Population growth

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In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

Global human population growth amounts to around 75 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7 billion in 2012. It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.4 billion by mid-2030, and 9.6 billion by mid-2050. Many nations with rapid population growth have low standards of living, whereas many nations with low rates of population growth have high standards of living.[1]

Population[2]
Years passed Year Billion
- 1800 1
127 1927 2
33 1960 3
14 1974 4
13 1987 5
12 1999 6
12 2011 7
12 2023* 8
14 2037* 9
18 2055* 10
33 2088* 11
*World Population Prospects 2017
(United Nations Population Division)

History[edit]

The growth of the population started in the Western world during industrialization by the end of the 18th century. The reasons for the "Modern Rise of Population"[3] were particularly investigated by the British health scientist Thomas McKeown (1912-1988). In his publications, McKeown challenged four theories about the population growth:

  1. McKeown stated that the growth in Western population, particularly surging in the 19th century, was not so much caused by an increase in fertility, but largely by a decline of mortality particularly of childhood mortality followed by infant mortality,[4][5]
  2. The decline of mortality could largely be attributed to rising standards of living, whereby McKeown put most emphasis on improved nutritional status,
  3. His most controversial idea, at least his most disputed idea, was that he questioned the effectiveness of public health measures, including sanitary reforms, vaccination and quarantine,[6]
  4. The sometime very fierce disputes that his publication provoked around the "McKeown thesis", have overshadowed his more important and largely unchallenged argument that curative medical measures played little role in mortality decline, not only prior to the mid-20th century[4] but also until well into the 20th century.[7]

Although the McKeown thesis has been heavily disputed, recent studies have confirmed the value of his ideas. His work is pivotal for present day thinking about population growth, birth control, public health and medical care. McKeown had a major influence on many population researchers, such as health economists and Nobel prize winners Robert W. Fogel (1993) and Angus Deaton (2015). The latter considered McKeown as 'the founder of social medicine'.[8]

Population growth rate[edit]

The "population growth rate" is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period, expressed as a fraction of the initial population. Specifically, population growth rate refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula, valid for a sufficiently small time interval:

A positive growth rate indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth rate indicates that the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero indicates that there were the same number of individuals at the beginning and end of the period—a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times.[9]

A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than 1 indicates that the population of females is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of females is decreasing.

Most populations do not grow exponentially, rather they follow a logistic model. Once the population has reached its carrying capacity, it will stabilize and the exponential curve will level off towards the carrying capacity, which is usually when a population has depleted most its natural resources.[10]

The logistic growth of a population.

Logistic equation[edit]

Where,

= the population after time t

= time a population grows

= relative growth rate coefficient

= carrying capacity of the population; defined by ecologists as the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain.[10]

This separable differential equation may be solved explicitly.

; where and the initial population at time 0.

This analytic solution is useful in analyzing the behavior of population models.[11]

Human population growth rate[edit]

A world map showing global variations in fertility rate per woman according to the CIA World Factbook's 2016 data
Estimates of population evolution in different continents between 1950 and 2050 according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people.
World population growth rates between 1950–2050

In 2009, the estimated annual growth rate was 1.1%.[12] The CIA World Factbook gives the world annual birthrate, mortality rate, and growth rate as 1.86%, 0.78%, and 1.08% respectively.[13] The last 100 years have seen a massive fourfold increase in the population, due to medical advances, lower mortality rates, and an increase in agricultural productivity[14] made possible by the Green Revolution.

The annual increase in the number of living humans peaked at 88.0 million in 1989, then slowly declined to 73.9 million in 2003, after which it rose again to 75.2 million in 2006. In 2009, the human population increased by 74.6 million.[12] Generally, developed nations have seen a decline in their growth rates in recent decades, though annual growth rates remain above 2% in poverty-stricken countries of the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, and also in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin America.[15]

In some countries the population is declining, especially in Eastern Europe, mainly due to low fertility rates, high death rates and emigration. In Southern Africa, growth is slowing due to the high number of AIDS-related deaths. Some Western Europe countries might also experience population decline.[16] Japan's population began decreasing in 2005; it now has the highest standard of living in the world.[17]

The United Nations Population Division projects world population to peak at over 10 billion at the end of the 21st century, but Sanjeev Sanyal has argued that global fertility will fall below the replacement rate in the 2020s and that world population will peak below 9 billion by 2050, followed by a long decline.[18] A 2014 study in Science concludes that the global population will reach 11 billion by 2100, with a 70% chance of continued growth into the 22nd century.[19]

Growth by country[edit]

According to United Nations population statistics, the world population grew by 30%, or 1.6 billion humans, between 1990 and 2010.[20] In number of people the increase was highest in India (350 million) and China (196 million). Population growth was among highest in the United Arab Emirates (315%) and Qatar (271%).[20]

Growth rates of the world's most populous countries
Rank Country Population
2010
Population
1990
Growth (%)
1990–2010
  World 6,895,889,000 5,306,425,000 30.0%
1  China 1,341,335,000 1,145,195,000 17.1%
2  India 1,224,614,000 873,785,000 40.2%
3  United States 310,384,000 253,339,000 22.5%
4  Indonesia 239,871,000 184,346,000 30.1%
5  Brazil 194,946,000 149,650,000 30.3%
6  Pakistan 173,593,000 111,845,000 55.3%
7  Nigeria 158,423,000 97,552,000 62.4%
8  Bangladesh 148,692,000 105,256,000 41.3%
9  Russia 142,958,000 148,244,000 -3.6%
10  Japan 128,057,000 122,251,000 4.7%
Example nation 1967 population 1990 population 1994 population 2002 population 2008 population Life expectancy in years (2008) Total population growth from 1960s to 2007- 2011
Eritrea* N/A* N/A* 3,437,000[21] 4,298,269 5,673,520[22] 61[23][23] 2,236,520
Ethiopia* 23,457,000*[24] 50,974,000* [25] 54,939,000[21] 67,673,031(2003) 79,221,000[26] 55[23] 55,764,000
Sudan 14,355,000†[24] 25,204,000† [25] 27,361,000†[21] 38,114,160 (2003)† 42,272,000†[22] 50†[23] 27,917,000
Chad 3,410,000[24] 5,679,000[25] 6,183,000[21] 9,253,493(2003) 10,329,208 (2009)[27] 47[23] 6,919,205
Niger 3,546,000[24] 7,732,000[25] 8,846,000[21] 10,790,352 (2001) 15,306,252 (2009)[28] 44[23] 11,760,252
Nigeria 61,450,000[24] 88,500,000[25] 108,467,000[21] 129,934,911 158,259,000[22] 47[23] 96,809,000
Mali 4,745,000[24] 8,156,000,[25] 10,462,000[21] 11,340,480 14,517,176(2010).[29] 50[23] 9,772,176
Mauritania 1,050,000[24] 2,025,000 [25] 2,211,000[21] 2,667,859 (2003) 3,291,000 (2009)[27] 54[23] 2,241,000
Senegal 3,607,000[24] 7,327,000[25] 8,102,000[21] 9,967,215 13,711,597 (2009)[30] 57[23] 10,104,597
Gambia 343,000[24] 861,000[25] 1,081,000[21] 1,367,124 (2000) 1,705,000[22] 55[23] 1,362,000
Algeria 11,833,126 (1966)[24] 25,012,000[25] 27,325,000 [21] 32,818,500 (2003) 34,895,000[26][31] 74[23] 23,061,874
The DRC/Zaire 16,353,000[24] 35,562,000[25] 42,552,000[21] 55,225,478 (2003) 70,916,439 [26][32] 54[23] 54,563,439
Egypt 30,083,419 (1966)[24] 53,153,000[25] 58,326,000[21] 70,712,345 (2003) 79,089,650 [26][33][33] 72[23] 49,006,231
Réunion (French colony/overseas department) 418,000[24] N/A[25] N/A[21] 720,934 (2003) 827,000 (2009) [22] N/A[23] 409,000
The Falkland Islands (UK Territory) 2,500[24] N/A[25] N/A[21] 2,967 (2003) 3,140(2010)[34] N/A[23] 640
Chile 8,935,500[24] 13,173,000[25] 13,994,000[21] 15,116,435 17,224,200 (2011) 77[23] 8,288,700
Colombia 19,191,000[24] 32,987,000[25] 34,520,000[21] 41,088,227 45,925,397(2010)[35] 73[23] 26,734,397
Brazil 85,655,000[24] 150,368,000[25] 153,725,000[21] 174,468,575 (2000) 190,732,694(2010) [36] 72[23] 105,077,694
Mexico 45,671,000[24] 86,154,000[25] 93,008,000[21] 103,400,165 (2000) 112,322,757(2010)[37] 76[23] 66,651,757
Fiji 476,727 (1966)[24] 765,000[25] 771,000[21] 844,330 (2001) 849,000[31] (2010) 70[23] 372,273
Nauru 6,050 (1966)[24] 10,000[25] N/A[21] 12,329 9,322 (2011)[38] N/A[23] 3,272
Jamaica 1,876,000[24] 2,420,000[25] 2,429,000[21] 2,695,867 (2003) 2,847,232[39](2010) 74[23] 971,232
Australia 11,540,764 (1964)[24] 17,086,000[25] 17,843,000[21] 19,546,792 (2003) 24,644,353[40] (2010) 82[23] 10,066,508
Albania 1,965,500 (1964)[24] 3,250,000[25] 3,414,000[21] 3,510,484 2,986,952 (July 2010 est.)[27][41] (2010) 78[23] 1,021,452
Poland 31,944,000[24] 38,180,000[25] 38,554,000[21] 38,626,349 (2001) 38,192,000(2010)[42] 75[23] 6,248,000
Hungary 10,212,000[24] 10,553,000[25] 10,261,000[21] 10,106,017 9,979,000(2010)[43] 73[23] -142,000
Bulgaria 8,226,564 (1965)[24] 8,980,000[25] 8,443,000[21] 7,707,495(2000) 7,351,234 (2011)[44] 73[23] -875,330
United Kingdom 55,068,000 (1966)[24] 57,411,000[25] 58,091,000[21] 58,789,194 62,008,048 (2010)[45] 79[23] 7,020,048
Republic of Ireland 2,884,002 (1966)[24] 3,503,000[25] 3,571,000[21] 3,840,838 (2000) 4,470,700 [46] (2010) 78[23] 1,586,698
The PRC/China 720,000,000[24] 1,139,060,000[25] 1,208,841,000[21] 1,286,975,468 (2004) 1,339,724,852(2010)[47] 73[23] 619,724,852
Japan‡ 98,274,961 (1965)[24] 123,537,000[25] 124,961,000[21] 127,333,002 127,420,000 (2010)[48] 82[23] 28,123,865
Ryukyu Islands (Once occupied by the United States)‡ 934,176 (1965)[24] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
India# 511,115,000[24] 843,931,000[25] 918,570,000[21] 1,028,610,328 (2001) 1,210,193,422(2011)[49] 69[23] 699,078,422
Singapore 1,956,000 (1967)[24] 3,003,000 (1990) [25] 2,930,000 (1994)[21] 4,452,732 (2002) 5,076,700(2010)[50] 82 (2008)[23] 3,120,700
Sikkim# 183,000 (1967)[24] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Monaco 24,000 (1967)[24] 29,000 (1990) [25] N/A (1994)[21] 31,842 (2000) 35,586[51] (2010) (2008)[23] 1,586
Greece 8,716,000 (1967)[24] 10,123,000 (1990) [25] 10,426,000 (1994)[21] 10,964,020(2001)[52] 11,305,118(2011)[53] N/A (2008)[23] 2,589,118
Faroe Islands (Danish dependency) 38,000 (1967)[24] N/A(1990) [25] N/A(1994)[21] 46,345 (2000) 48,917(2010) [54] N/A (2008)[23] 18,917
Liechtenstein 20,000 (1967)[24] 29,000 (1990) [25] N/A (1994)[21] 33,307(2000) 35,789(2009)[55] (2008)[23] 15,789
South Korea 29,207,856 (1966)[24] 42,793,000 (1990) [25] 44,453,000 (1994)[21] 48,324,000 (2003) 48,875,000(2010) [56] (2008)[23] 19,667,144
North Korea 12,700,000 (1967)[24] 21,773,000 (1990) [25] 23,483,000 (1994)[21] 22,224,195 (2002) 24,051,218(2010)[57] (2008)[23] 11,351,218
Brunei 107,200 (1967)[24] 266,000(1990) [25] 280,000 (1994)[21] 332,844 (2001) 401,890(2011)[58] 76(2008)[23] 306,609
Malaysia 10,671,000 (1967)[24] 17,861,000 (1990) [25] 19,489,000 (1994)[21] 21,793,293(2002) 27,565,821(2010)[59] (2008)[23] 16,894,821
Thailand 32,680,000 (1967)[24] 57,196,000 (1990) [25] 59,396,000 (1994)[21] 60,606,947(2000)[60] 63,878,267(2011)[61] (2008)[23] 31,198,267
Lebanon 2,520,000 (1967)[24] 2,701,000 (1990) [25] 2,915,000 (1994)[21] 3,727,703 [62] (2003) 4,224,000[22](2009) - (2008)[23]
Syria 5,600,000 (1967)[24] 12,116,000 (1990) [25] 13,844,000 (1994)[21] 17,585,540 (2003) 22,457,763(2011)[63] -(2008)[23]
Bahrain 182,00 (1967)[24] 503,000 (1990) [25] 549,000 (1994)[21] 667,238 (2003) 1,234,596 [64] (2010) 75(2008)[23]
Sri Lanka 11,741,000 (1967)[24] 16,993,000 (1990) [25] 17,685,000 (1994)[21] 19,607,519 (2002) 20,238,000[31] (2009) - (2008)[23]
Switzerland 6,050,000 (1967)[24] 6.712,000 (1990) [25] 6,994,000 (1994)[21] 7,261,200 (2002) 7,866,500[65] (2010) - (2008)[23]
Luxembourg 335,000 (1967)[24] 381,000 (1990) [25] 401,000 (1994)[21] 439,539 (2001) 511,840(2011)[66] -(2008)[23]
Romania 19,105,056 (1966)[24] 23,200,000 (1990) [25] 22,736,000 (1994)[21] 21,680,974 (2002) 21,466,174[67] (2011) - (2008)[23]
Niuē (New Zealand colony) 1,900 (1966)[24] N/A (1990) [25] N/A (1994)[21] 2,134 (2002) 1,398(2009)[68] N/A (2008)[23] -502
Tokelau (New Zealand colony) 5,194 (1966)[24] N/A (1990) [25] N/A (1994)[21] 1,445(2001) 1,416(2009) N/A (2008)[23] -3,778
Jamaica 1,876,000 (1967)[24] 2,420,000 (1990) [25] 2,429,000 (1994)[21] 2,695,867 (2003) 2,847,232[39](2010) 74 (2008)[23] 971,232
Argentina 32,031,000 (1967)[24] 32,322,000(1990) [25] 34,180,000 (1994)[21] 37,812,817 (2002) 40,091,359 (2010) 74 (2008)[23] 8,060,359
France 49,890,660 (1967)[24] 56,440,000(1990) [25] 57,747,000 (1994)[21] 59,551,000 (2001) 63,136,180(2011)[69] 81 (2008)[23]
Italy 52,334,000(1967)[24] 57,662,000 (1990) [25] 57,193,000 (1994)[21] 56,995,744 (2002) 60,605,053[70] (2011) 80 (2008)[23]
Mauritius 774,000 (1967)[24] 1,075,000(1990) [25] 1,104,000(1994)[21] 1,179,137 (2000) 1,288,000 (2009)[31] 75 (2008)[23] 514,000
Guatemala 4,717,000 (1967)[24] 9,197,000 (1990) [25] 10,322,000 (1994)[21] 12,974,361 (2000) 13,276,517 (2009) 70 (2008)[23] 8,559,517
Cuba 8,033,000 (1967)[24] 10,609,000 (1990) [25] 10,960,000 (1994)[21] 11,177,743 (2002) 11,239,363(2009)[71] 77 (2008)[23]
Barbados 246,000 (1967)[24] 255,000 (1990) [25] 261,000 (1994)[21] 250,012 (2001) 284,589(2010)[27] 73 (2008)[23] 18,589
Samoa 131,377 (1967)[24] 164,000 (1990) [25] 164,000 (1994)[21] 178,173 (2003) 179,000(2009)[22] N/A (2008)[23]
Sweden 7,765,981 (1967)[24] 8,559,000 (1990) [25] 8,794,000 (1994)[21] 8,920,705 (2002) 9,354,462 (2009) 81 (2008)[23]
Finland 4,664,000 (1967)[24] 4,986,000 (1990) [25] 5,095,000 (1994)[21] 5,175,783 (2002) 5,374,781 (2010) N/A (2008)[23]
Portugal 9,440,000 (1967)[24] 10,525,000 (1990) [25] 9,830,000 (1994)[21] 10,355,824 (2001) 10,647,763[72](2011) N/A (2008)[23]
Austria 7,323,981 (1967)[24] 7,712,000 (1990) [25] 8,031,000 (1994)[21] 8,032,926 (2001) 8,404,252 (2011) N/A (2008)[23]
Libya 1,738,000 (1967)[24] 4,545,000 (1990) [25] 5,225,000(1994)[21] 5,499,074 (2002) 6,420,000 (2009)[22] 77 (2008)[23]
Peru 12,385,000 (1967)[24] 21,550,000 (1990) [25] 23,080,000(1994)[21] 27,949,639 (2002) 29,496,000(2010) 70 (2008)[23]
Guinea Bissau 528,000 (1967)[24] 965,000 (1990) [25] 1,050,000 (1994)[21] 1,345,479 (2002) 1,647,000[22](2009) 48 (2008)[23]
Angola 5,203,066 (1967)[24] 10,020,000 (1990) [25] 10,674,000 (1994)[21] 10,766,500(2003) 18,498,000[31][73](2009) (38 2008)[23]
Equatorial Guinea 277,000 (1967)[24] 348,000 (1990) [25] 389,000 (1994)[21] 474,214 (2000) 676,000(2009)[31] 61 (2008)[23]
Benin 2,505,000 (1967)[24] 4,736,000 (1990) [25] 5,246,000(1994)[21] 8,500,500 (2002) 8,791,832 (2009) 59 (2008)[23]
Laos 2,770,000 (1967)[24] 4,139,000 (1990) [25] 4,742,000 (1994)[21] 5,635,967 (2002) 6,800,000[74] (2011) 56(2008)[23]
Nepal 10,500,000 (1967)[24] 18,961,000 (1990) [25] 21,360,000 (1994)[21] 25,284,463 (2002) 29,331,000[31] (2009) (2008)[23]
Iran 25,781,090 (1966)[24] 54,608,000(1990) [25] 59,778,000(1994)[21] 66,622,704 (2002) 75,330,000 (2010) [75] 71 (2008)[23]
Canada 20,014,880 (1966)[24] 26,603,000(1990) [25] 29,248,000(1994)[21] 31,081,900 (2001) 32,623,490(2011)[76] 81 (2008)[23]
United States 199,118,000 (1967)[24] 249,995,000(1990) [25] 260,650,00(1994)[21] 281,421,906 (2000) 308,745,538(2010)[77] 78(2008)[23]
Uganda 7,931,000 (1967)[24] 18,795,000 (1990) [25] 20,621,000(1994)[21] 24,227,297 (2002) 32,369,558 (2009) 52 (2008)[23]
Notes
* Eritrea left Ethiopia in 1991.
† Split into the nations of Sudan and South Sudan during 2011.
‡ Japan and the Ryukyu Islands merged in 1972.
# India and Sikkim merged in 1975.
Population growth 1990–2012 (%)[78]
Africa 73.3%
Middle East 68.2%
Asia (excl. China) 42.8%
China 19.0%
OECD Americas 27.9%
Non-OECD Americas 36.6%
OECD Europe 11.5%
OECD Asia Oceania 11.1%
Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia -0.8%
Thousands of scooters make their way through the city of Hồ Chí Minh, Vietnam.

Growth by region[edit]

Population growth rates vary by world region, with the highest growth rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and the lowest in Europe. For example, from 1950 to 2010, Sub-Saharan African grew over three and a half times, from about 186 million to 856 million. On the other hand, Europe only increased by 35%, from 547 million in 1950 to 738 million in 2010. As a result of these varying population growths, Sub-Saharan Africa changed from 7.4% of world population in 1950 to 12.4% in 2010, while Europe declined from 22% to 11% in the same time period. [79]

Into the future[edit]

Estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE to 2000 CE.
The majority of world population growth today is occurring in less developed countries.

According to the UN's 2010 revision to its population projections, world population is projected to peak at 10.1 billion in 2100 compared to 7 billion in 2011.[80] In 2011, Indian economist Sanjeev Sanyal disputed the UN's figures and argued that birth rates will fall below replacement rates in the 2020s. According to his projections, population growth will be only sustained till the 2040s by rising longevity, but will peak below 9 bn by 2050.[18] Conversely, a 2014 paper by demographers from several universities and the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population would reach about 10.9 billion in 2100 and continue growing thereafter.[81] One of its authors, Adrian Raftery, a University of Washington professor of statistics and of sociology, says "The consensus over the past 20 years or so was that world population, which is currently around 7 billion, would go up to 9 billion and level off or probably decline. We found there’s a 70 percent probability the world population will not stabilize this century. Population, which had sort of fallen off the world’s agenda, remains a very important issue."[82]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Population Reference Bureau. "2013 World Population Factsheet" (PDF). www.pbr.org. Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  2. ^ United Nations - World Population Prospects 2017
  3. ^ McKeown, Thomas (1976). The Modern Rise of Population. London, UK: Edward Arnold. ISBN 9780713159868. 
  4. ^ a b McKeown T, Brown RG (1955). "Medical evidence related to English population changes in the eighteenth century". Population Studies. 9 (2): 119–141. JSTOR 2172162. doi:10.1080/00324728.1955.10404688. 
  5. ^ McKeown T, Brown RG, Record RG (1972). "An interpretation of the modern rise of population in Europe". Population Studies 26:345-382. JSTOR 2173815. 
  6. ^ McKeown T, Record RG (1962). "Reasons for the Decline of Mortality in England and Wales during the Nineteenth Century". Population Studies. 16 (2): 94–122. JSTOR 2173119. doi:10.2307/2173119. 
  7. ^ McKeown T, Record RG, Turner RD (1975). "An Interpretation of the Decline of Mortality in England and Wales during the Twentieth Century". Population Studies. 29 (3): 391–422. JSTOR 2173935. PMID 11630508. doi:10.1080/00324728.1975.10412707. 
  8. ^ Deaton, Angus (2013). The Great Escape. Health, wealth, and the origins of inequality. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. pp. 91–93. ISBN 978 0 691 15354 4. McKeown's views, updated to modern circumstances, are still important today in debates between those who think that health is primarily determined by medical discoveries and medical treatment and those who look to the background social conditions of life. 
  9. ^ Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario
  10. ^ a b Reece, Jane; Urry, Lisa; Cain, Michael; Wasserman, Steven; Minorsky, Peter; Jackson, Robert (2014). Campbell Biology. Pearson. 
  11. ^ Stewart, James; Clegg, Daniel (2012). Brief Applied Calculus. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. 
  12. ^ a b "International Programs". Archived from the original on 2009-06-28. 
  13. ^ "The World Factbook". 20 November 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  14. ^ "BBC NEWS - South Asia - The end of India's green revolution?". 
  15. ^ "International Programs". Archived from the original on 2009-07-01. 
  16. ^ UN population projections
  17. ^ "Japan sees biggest population fall". the Guardian. 
  18. ^ a b Sanjeev Sanyal. "Sanjeev Sanyal on The End of Population Growth - Project Syndicate". Project Syndicate. 
  19. ^ Carrington, Damien (September 18, 2014). "World population to hit 11bn in 2100 – with 70% chance of continuous rise". The Guardian. Retrieved December 19, 2016. 
  20. ^ a b "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx The British Collins Longman Student Atlas, the 1996 and in 1998 publications, ISBN 978-0-00-448879-0 for the 1998 edition, ISBN 0-00-448365-0 for the 1996 edition
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