with the extremities. For example, Robert Wadlow, the tallest man known to verifiable history, developed trouble walking as his height increased throughout his life. In many of the pictures of the later portion of his life, Wadlow can be seen gripping something for support. Late in his life, although he died at age 22, he had to wear braces on his legs and walk with a cane; and he died after developing an infection in his legs because he was unable to feel the irritation and cutting caused by his leg braces.
Sources are in disagreement about the overall relationship between height and longevity. Samaras and Elrick, in the Western Journal of Medicine, demonstrate an inverse correlation between height and longevity in several mammals including humans.
A study done in Sweden in 2005 has shown that there is a strong inverse correlation between height and suicide among Swedish men.
A large body of human and animal evidence indicates that shorter, smaller bodies age slower, and have fewer chronic diseases and greater longevity. For example, a study found eight areas of support for the "smaller lives longer" thesis. These areas of evidence include studies involving longevity, life expectancy, centenarians, male vs. female longevity differences, mortality advantages of shorter people, survival findings, smaller body size due to calorie restriction, and within species body size differences. They all support the conclusion that smaller individuals live longer in healthy environments and with good nutrition. However, the difference in longevity is modest. Several human studies have found a loss of 0.5 year/centimeter of increased height (1.2 yr/inch). But these findings do not mean that all tall people die young. Many live to advanced ages and some become centenarians.
Height and occupational success
There is a large body of research in psychology, economics, and human biology that has assessed the relationship between several seemingly innocuous physical features (e.g., body height) and occupational success. The correlation between height and success was explored decades ago. Shorter people are considered to have an advantage in certain sports (e.g., gymnastics, race car driving, etc.), whereas in many other sports taller people have a major advantage. In most occupational fields, body height is not relevant to how well people are able to perform, but nonetheless has been found to correlate with their success in several studies, although there may be other factors such as gender or socioeonomic status that explain this.
A demonstration of the height-success association can be found in the realm of politics. In the United States presidential elections, the taller candidate won 22 out of 25 times in the 20th century. Nevertheless, Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, was 150 cm (4 ft 11 in) and several prominent world leaders of the 20th century, such as Vladimir Lenin, Benito Mussolini, Nicolae Ceaușescu and Joseph Stalin were of below average height. These examples, however, were all before modern forms of multi-media, i.e., television, which may further height discrimination in modern society. Further, growing evidence suggests that height may be a proxy for confidence, which is likewise strongly correlated with occupational success.
History of human height
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, people of European descent in North America were far taller than those in Europe and were the tallest in the world. The original indigenous population of Plains Native Americans was also among the tallest populations of the world at the time.
In the late nineteenth century, the Netherlands was a land renowned for its short population, but today its population is among the world's tallest with young men averaging 183.8 cm (6 ft 0.4 in) tall.
According to a study by economist John Komlos and Francesco Cinnirella, in the first half of the 18th century, the average height of an English male was 165 cm (5 ft 5 in), and the average height of an Irish male was 168 cm (5 ft 6 in). The estimated mean height of English, German, and Scottish soldiers was 163.6 cm – 165.9 cm (5 ft 4.4 in – 5 ft 5.3 in) for the period as a whole, while that of Irish was 167.9 cm (5 ft 6.1 in). The average height of male slaves and convicts in North America was 171 cm (5 ft 7 in).
American-born colonial soldiers of the late 1770s were on average more than 7.6 cm (3 inches) taller than their English counterparts who served in Royal Marines at the same time.
Average height of Americans and Europeans decreased during periods of rapid industrialization, possibly due to rapid population growth and increased economic inequality. In early 19th century England, the difference between average height of English upper class youth (students of Sandhurst Military Academy) and English lower class youth (Marine Society boys) reached 22 cm (8.7 in), the highest that has been observed.
Data derived from burials show that before 1850, the mean stature of males and females in Leiden, Netherlands was respectively 166.7 cm (5 ft 5.6 in) and 156.7 cm (5 ft 1.7 in). The average height of 19-year-old Dutch orphans in 1865 was 160 cm (5 ft 3 in).
According to a study by J.W. Drukker and Vincent Tassenaar, the average height of Dutch decreased from 1830 to 1857, even while Dutch real GNP per capita was growing at an average rate of more than 0.5 percent per year. The worst decline were in urban areas that in 1847, the urban height penalty was 2.5 cm (1 in). Urban mortality was also much higher than rural regions. In 1829, the average urban and rural Dutchman was 164 cm (5 ft 4.6 in). By 1856, the average rural Dutchman was 162 cm (5 ft 3.8 in) and urban Dutchman was 158.5 cm (5 ft 2.4 in).
A 2004 report citing a 2003 UNICEF study on the effects of malnutrition in North Korea, due to "successive famines," found young adult males to be significantly shorter.[specify] In contrast South Koreans "feasting on an increasingly Western-influenced diet," without famine, were growing taller. The height difference is minimal for Koreans over 40, who grew up at a time when economic conditions in the North were roughly comparable to those in the South, while height disparities are most acute for Koreans who grew up in the mid-1990s – a demographic in which South Koreans are about 12 cm (4.7 in) taller than their North Korean counterparts – as this was a period during which the North was affected by a harsh famine. A study by South Korean anthropologists of North Korean children who had defected to China found that 18-year-old males were 5 inches (13 cm) shorter than South Koreans their age due to malnutrition.
The tallest living man is Sultan Kösen of Turkey, at 251 cm (8 ft 3 in). The tallest man in modern history was Robert Pershing Wadlow (1918–1940), from Illinois, in the United States, who was 272 cm (8 ft 11 in) at the time of his death. The tallest woman in medical history was Zeng Jinlian of Hunan, China, who stood 248 cm (8 ft 1 1⁄2 in) when she died at the age of 17. The shortest adult human on record was Chandra Bahadur Dangi of Nepal at 54.6 cm (1 ft 9 1⁄2 in).
Adult height between populations often differs significantly. For example, the average height of women from the Czech Republic is greater than that of men from Malawi. This may be caused by genetic differences, childhood lifestyle differences (nutrition, sleep patterns, physical labor), or both.
Depending on sex, genetic and environmental factors, shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals but tends to be universal in the extremely aged. This decrease in height is due to such factors as decreased height of inter-vertebral discs because of desiccation, atrophy of soft tissues and postural changes secondary to degenerative disease.
Average height around the world
As with any statistical data, the accuracy of such data may be questionable for various reasons:
- Some studies may allow subjects to self-report values. Generally speaking, self-reported height tends to be taller than its measured height, although the overestimation of height depends on the reporting subject's height, age, gender and region.
- Test subjects may have been invited instead of chosen at random, resulting in sampling bias.
- Some countries may have significant height gaps between different regions. For instance, one survey shows there is 10.8 cm (4 1⁄2 in) gap between the tallest state and the shortest state in Germany. Under such circumstances, the mean height may not represent the total population unless sample subjects are appropriately taken from all regions with using weighted average of the different regional groups.
- Different social groups can show different mean height. According to a study in France, executives and professionals are 2.6 cm (1 in) taller, and university students are 2.55 cm (1 in) taller than the national average. As this case shows, data taken from a particular social group may not represent a total population in some countries.
- A relatively small sample of the population may have been measured, which makes it uncertain whether this sample accurately represents the entire population.
- The height of persons can vary over the course of a day, due to factors such as a height increase from exercise done directly before measurement (normally inversely correlated), or a height increase since lying down for a significant period of time (normally inversely correlated). For example, one study revealed a mean decrease of 1.54 centimetres (0.61 in) in the heights of 100 children from getting out of bed in the morning to between 4 and 5 p.m. that same day. Such factors may not have been controlled in some of the studies.
- Anthropometry, the measurement of the human individual
- Body weight
- Human physical appearance
- Human variability
- Pygmy peoples
- "Stadiometers and Height Measurement Devices". stadiometer.com. stadiometer.com.
- "Using the BMI-for-Age Growth Charts". cdc.gov. Center for Disease Control. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Price, Beth; et al. (2009). MathsWorld Year 8 VELS Edition. Australia: MacMillan. p. 626.
- Lapham, Robert; Agar, Heather (2009). Drug Calculations for Nurses. USA: Taylor & Francis. p. 223.
- Carter, Pamela J. (2008). Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants: A Humanistic Approach to Caregiving. USA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. p. 306.
- Ganong, William F. (2001) Review of Medical Physiology, Lange Medical, pp. 392–397, ISBN 0071605673.
- Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107507180.
- Hermanussen, Michael (ed) (2013) Auxology – Studying Human Growth and Development, Schweizerbart, ISBN 9783510652785.
- Bolton-Smith, C. (2000). "Accuracy of the estimated prevalence of obesity from self reported height and weight in an adult Scottish population". Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 54 (2): 143–148. doi:10.1136/jech.54.2.143.
- Komlos, J.; Baur, M. (2004). "From the tallest to (one of) the fattest: The enigmatic fate of the American population in the 20th century". Economics & Human Biology. 2 (1): 57–74. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2003.12.006. PMID 15463993.
- De Onis, M.; Blössner, M.; Borghi, E. (2011). "Prevalence and trends of stunting among pre-school children, 1990–2020". Public Health Nutrition. 15 (1): 142–148. doi:10.1017/S1368980011001315. PMID 21752311.
- Grantham-Mcgregor, S.; Cheung, Y. B.; Cueto, S.; Glewwe, P.; Richter, L.; Strupp, B. (2007). "Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries". The Lancet. 369 (9555): 60–70. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60032-4.
- Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil, 2008‒2009 (English: Guatemala Reproductive Health Survey 2008‒2009) (PDF). Guatemala City, Guatemala: Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social. December 2010. p. 670. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Table 1. Association of 'biological' and demographic variables and height. Figures are coefficients (95% confidence intervals) adjusted for each of the variables shown in Rona RJ, Mahabir D, Rocke B, Chinn S, Gulliford MC (2003). "Social inequalities and children's height in Trinidad and Tobago". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 57 (1): 143–50. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601508. PMID 12548309.
- Miller, Jane E. (1993). "Birth Outcomes by Mother's Age At First Birth in the Philippines". International Family Planning Perspectives. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 3. 19 (3): 98–102. doi:10.2307/2133243. JSTOR 2133243.
- Pevalin, David J. (2003). "Outcomes in Childhood and Adulthood by Mother's Age at Birth: evidence from the 1970 British Cohort Study". ISER working papers.
- Hermanussen, M.; Hermanussen, B.; Burmeister, J. (1988). "The association between birth order and adult stature". Annals of Human Biology. 15 (2): 161–165. doi:10.1080/03014468800009581. PMID 3355105.
- Myrskyla, M (July 2013). "The association between height and birth order: evidence from 652,518 Swedish men.". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2. 67 (7): 571–7. doi:10.1136/jech-2012-202296. PMID 23645856.
- Lai, Chao-Qiang (11 December 2006). "How much of human height is genetic and how much is due to nutrition?". Scientific American.
- Lango Allen H, et al. (2010). "Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height". Nature. 467 (7317): 832–838. doi:10.1038/nature09410. PMC . PMID 20881960.
- Wood AR, et al. (2014). "Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height". Nature Gen. 46 (11): 1173–1186. doi:10.1038/ng.3097. PMID 25282103.
- Chan Y, et al. (2015). "Genome-wide Analysis of Body Proportion Classifies Height-Associated Variants by Mechanism of Action and Implicates Genes Important for Skeletal Development". AJHG. 96: 695–708. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.02.018. PMID 25865494.
- Bogin, Barry (1998). "The tall and the short of it" (PDF). Discover. 19 (2): 40–44. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Bogin, B.; Rios, L. (2003). "Rapid morphological change in living humans: Implications for modern human origins". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 136 (1): 71–84. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(02)00294-5. PMID 14527631.
- Krawitz, Jan (28 June 2006). "P.O.V. – Big Enough". PBS. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Roberts, D. F.; Bainbridge, D. R. (1963). "Nilotic physique". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21 (3): 341–370. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210309.
- Stock, Jay (Summer 2006). "Skeleton key" (PDF). Planet Earth: 26.
- Chali D (1995). "Anthropometric measurements of the Nilotic tribes in a refugee camp". Ethiopian Medical Journal. 33 (4): 211–7. PMID 8674486.
- Guinness World Book of Records 2014. The Jim Pattison Group. 2013. p. 49.
- Subba, Tanka Bahadur (1999). Politics of Culture: A Study of Three Kirata Communities in the Eastern Himalayas. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-1693-9.
- Peissel, Michel (1967). Mustang: A Lost Tibetan Kingdom. Book Faith India. ISBN 978-81-7303-002-4.
- Limpert, E; Stahel, W; Abbt, M (2001). "Lognormal distributions across the sciences: keys and clues". BioScience. 51 (5): 341–352. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0341:LNDATS]2.0.CO;2.
- Samaras TT, Elrick H (2002). "Height, body size, and longevity: is smaller better for the humanbody?". The Western Journal of Medicine. 176 (3): 206–8. doi:10.1136/ewjm.176.3.206. PMC . PMID 12016250.
- "Cancer risk may grow with height". CBC News. 21 July 2011.
- Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., & Cavalli-Sforza, F., 1995, The Great Human Diasporas,
- Merck. "Risk factors present before pregnancy". Merck Manual Home Edition. Merck Sharp & Dohme.
- Magnusson PK, Gunnell D, Tynelius P, Davey Smith G, Rasmussen F (2005). "Strong inverse association between height and suicide in a large cohort of Swedish men: evidence of early life origins of suicidal behavior?". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 162 (7): 1373–5. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.7.1373. PMID 15994722.
- Samaras TT 2014, Evidence from eight different types of studies showing smaller body size is related to greater longevity JSRR 3(16):2150-2160. 2014: article no. JSRR.2014.16.003
- Stefan, Stieger; Christoph, Burger (2010). "Body height and occupational success for actors and actresses". Psychological Reports. 107 (1): 25–38. doi:10.2466/pr0.107.1.25-38. PMID 20923046.
- W. E., Hensley; R., Cooper (1987). "Height and occupational success: a review and critique". Psychological Reports. 60 (3 Pt 1): 843–849. doi:10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.1993. PMID 3303094.
- Judge, T. A.; Cable, D. M. (2004). "The Effect of Physical Height on Workplace Success and Income: Preliminary Test of a Theoretical Model" (PDF). Journal of Applied Psychology. 89 (3): 428–441. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.428. PMID 15161403. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2012.
- Nicola, Persico; Andrew, Postlewaite; Silverman, Dan (2004). "The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height" (PDF). Journal of Political Economy. 112 (5): 1019–1053. doi:10.1086/422566.
- Heineck G. (2005). "Up in the skies? The relationship between body height and earnings in Germany" (PDF). Labour. 19 (3): 469–489. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9914.2005.00302.x.
- Piotr, Sorokowski (2010). "Politicians' estimated height as an indicator of their popularity". European Journal of Social Psychology. 40 (7): 1302–1309. doi:10.1002/ejsp.710.
- Nickless, Rachel (28 November 2012) Lifelong confidence rewarded in bigger pay packets. Afr.com. Retrieved on 2 September 2013.
- Prince, Joseph M.; Richard H. Steckel (December 1998). The Tallest in the World: Native Americans of the Great Plains in the Nineteenth Century. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Schönbeck, Yvonne; Talma, Henk; Van Dommelen, Paula; Bakker, Boudewijn; Buitendijk, Simone E.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Van Buuren, Stef (2012). "The world's tallest nation has stopped growing taller: The height of Dutch children from 1955 to 2009". Pediatric Research. 73 (3): 371–7. doi:10.1038/pr.2012.189. PMID 23222908.
- Komlos, John; Francesco Cinnirella (2007). "European heights in the early 18th century". Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial-und Wirtschaftsgeschichte. 94 (3): 271–284. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Engerman, Stanley L.; Gallman, Robert E. (2000). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55308-7.
- Komlos, John (1998). "Shrinking in a growing economy? The mystery of physical stature during the industrial revolution" (PDF). Journal of Economic History. 58 (3): 779–802. doi:10.1017/S0022050700021161. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Komlos, J. (2007). "On English Pygmies and giants: The physical stature of English youth in the late 18th and early 19th centuries". Research in Economic History. 25: 149–168. doi:10.1016/S0363-3268(07)25003-7. ISBN 978-0-7623-1370-9.
- Fredriks, Anke Maria (2004). Growth diagrams: fourth Dutch nation-wide survey. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum. ISBN 9789031343478.
- Drukker, J. W.; Vincent Tassenaar (2000). "Shrinking Dutchmen in a growing economy: the early industrial growth paradox in the Netherlands" (PDF). Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte. 2000: 77–94. ISSN 0075-2800. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- Demick, Barbara (14 February 2004). "Effects of famine: Short stature evident in North Korean generation". Seattle Times. Seattle, Wash. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- "The unpalatable appetites of Kim Jong-il". 8 October 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- Arno J. Krul; Hein A. M. Daanen; Hyegjoo Choi (2010). "Self-reported and measured weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in Italy, the Netherlands and North America". European Journal of Public Health. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckp228.
- Lucca A, JMoura EC (2010). "Validity and reliability of self-reported weight, height and body mass index from telephone interviews.". Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 26 (1): 110–22. doi:10.1590/s0102-311x2010000100012. PMID 20209215.
- Shields, Margot; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Tremblay, Mark S. (2009). "Methodological Issues in Anthropometry: Self-reported versus Measured Height and Weight" (PDF). Proceedings of Statistic s Canada Symposium 2008. Data Collection: Challenges, Achievements and New Directions.
- Moody, Alison (18 December 2013). "10: Adult anthropometric measures, overweight and obesity". In Craig, Rachel; Mindell, Jennifer. Health Survey for England – 2012 (PDF) (Report). Volume 1: Health, social care and lifestyles. Health and Social Care Information Centre. p. 20. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- WWC Web World Center GmbH G.R.P. Institut für Rationelle Psychologie KÖRPERMASSE BUNDESLÄNDER & STÄDTE 31. Oktober 2007
- Although the mean height of university students are slightly shorter than the national mean height aged 20-29 in this study.
- Herpin, Nicolas (2003). "La taille des hommes: son incidence sur la vie en couple et la carrière professionnelle" (PDF). Économie et Statistique. 361 (1): 71–90. doi:10.3406/estat.2003.7355.
- Buckler, JM. "Variations in height throughout the day". Arch Dis Child. 53: 762. PMC . PMID 568918.
- Fitting the Task to the Man, 1987 (for heights in U.S. and Japan)
- Eurostats Statistical Yearbook 2004 (for heights in Germany)
- Netherlands Central Bureau for Statistics, 1996 (for average heights)
- Mean Body Weight, Height, and body mass index, United States 1960–2002
- UK Department of Health – Health Survey for England
- Burkhard Bilger. "The Height Gap." The New Yorker
- A collection of data on human height, referred to here as "karube" but originally collected from other sources, was originally available here (web
.archive .org /web /20050509004407 /http: //www .kurabe .net:80 /average _height /) but is no longer. A copy is available here.www .psych .ualberta .ca /~phurd /karube / (an English translation of this Japanese page would make it easier to evaluate the quality of the data...)
- Aminorroaya A, Amini M, Naghdi H, Zadeh AH (2003). "Growth charts of heights and weights of male children and adolescents of Isfahan, Iran". Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition. 21 (4): 341–6. PMID 15038589.
- Bláha, P. et al.: 6. Celostátní antropologický výzkum dětí a mládeže 2001, Česká republika [6th Nationwide anthropological research of children and youth 2001, Czech republic], Charles University in Prague 2005
- Bogin, B.A. (2001) The growth of humanity Wiley-Liss
- Eveleth, P.B. & Tanner, J.M. (1990) Worldwide variation in human growth, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.
- Miura K, Nakagawa H, Greenland P (2002). "Invited commentary: Height-cardiovascular disease relation: where to go from here?". Am. J. Epidemiol. 155 (8): 688–9. doi:10.1093/aje/155.8.688. PMID 11943684.
- Ruff, C (2002). "Variation in human body size and shape". Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 31: 211–232.
- Average height of young Spaniards (in Spanish)
- Krishan K, Sharma JC (2002). "Intra-individual difference between recumbent length and stature among growing children". Indian J Pediatr. 69 (7): 565–9. doi:10.1007/BF02722678. PMID 12173694.
- Case A, Paxson C (2008). "Stature and status: Height, ability, and labor market outcomes". The Journal of Political Economy. 116 (3): 499–532. doi:10.1086/589524. PMC . PMID 19603086.
- Sakamaki R, Amamoto R, Mochida Y, Shinfuku N, Toyama K (2005). "A comparative study of food habits and body shape perception of university students in Japan and Korea". Nutrition Journal. 4: 31. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-4-31. PMC . PMID 16255785.
- Body height of mummified pharaohs supports historical suggestions of sibling marriages, AJPA DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22728 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human height.|
- CDC National Center for Health Statistics: Growth Charts of American Percentiles
- fao.org, Body Weights and Heights by Countries (given in percentiles)
- The Height Gap, Article discussing differences in height around the world
- Tallest in the World: Native Americans of the Great Plains in the Nineteenth Century
- European Heights in the Early eighteenth Century
- Spatial Convergence in Height in East-Central Europe, 1890–1910
- The Biological Standard of Living in Europe During the Last Two Millennia
- HEALTH AND NUTRITION IN THE PREINDUSTRIAL ERA: INSIGHTS FROM A MILLENNIUM OF AVERAGE HEIGHTS IN NORTHERN EUROPE
- Our World In Data – Human Height – Visualizations of how human height around the world has changed historically (by Max Roser). Charts for all countries, world maps, and links to more data sources.
- What Has Happened to the Quality of Life in the Advanced Industrialized Nations?
- A century of trends in adult human height, NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), DOI: 10.7554/eLife.13410, 25 July 2016