Human rights in Madagascar

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Madagascar

Human rights in Madagascar are protected under the country's constitution. However the extent to which such rights are reflected in practice, is subject to debate. The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted concerns regarding the suspension of democratic electoral processes as the result of recent political unrest.[1] Furthermore, reports of corruption, arbitrary arrest and child labor highlight the prevalence of human rights issues in the country.[1][2]

Constitution and statutory responses[edit]

Adopted in 1992, the Constitution of Madagascar addresses the notion of universal suffrage, individual rights and the freedom of speech.[3]

Laws regarding a minimum age for employment as well as the prohibition of child labor were passed.[1]

International treaties[edit]

Madagascar's stances on international human rights treaties are as follows:

Issues[edit]

Censorship[edit]

Accusations of media censorship have risen due to the alleged restrictions on the coverage of government opposition.[24] During the leadership conflict, Ravalomanana ordered the closure of "Viva TV", which was owned by his opponent, Rajoelina.[1]

Equality[edit]

Women's suffrage was officially recognized in 1959.[25] However violence against women and human trafficking continues to be an issue in society.[1]

Legal system[edit]

The existence of key legal principles such as the rule of law and due process, is in question due to the increase in arbitrary and politically motivated arrests in the after In December 2014, the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor indicated that children in Madagascar engaged in 3 activities namely vanilla production, stone quarrying, and sapphire mining.

Poverty[edit]

The people of Madagascar are inherently oppressed by extreme levels and rates of poverty. As of 2005, the Eastern coast of the country had astoundingly high poverty rates of around 80% while urban areas are just over 50%. [26] Over 80% of the population lived on under $1.25 per day and over 90% of the population on under $2.00 per day as of 2010. The country has seen major improvements in literacy rates. Generally, a correlation exists between literacy rates and poverty. Should the progress in increasing the number of literate Madagascans continue, poverty rates should begin to decline respectively. [27]

Historical situation[edit]

The following chart shows Madagascar's ratings since 1972 in the Freedom in the World reports, published annually by Freedom House. A rating of 1 is "free"; 7, "not free".[28]1

Year Political Rights Civil Liberties Status Head of State2
1972 5 3 Partly Free Philibert Tsiranana
1973 5 4 Partly Free Gabriel Ramanantsoa
1974 5 4 Partly Free Gabriel Ramanantsoa
1975 5 5 Partly Free Gabriel Ramanantsoa
1976 6 5 Not Free Didier Ratsiraka
1977 5 5 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1978 6 6 Not Free Didier Ratsiraka
1979 6 6 Not Free Didier Ratsiraka
1980 7 6 Not Free Didier Ratsiraka
1981 6 6 Not Free Didier Ratsiraka
19823 6 6 Not Free Didier Ratsiraka
1983 5 6 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1984 5 6 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1985 5 6 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1986 5 5 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1987 5 5 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1988 5 5 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1989 5 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1990 4 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1991 4 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1992 4 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1993 2 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1994 2 4 Partly Free Albert Zafy
1995 2 4 Partly Free Albert Zafy
1996 2 4 Partly Free Albert Zafy
1997 2 4 Partly Free Norbert Ratsirahonana
1998 2 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
1999 2 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
2000 2 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
2001 2 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
2002 3 4 Partly Free Didier Ratsiraka
2003 3 3 Partly Free Marc Ravalomanana
2004 3 3 Partly Free Marc Ravalomanana
2005 3 3 Partly Free Marc Ravalomanana
2006 4 3 Partly Free Marc Ravalomanana
2007 4 3 Partly Free Marc Ravalomanana
2008 4 3 Partly Free Marc Ravalomanana
2009 6 4 Partly Free Marc Ravalomanana
2010 6 4 Partly Free Andry Rajoelina
2011 6 4 Partly Free Andry Rajoelina

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

1.^ Note that the "Year" signifies the "Year covered". Therefore the information for the year marked 2008 is from the report published in 2009, and so on.
2.^ As of 1 January.
3.^ The 1982 report covers 1981 and the first half of 1982, and the following 1984 report covers the second half of 1982 and the whole of 1983. In the interest of simplicity, these two aberrant "year and a half" reports have been split into three year-long reports through interpolation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e , 2009 U.S Dept of State Human Rights Report: Madagascar
  2. ^ Lawson H, Bertucci M.L, Encyclopedia of human rights, Taylor & Francis, 1996. p.978
  3. ^ Peter J. Schraeder. "Constitution and Institutions of Governance". Madagascar: A country study (Helen Chapin Metz, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (August 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 1. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Paris, 9 December 1948". Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  5. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 2. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. New York, 7 March 1966". Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  6. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 3. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. New York, 16 December 1966". Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  7. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 4. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. New York, 16 December 1966". Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  8. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 5. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. New York, 16 December 1966". Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  9. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 6. Convention on the non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity. New York, 26 November 1968". Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  10. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 7. International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. New York, 30 November 1973". Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  11. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 8. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York, 18 December 1979". Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  12. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 9. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. New York, 10 December 1984". Archived from the original on 8 November 2010. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  13. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 11. Convention on the Rights of the Child. New York, 20 November 1989". Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  14. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 12. Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty. New York, 15 December 1989". Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  15. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 13. International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. New York, 18 December 1990". Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  16. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 8b. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York, 6 October 1999". Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  17. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 11b. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict. New York, 25 May 2000". Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  18. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 11c. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. New York, 25 May 2000". Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  19. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 15. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York, 13 December 2006". Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  20. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 15a. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York, 13 December 2006". Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  21. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 16. International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance. New York, 20 December 2006". Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  22. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 3a. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. New York, 10 December 2008". Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  23. ^ United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 11d. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure . New York, 19 December 2011. New York, 10 December 2008". Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-29. 
  24. ^ Madagascar: Media Under Attack One Month After New President Installed, allafrica.com
  25. ^ Women's Suffrage, ipu.org
  26. ^ Republic of Madagascar: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Annual Progress Report 2005
  27. ^ Face of Poverty in Madagascar
  28. ^ Freedom House (2012). "Country ratings and status, FIW 1973-2012" (XLS). Retrieved 2012-08-22. 

External links[edit]