Human rights abuses in Manipur

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Human rights abuses in Manipur
India Manipur locator map.svg
Location of Manipur (highlighted in red)
LocationManipur, India
TargetCivilians and combatants
PerpetratorsIndian security forces
Separatist insurgents
MotiveMilitary clampdown

Human rights abuses in Manipur, a state in northeastern India, have been an ongoing issue. As per the Manipur natives, the Indian security forces have committed several human rights violations in the state while suppressing a separatist insurgency in the region. The insurgent groups have been known to kidnap and recruit children to work as child soldiers against the Indian government.


Despite many attempts by Indian government to facilitate the development in the state, the state had failed in gaining the advantages for many reasons. Behind the poor condition of the state has been the ignorance of Manipur's peoples towards Indian Government and demands of separate nation.[citation needed] On many occasions the government officials including Engineers and Administrators posted in North-Eastern regions were killed and had been attacked by the insurgent groups, hampering of adequate manpower required for the development of infrastructure.[citation needed] Yet the government of India and the state Government taking many initiatives to take control of the situation.

The attacks on the Government officials and peoples from outside the region are still carried out by Terrorist groups and had been said that it is firmly supported by local peoples, is hampering the overall growth of the Human resources that is needed for the development of the region.[citation needed]

A separatist insurgency began in the northeastern Indian state of Manipur in 1964, although momentum to a more violent phase did not occur until 1978.[1] The Separatists demand a sovereign state separate from the Union of India, conceding their grievances over lack of development, plundering of local resources and a general discontent in Manipur.[1][2] Human Rights Watch, argues that human rights violations by Indian Security Forces have only fuelled the insurgency.[3] It adds that the Indian Army have at times acted with impunity as anti-terrorism laws in the state make prosecution of human rights violators difficult.[4][5][6]

There are currently 34 groups, including non-violent ones, that demand independence from India.[1] In 1999, some of these groups coalesced into an alliance organization called the "Manipur People's Liberation Front." Of these, the three most prominent are the United National Liberation Front (UNLF), Peoples Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK), and PLA of Manipur. The UNLF is estimated to have 2500 active freedom fighting rebels, the PREPAK with 1500, and PLA with 3000.[1]

Armed Forces Act, 1958[edit]

Due to overwhelming situation of violence by peoples of Manipur and insurgent groups, The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 was passed on 11 September 1958 by the Parliament of India. The legislation grants "special powers" to the Indian armed forces in regions which the act refers to as "disturbed areas".

The act has been in force in all seven northeastern states of India currently embroiled in a decades-old violent insurgency, including Manipur, for over fifty years. According to human rights organisation Redress, the Indian armed forces have abused power through privileges conferred in the act by using it as a manipulative tool to conduct "killings, torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment and enforced disappearances."[7] Yet there has been no strong proof of such actions by Armies, though the claims are still based on few number of incidents during the counter insurgency season of 1960's.

The act's continued application in Manipur have led to numerous local protests, with the most notable being that of Irom Chanu Sharmila, a Manipuri civil rights activist. Sharmila has been on a longstanding hunger strike since 2 November 2002 in which she has demanded the Indian government to repeal the act, which she blames for violence in Manipur and other parts of India's troubled northeast.[8] Having refused food and water for more than 500 weeks, she has been called "the world's longest hunger striker".[9] Her cause has gained international attention. The situation demands the strong presence of Armies as police forces aren't able to maintain law and order. Hence, the Indian parliament is still looking for a proper opportunity to lift the Act.

Child soldiers[edit]

There have been repeated reports of insurgent groups in Manipur kidnapping children to bolster their ranks with child soldiers.[10][11] These children are then taken and recruited as .[12] One recent report was on 18 April 2012, when three teenage boys were kidnapped as they watched a local football match.[13]

The Manipur Alliance for Child Recruitment denounced the kidnappings, stating "International Human Rights Law prohibited the recruitment of children below 18 years as child soldiers".[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d chandru. "MANIPUR- in a strange whirlpool of Cross-Current Insurgency". Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  2. ^ "Insurgency In Manipur :: KanglaOnline ~ Your Gateway". Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  3. ^ "India: Army Killings Fuel Insurgency in Manipur | Human Rights Watch". 15 September 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  4. ^ Datta, Tanya (8 August 2007). "India's 'forgotten' war". BBC News. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  5. ^ Manipur, The Hindu, 30 August 2009
  6. ^ "India's Independent Weekly News Magazine". Tehelka. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  7. ^ "The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 in Manipur and other States of the Northeast of India: Sanctioning repression in violation of India's human rights obligations". UNHCR. Redress. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  8. ^ "Manipur Fasting Woman Re-arrested". BBC News. 9 March 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  9. ^ Andrew Buncombe (4 November 2010). "A decade of starvation for Irom Sharmila". London: The Independent. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
  10. ^ a b "Manipur Alliance for Child Rights (MACR) denounces : 20th apr12 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  11. ^ "500 child soldiers are fighting in northeast India". Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  12. ^ "Manipur ultras recruiting kids as soldiers? - Brown Nongmaithem". The Sunday Indian. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)