List of human positions

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"Pose" redirects here. For other uses, see Pose (disambiguation).
"Posing" redirects here. For municipality in Bavaria in Germany, see Pösing.

Human positions refer to the different physical configurations that the human body can take.

There are several synonyms that refer to human positioning, often used interchangeably, but having specific nuances of meaning.[1]

  • Position is a general term for a configuration of the human body
  • Posture means an intentionally or habitually assumed position
  • Pose implies artistic or aesthetic intention of the position
  • Attitude refers to postures assumed for purpose of imitation, intentional or not, as well as in some standard collocations in reference to some distinguished types of posture: "Freud never assumed a fencer's attitude, yet almost all took him for a swordsman."[2]
  • Bearing refers to the manner of the posture, as well as of gestures and other aspects of the conduct taking place

Basic positions[edit]

While not moving, a human is usually in one of the following basic positions:

Standing[edit]

Main article: Standing
Standing couple, January 1873

Although quiet standing appears to be static, modern instrumentation shows it to be a process of rocking from the ankle in the sagittal plane. The sway of quiet standing is often likened to the motion of an inverted pendulum.[3] There are many mechanisms in the body that are suggested to control this movement, e.g. a spring action in muscles, higher control from the nervous system or core muscles.

Although standing isn't dangerous per se, there are pathologies associated with it. One short term condition is orthostatic hypotension, and long term conditions are sore feet, stiff legs and low back pain.

Sitting[edit]

Main article: Sitting
Paul Cézanne. A sitting position

Sitting requires the buttocks resting on a more or less horizontal structure, such as a chair or the ground. Special ways of sitting are with the legs horizontal, and in an inclined seat. While on a chair the shins are usually vertical, on the ground the shins may be crossed in the lotus position or be placed horizontally under the thigh in a seiza.

Squatting[edit]

Main article: Squatting position
Squatting on the ground as a resting position.

Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet (as with standing) but the knees and hips are bent. Squatting may be either:

  • full - known as full squat, deep squat, (sitting) on one's haunches or hunkerin
  • partial - known as partial, standing, half, semi, parallel, shallow, intermediate, incomplete or monkey squat.

In contrast, sitting, involves taking the weight of the body, at least in part, on the buttocks against the ground or a horizontal object such as a chair seat. It is possible to squat with one leg and assume another position (such as kneeling) with the other leg. Crouching may involve squatting, kneeling or a combination of the two.[4] Among Chinese, Southeast Asian, and Eastern European adults, squatting often takes the place of sitting or standing.[5]

Lying[edit]

Main article: Lying (position)
"Jupiter et Antiope", by Antoine Watteau

When in lying position, the body may assume a great variety of shapes and positions. The following are the basic recognized positions.

Lying on either side, with the body straight or bent/curled forward or backward. The fetal position is lying or sitting curled, with limbs close to the torso and the head close to the knees.

Kneeling[edit]

Main article: Kneeling

Kneeling is standing not on the feet, but on one or both knees or shins approximately parallel to the ground, possibly raised to an angle depending on the position of the feet. The torso is usually upright but can be considered kneeling at other angles not touching the ground.

Crouching[edit]

Crouching Aphrodite, Louvre

To crouch means "to bend down; to stoop low; to lie close to the ground with legs bent, as an animal when waiting for prey or in fear."[6]

Crouching may involve squatting or kneeling.

All-fours[edit]

This is the static form of crawling which is instinctive form of locomotion for very young children. It is a commonly used childbirth position in non-Western cultures.[7]

Atypical positions[edit]

Hanging man by David Černý

Atypical positions include:

Such positions are common to break dancing, gymnastics and yoga.

Microgravity[edit]

The neutral body posture

In microgravity, the human body naturally adopts the neutral body posture.

Stress positions[edit]

Main article: Stress positions
A Viet Cong prisoner captured in 1967 by the U.S Army awaits interrogation. He has been placed in a stress position by tying a board between his arms.

Stress positions place the human body in such a way that a great amount of weight is placed on just one or two muscles. Forcing prisoners to adopt such positions is a method of ill-treatment used for extracting information or as a punishment, possibly amounting to torture. Such positions also are sometimes used as a punishment for children.

Bondage positions[edit]

A bondage position is a body position created by physical restraints which restricts locomotion, use of the limbs or general freedom of movement.

Childbirth positions[edit]

Main article: Childbirth positions

In addition to the lithotomy position still commonly used by many obstetricians, childbirth positions that are successfully used by midwives and traditional birth-attendants the world over include squatting, standing, kneeling and on all fours, often in a sequence.[7]

Dance positions[edit]

Main article: Dance positions

Dance position is a position of a dancer or a mutual position of a dance couple assumed during a dance. Describing and mastering proper dance positions is an important part of dance technique.

Defecation positions[edit]

Main article: Defecation positions

The two most common defecation positions are squatting and sitting. The squatting posture is used for Japanese and South Asian toilets. It is also commonly used for defecation in the absence of toilets or other devices. The sitting defecation posture is used in Western toilets, with a lean-forward posture or a 90-degrees posture.

Eating positions[edit]

Eating positions vary according to the different regions of the world where many cultures influence the way people eat their meals. In most of the Middle Eastern countries, eating while sitting on the floor is considered the most common way to eat and it is believed to be healthier than eating while sitting to a table.

Heat escape lessening position[edit]

The heat escape lessening position (HELP) is a way to position oneself to reduce heat loss in cold water. It is taught as part of the curriculum in Australia, North America and Ireland for lifeguard and boating safety training. It involves essentially positioning one's knees together and hugging them close to the chest using one's arms.

Medical positions[edit]

The following positions are specifically used in medicine:[8]

Recovery position[edit]

Main article: Recovery position

The recovery position or coma position refers to one of a series of variations on a lateral recumbent or three-quarters prone position of the body, into which an unconscious but breathing casualty can be placed as part of first aid treatment.

Resting positions[edit]

A large number of resting positions are possible, based on variations of sitting, squatting, kneeling or lying.[9]

Riding positions[edit]

A "straddle" or "astride" position is usually adopted when riding a horse, donkey, or other beast of burden, with or without the aid of a saddle. The position is also used for sitting on analogous vehicles and furniture, such as bicycles, motorcycles, or unicycles, and certain types of specialized workbenches (such as a shaving horse). By definition, an essential feature is having one leg on each side of whatever is being straddled.

The posture is often intermediate between standing and sitting positions, allowing body weight to be supported securely, while also affording a high degree of upper body mobility and dynamic balance during vigorous or extended motions.

Sex positions[edit]

Main article: Sex positions

Sex positions are positions which people may adopt during or for the purpose of sexual intercourse or other sexual activities. Sexual acts are generally described by the positions the participants adopt in order to perform those acts.

Shooting positions[edit]

See also: Three positions

Sleeping positions[edit]

Main article: Sleeping positions

The sleeping position is the body configuration assumed by a person during or prior to sleeping. Six basic sleeping positions have been identified[dubious ]:

  • Fetus (41%) – curling up in a fetal position. This was the most common position, and is especially popular with women.
  • Log (15%) – lying on one's side with the arms down the side.
  • Yearner (13%) – sleeping on one's side with the arms in front.
  • Soldier (8%) – on one's back with the arms pinned to the sides.
  • Freefall (7%) – on one's front with the arms around the pillow and the head tilted to one side.
  • Starfish (5%) – on one's back with the arms around the pillow.

Submissive positions[edit]

Submissive positions are often ceremonial and dictated by culture. They may be performed as a mutual sign of respect between equals or as a sign of submission to a higher-ranking individual or to a ceremonial object.

  • Bowing is the lowering of the head and torso towards the person or object of reverence, often briefly. The extent of a bow ranges from a simple head nod to a 90–degree bending at the waist. Though less common in Western cultures, it remains an important sign of respect in many Eastern cultures, and is also used in the ceremonies various religions.
    • In bowing and scraping, the right hand is placed across the abdomen while the right leg is drawn or "scraped" back during a bow.
    • In Western cultures, it is often considered proper for women to perform a curtsey by bending the knees instead of a bow.
  • Genuflection (or genuflexion) is bending at least one knee to the ground, was from early times a gesture of deep respect for a superior.
  • Kneeling is associated with reverence, submission and obeisance, particularly if one kneels before a person who is standing or sitting.
  • Kowtowing is the act of deep respect shown by kneeling and bowing so low as to have one's head touching the ground.
  • Prostration is the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position.

Urination positions[edit]

Main article: Urination

For anatomically typical males, because of the flexible and protruding nature of the penis, it is simple to control the direction of the urine stream. Most males urinate in a standing position although they could urinate sitting down or squatting.

For anatomically typical females, the urine does not exit at a distance from the body and is therefore harder to control. Females most commonly urinate sitting on a toilet although squatting is a viable alternative. Many females are able to urinate standing, sometimes using a female urination device.

Asanas[edit]

Main article: List of asanas

Certain asanas were originally intended primarily to restore and maintain a practitioner's well-being, improve the body's flexibility and vitality, and promote the ability to remain in seated meditation for extended periods.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Position." Dictionary.com, Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. 24 October 2007. Reference.com
  2. ^ Fritz Wittels, "Freud and the Child Woman: The Memoirs of Fritz Wittels", ISBN 978-0300064858, Google Books, p.49
  3. ^ Abstract Kinematic and kinetic validity of the inverted pendulum model in quiet standing, NIH
  4. ^ Hewes GW: 'World distribution of certain postural habits' American Anthropologist, 57, (1955), 231-44
  5. ^ Dobrzynski, Judith H. (2004-10-17). "An Eye on China's Not So Rich and Famous". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-07. 
  6. ^ crouch - Wiktionary
  7. ^ a b Engelmann GJ Labor Among Primitive Peoples (1883)
  8. ^ knee-chest position - definition of knee-chest position by Medical dictionary
  9. ^ Hewes GW: ' World distribution of certain postural habits' American Anthropologist, 57, (1955), 231-44

Further reading[edit]