Human rights in Qatar
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
|Administrative divisions (municipalities)|
The state of human rights in Qatar is a concern for several non-governmental organisations, such as Human Rights Watch, which reported in 2012 that hundreds of thousands of mostly South Asian migrant workers in construction in Qatar risk serious exploitation and abuse, sometimes amounting to forced labour. Awareness grew internationally after Qatar's selection to stage the 2022 World Cup, and some reforms have since taken place, including two sweeping changes in 2020.
Domestic servants, who are often poor women from South-east Asian countries, have few rights, and can become victims of human trafficking, sometimes forced into prostitution. There are restrictions on individual rights such as freedom of expression, and sodomy laws exist to punish homosexual men. Qatar's legal system is a mixture of civil law and Islamic law. Flogging is enforced as a punishment, and capital punishment, although rare in recent times, was enforced in 2020 for the first time in 17 years.
The National Human Rights Committee was established in 2002 to investigate abuses.
Legal system and punishment
Sharia is a main source of Qatari legislation according to Qatar's constitution. Sharia is applied to laws pertaining to family law, inheritance, and several criminal acts (including adultery, robbery and murder). In some cases in Sharia-based family courts, a female's testimony is worth half a man's and in some cases a female and male testimony is not accepted at all if the witness is not deemed reliable. Codified family law was introduced in 2006. In practice, Qatar's legal system is a mixture of civil law and Islamic law.
Flogging is used in Qatar as a punishment for alcohol consumption or illicit sexual relations. Article 88 of Qatar's criminal code declares the punishment for fornication is 100 lashes. Married men and women who commit adultery can be punished by death. In 2006, a Filipino woman was sentenced to 100 lashes for adultery. In 2010, at least 18 people (mostly foreign nationals) were sentenced to flogging of between 40 and 100 lashes for offences related to “illicit sexual relations” or alcohol consumption. In 2011, at least 21 people (mostly foreign nationals) were sentenced to floggings of between 30 and 100 lashes for offences related to "illicit sexual relations" or alcohol consumption. In 2012, six expatriates were sentenced to floggings of either 40 or 100 lashes. Only Muslims considered medically fit were liable to have such sentences carried out. It is unknown if the sentences were implemented. More recently in April 2013, a Muslim expatriate was sentenced to 40 lashes for alcohol consumption. In June 2014, a Muslim expatriate was sentenced to 40 lashes for consuming alcohol and driving under the influence. Judicial corporal punishment is common in Qatar due to the Hanbali interpretation of Sharia.
Stoning is a legal punishment in Qatar, although it has never been used. Apostasy is a crime punishable by the death penalty in Qatar. Blasphemy is punishable by up to seven years in prison and proselytizing any religion other than Islam can be punished by up to 10 years in prison. Homosexuality is a crime punishable in sharia by the death penalty for Muslims, though in Qatar the penalty for consenting males is up to 5 years in prison.
Alcohol consumption is partially legal in Qatar; some five-star luxury hotels are allowed to sell alcohol to their non-Muslim customers. Muslims are not allowed to consume alcohol in Qatar, and Muslims caught consuming alcohol are liable to flogging or deportation. Non-Muslim expatriates can obtain a permit to purchase alcohol for personal consumption. The Qatar Distribution Company (a subsidiary of Qatar Airways) is permitted to import alcohol and pork; it operates the one and only liquor store in the country, which also sells pork to holders of liquor licences. Qatari officials have also indicated a willingness to allow alcohol in "fan zones" at the 2022 FIFA World Cup.
Up until December 2011, restaurants on the Pearl-Qatar (a man-made island near Doha) were allowed to serve alcoholic drinks, but they were then told to stop selling alcohol. No explanation was given for the ban. Speculation about the reason includes the government's desire to project a more pious image in advance of the country's first election of a royal advisory body, and rumours of a financial dispute between the government and the resort's developers.
In 2014, Qatar launched a modesty campaign to remind tourists of the modest dress code. Female tourists are advised not to wear leggings, miniskirts, sleeveless dresses and short or tight clothing in public. Men are advised against wearing only shorts and singlets.
As of 2014, certain provisions of the Qatari Criminal Code allows punishments such as flogging and stoning to be imposed as criminal sanctions. The UN Committee Against Torture found that these practices constituted a breach of the obligations imposed by the UN Convention Against Torture. Qatar retains the death penalty, mainly for threats against national security.
According to the US State Department, expatriate workers from nations throughout Asia and parts of Africa are routinely subjected to forced labour and, in some instances, prostitution. Most of these people voluntarily migrate to Qatar as low-skilled labourers or domestic servants, but are subsequently subjected to conditions indicative of involuntary servitude. Some of the more common labour rights violations include beatings, withholding of payment, charging workers for benefits which are nominally the responsibility of the amir, severe restrictions on freedom of movement (such as the confiscation of passports, travel documents, or exit permits), arbitrary detention, threats of legal action, and sexual assault. Many migrant workers arriving for work in Qatar have paid exorbitant fees to recruiters in their home countries – a practice that makes workers highly vulnerable to forced labour once in Qatar. 
A 2012 report by Human Rights Watch concluded that hundreds of thousands of mostly South Asian migrant workers in construction in Qatar risk serious exploitation and abuse, sometimes amounting to forced labour.
Like other Persian Gulf nations, Qatar has sponsorship laws, which have been widely criticised as "modern-day slavery." Under the provisions of Qatar's sponsorship law, sponsors have the unilateral power to cancel workers' residency permits, deny workers' ability to change employers, report a worker as "absconded" to police authorities, and deny permission to leave the country. As a result, sponsors may restrict workers' movements and workers may be afraid to report abuses or claim their rights, which contribute to their forced labour situation.
Domestic servants are particularly vulnerable to trafficking since they are isolated inside homes and are not covered under the provisions of the labour law, but some reforms introduced in September 2020 extend to all workers, including those for ending employment contracts and changing jobs. Qatar is also a destination for women who migrate for legitimate purposes and subsequently become involved in prostitution, but the extent to which these women are subjected to forced prostitution is unknown.Some of these victims may be runaway domestic workers who have fallen prey to forced prostitution by individuals who exploit their illegal status.
The Government states that it is doing a good job with regards to human rights and treatment of labourers. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) was established in 2002 to safeguard and consolidate human rights for everyone subject to the jurisdiction under the state. In a bid to combat Human trafficking, Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al-Missned established the Qatar Foundation on Combating Human Trafficking (QFCHT). To promote more awareness in this area, the Ritz-Carlton Doha, created the World's largest Cake for the QFCHT Sculpture.
Qatari contracting agency Barwa is building a residential area for labourers known as Barwa Al Baraha (also called Workers City). The project was launched after a recent scandal in Dubai's Labor camps, and aims to provide a reasonable standard of living as defined by the new Human Rights Legislation. The overall cost of the project is estimated at around $1.1 billion and will be an integrated city in the Industrial area of Doha. Along with 4.25 square metres of living space per person, the residential project will provide recreational areas and services for labourers. Phase one of the project is set to be completed at the end of 2008 while all phases will be complete by mid 2010.
Qatar Airways, the country's national airline, has long been criticised for its treatment of its lower level employees including flight attendants. Abuses include firing employees without apparent reason, low wages, overworking hours. Employees have also been reported to be unlawfully detained by the airline without charge. Deportations by the airline of its employees to their home countries without reason has also been reported.
In 2019, a Qatari diplomat working as a medical attaché since 2007 at the Qatar embassy in London was accused of racially discriminating a pensioner working at the embassy and treating him like his “personal slave”. The diplomat, Abdullah Al Ansari, accepted that Mohamoud Ahmed, the pensioner, would perform tasks such as fetching Al Ansari's shopping, dropping off his dry cleaning and picking his children from school during the week.
FIFA World Cup preparations and reported abuses
The construction boom in Qatar began well in advance of Qatar winning the hosting rights to the 2022 FIFA World Cup. When the Emir Sheikh Hamad Al Thani took control of the country from his father in 1995 he opened Qatar up to foreign investment and began the construction of the world's biggest LNG terminals in Ras Laffan with the granting of concessions to ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell and Total S.A. Over 100,000 workers were brought into the country to build Ras Laffan, and an estimated 1 million (of the country's total population of 2 million) workers are currently living in Qatar helping to build the country. In 1995, when Sheikh Hamad took control, the total migrant population was around 370,000.
In 2013, Amnesty International published reports showing that unpaid migrant workers were left to go hungry. According to the report, workers are being "treated like cattle." According to a report by the Guardian (and based on documents obtained at the Nepalese embassy in Qatar), dozens of Nepalese migrant labourers had died in Qatar within the span of a few weeks around September 2013, and thousands more were enduring appalling labour abuses. According to their analysis, current construction practices will have resulted in over 4,000 deaths by the time of the 2022 event. This figure is denied by the Qatari authorities, who argue that it is misleading since it includes all causes of death in a population of close to one million and over an eight-year period. As of December 2013, FIFA has investigated but taken no action to force Qatar to improve worker conditions.
British law firm DLA Piper was instructed in 2012 by Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, President of Qatar Foundation, to undertake a review of migrant worker conditions. Following the recommendations made, Qatar Foundation created the Migrant Workers Welfare Charter which applies minimum requirements with respect to the recruitment, living and working conditions, as well as the general treatment of workers engaged in construction and other projects. The mandatory standards will be incorporated into agreements between Qatar Foundation and all its contractors, who are required to comply with the requirements and rules. Contractors and sub-contractors found to be violating the regulations have been blacklisted from future tenders.
The Supreme Committee for Delivery and Legacy, the 2022 World Cup organising committee, followed this measure in mid-2014 with its own regulations and blacklisted a number of companies. A BBC reporting crew was jailed for two days without charge, after attempting to meet migrant workers.
In August 2015, the Ministry of Labour announced that all companies in Qatar would be required to pay their employees by electronic transfers. The rule is aimed at contractors who withhold salaries or make late payments.
The Department for Human Rights at the Ministry of Labour and the National Committee for Human Rights are responsible for the monitoring of abuses in Qatar.
Immigrant labour and human trafficking
Qatar is a destination for men and women from South Asia and Southeast Asia who migrate willingly, but are subsequently trafficked into involuntary servitude as domestic workers and labourers, and, to a lesser extent, commercial sexual exploitation. The most common offence was forcing workers to accept worse contract terms than those under which they were recruited. Other offences include bonded labour, withholding of pay, restrictions on movement, arbitrary detention, and physical, mental, and sexual abuse.
According to the "Trafficking in Persons" report by the U.S. State Department, men and women who are lured into Qatar by promises of high wages are often forced into underpaid labour. The report states that Qatari laws against forced labour are rarely enforced, and that labour laws often result in the detention of victims in deportation centers, pending the completion of legal proceedings. The report places Qatar at tier 3, as one of the countries that neither satisfies the minimum standards, nor demonstrates significant efforts to come into compliance.
The government maintains that it is setting the benchmark when it comes to human rights and treatment of labourers.
In common with other Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, sponsorship laws exist in Qatar. These laws have been widely described as akin to modern-day slavery. The sponsorship system (kafeel or kafala) exists throughout the GCC, apart from Bahrain, and means that a worker (not a tourist) may not enter the country without having a kafeel; they cannot leave without the kafeel's permission (an exit permit must first be awarded by the sponsor, or kafeel); and the sponsor has the right to ban the employee from entering Qatar within 2–5 years of his first departure. Various governmental sponsors have recently exercised their right to prevent employees from leaving the country, effectively holding them against their will for no good reason. Some individuals after resigning have not been issued with their exit permits, denying them their basic right to leave the country. Many sponsors do not allow the transfer of one employee to another sponsor. This does not apply to special sponsorship of a Qatar Financial Center-sponsored worker, where it is encouraged and regulated that sponsorship should be uninhibited and assistance should be given to allow for such transfers of sponsorship. In May 2014, Ali bin Samikh al-Marri, Chairman of Qatar's National Human Rights Committee (NHRC), said that Doha had officially announced the end of the current sponsorship system, and had passed a new law replacing it with a new one in which contracts are signed between the workers and their employers. As well as replacing the exit permit with a new electronic system that will be managed by the Interior Ministry. The consequences of employers violating this system are subject to a fine of nearly $15,000.
Two laws protecting workers' rights, which included clauses on maximum working hours and rights to annual leave, were passed in August 2017. In November 2017, United Nations' International Labour Organization (ILO) praised Qatar's commitment to engage in substantive cooperation with the ILO for the promotion and protection of workers' rights. The ILO said the cooperation aims to improve employment, ensure timely payment of wages, enhance protection from forced labour, and give workers a voice in labour-related matters. In addition, Qatar will work to strengthen national regulations and practices, employers and workers to realise fundamental principles and rights at work, in line with international labour standards.
The next year, Sheikh Tamim passed Law No. 13 of 2018, abolishing exit visas for roughly 95% of the country's migrant workers. The remaining 5% of workers, which amount to approximately 174,000 people, still require their employer's permission to exit the country. While stating that more needs to be done to protect the rights of Qatar's workers, at the same time Stephen Cockburn of Amnesty claimed that the Amir had taken an "important first step towards meeting the authorities' promise to fundamentally reform the exploitative sponsorship system".
In October 2017, Human Rights Watch praised Qatar's commitment to developing laws in line with international labour standards and the guidance of the International Labour Organization. Human Rights Watch said that Qatar had conducted a series of significant labour reforms to institute a minimum wage, to allow independent experts to monitor labour practices, and to reform the kafala system. The ILO said that Qatar is always seeking to be an ideal model for workers' rights. Human Rights Watch called on Gulf countries to follow the example of Qatar and to enhance the situation of migrant labour.
In January 2020, Qatar ended its exit visas requirement under the kafala system for all migrant workers. The ILO welcomed the move and appreciated the Qatari government, saying, “The removal of exit permits is an important milestone in the government’s labour reform agenda”.
Further labour reforms were introduced in September 2020, including allowing for migrant workers to change their jobs without first obtaining permission from their employer. In addition, the minimum wage was raised, which would apply to workers of all nationalities. The ability to change jobs, which effectively dismantles the kafala system, is regarded as a very significant change, as it underpins the system of forced labour. Although domestic servants are not covered by general labour laws, the new rules about changing jobs and terminating contracts applies to them also.
Still awaiting reform is the unfair situation caused by the requirement that it is the employers of migrant workers who enable their entry, residence, and employment permits, but it is the workers who are punished if the employer fails to do the necessary paperwork.
Women in Qatar
Women in Qatar vote and may run for public office. Qatar enfranchised women at the same time as men in connection with the May 1999 elections for a Central Municipal Council. It was the first Arab country in the Persian Gulf to allow women the right to vote. These elections—the first ever in Qatar—were deliberately held on 8 March 1999, International Women's Day.
Qatar sent female athletes to the 2012 Summer Olympics that began on 27 July in London.
Labor force participation for women in Qatar is roughly 51%, which is higher than the world average, and is the highest rate in the Arab world.
Gender wage gap
Both Qatari and non-Qatari women are affected by a widening wage gap; they are paid 25% to 50% less than men, despite the fact that their working hours are comparable. The gulf is due in part to the social allowances afforded to men as household heads (such as housing and travel allotments) which female employees are less likely to receive.
Sex outside marriage and abortion
Qatar, women convicted for "illicit relations" (sex outside marriage) may be imprisoned for up to seven years, although usually the courts decide on one year. It is often poor domestic workers from South-east Asian countries who are convicted, even when they have been raped.
Many women who get pregnant with an illegitimate child are jailed. Non-citizens who are forced to have sponsors are usually denied the right to leave Qatar and are therefore forced to seek refuge and counsel from their embassy. Despite the effort of embassies, many still land in jail. According to Najeeb al-Nuaimi, a criminal lawyer and former justice minister of Qatar, many women are able to avoid or be released from prison by marrying the father of their baby (their rapist in case of rape), at which point the woman is allowed to leave the country with her husband.
In October 2020, several Australian women who were boarding a flight from Doha to Sydney were taken away to undergo invasive gynaecological examinations, after an abandoned newborn baby had been found in the airport toilets and officials were searching for the mother in order to punish her. This caused a diplomatic incident.
Qatar retains the death penalty, primarily for espionage, or other threats against national security. Apostasy, same-sex intercourse, and blasphemy are also considered capital offences, but there have been no recorded applications of the death penalty for this charge.
Others crimes like murder, violent robbery resulting in death, arson, torture, kidnapping, terrorism, rape, drug trafficking, extortion by threat of accusation of a crime of honor, perjury causing wrongful execution and treason also carry a possible death sentence as well. However, the most recent executions that took place in the country were both for murder (in March 2003 and May 2020).
Flogging is used in Qatar as a punishment for alcohol consumption or illicit sexual relations. According to Amnesty International, in 2012 at least six foreign nationals were sentenced to floggings of either 40 or 100 lashes.
Freedom of expression
Freedom of expression is the political right to communicate one's opinions and ideas. A life sentence was handed to the Qatari poet Mohammed al-Ajami, also known as Mohammed Ibn al-Dheeb, for criticism of the government during the 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Qatar. Observers were not allowed to enter the court, and al-Ajami himself was not present at the sentencing. All the information available points to Mohammed al-Ajami being a prisoner of conscience who had been placed behind bars solely for his words. Al-Ajami was released from prison in March 2016 after a royal pardon commuted his sentence.
A cyber law which passed in late September 2014 severely limited freedom of speech and freedom of expression rights, granting the government and authorities the ability to punish "content that may harm the country" with jail time of up to 3 years, and fines around 500,000 QR. The law states that the authority may in each individual case judge whether the content is suitable or not. No guidelines or references are currently available to say what type of content is allowed.
Residency and naturalisation
The Qatari government is keen to maintain things as they are, and are concerned about a change in its conservative cultural values, so there are few ways to achieve citizenship through naturalisation. One way is through marriage to a Qatari citizen, but this does not guarantee it, especially for non-Muslims. Upon occasion, an employer can reward a good and longstanding worker who has benefited the company in a major way by ensuring a work and residence permit for them, but this is annually renewable until the employee's 60th birthday, and only in exceptional circumstances could this be extended to reside indefinitely in Qatar (although never attaining citizenship). Children of foreigners born in Qatar have to assume their parents' nationality; if one parent is Qatari, there is a path to citizenship, but it is not immediate.
Apart from fear of cultural influences, there are concerns about increased expenditure on new citizens; the government provides free education, healthcare, and housing loans for all of its citizens. Another concern is the maintenance of Qatar’s political system, based on dynastic succession.
A few foreign residents, who must be able to speak Arabic and lived in Qatar for a minimum of 25 years consecutively, may win citizenship if approved by the Emir. Elite athletes, recruited by the state in order to compete in the Olympics under the Qatari flag, have been granted citizenship in the past.
The situation has long been debated, with especially younger Qataris questioning the restrictive laws, but analysts have suggested that as Qatar's economy becomes less dependent on oil, things might change, as "Qatar will need to attract long-term residents who can contribute to the tax base and support what will eventually become an aging population".
LGBT rights in Qatar
Sodomy between consenting male adults in Qatar is illegal, and subject to a sentence of up to five years in prison. The law is silent about sodomy between consenting female adults.[failed verification] Sexual orientation and gender identity are not covered in any civil rights laws and there is no recognition of same-sex marriages, civil unions or domestic partnerships.
The New York Times' gay and transgender rights coverage published from April to July 2018 were censored in Qatar. The Doha edition of The New York Times International Edition had large empty areas in the newspaper with a note that the offending articles had been “exceptionally removed”. Eight out of nine articles that were censored were on issues affecting the LGBT communities.
In 2016 Polish Instagram star and model King Luxy was arrested in Qatar for allegedly being homosexual. He spent 2 months in custody before he was released. The Poland embassy denied his claims, and instead said he was arrested for numerous charges, including of extortion, but not because of his sexual orientation.
Freedom of religion
Qatar is a Muslim-majority nation, with 76% of its population adhering to Islam. The government uses Sunni law as the basis of its criminal and civil regulations. However, some measure of religious toleration is granted. Foreign workers, and tourists, are free to affiliate with other faiths, i.e. Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Baháʼís, as long as they are discreet and do not offend public order or morality.
For example, in March 2008 the Roman Catholic church "Our Lady of the Rosary" was consecrated in Doha. However, in keeping with the need to be discreet, no missionaries are allowed and the church will not have any bells, crosses or other overtly Christian signs on its exterior.
Until 2005, children as young as four years old were used as jockeys in camel racing, which is a popular sport in the Gulf region. Children were being trafficked from southern Asian countries, and often starved to keep their body weight down. The sport is a dangerous one, with the danger of hurt in a fall or being trampled underfoot. Robot jockeys created by a Swiss company were introduced to use instead of children when the then Emir of Qatar, Hamad Al Thani, introduced the ban.
Governmental human rights organisations
Law 39, issued in 2005, stipulated the formation of a "bureau for human rights" in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. One of its main missions is to prepare answers on the claims or reports of foreign countries and organisations on the situation of human rights inside the state.
The National Human Rights Committee was founded in 2002 with the responsibility of overseeing and carrying out investigations on human rights abuses in the country. Their methods of advancing the country's standards of human rights include contributing to research programs related to human rights, conducting studies, and providing advice and recommendations to legislative bodies.
- "The Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar". Government of Qatar. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- "Constitution of Qatar". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
According to Article 1: Qatar is an independent Arab country. Islam is its religion and Sharia law is the main source of its legislation.
- "Qatar Gender Equality Profile" (PDF). UNICEF. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 June 2014.
- "The World Factbook". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
- "Qatar" (PDF). US Department of State.
- "Amnesty International Annual Report 2012 – Qatar". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "Filipino woman gets 100 lashes for giving birth in Qatar". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- "Qatar". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- "Annual Report". Amnesty International. 23 October 2014. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013.
- "Qatar sentences man to 40 lashes for drinking alcohol". Arabian Business. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- "Qatar sentences man to lashes for drinking alcohol". Al Akhbar. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- "Qatar court orders lashing of Muslim barber over drinking alcohol". Al Arabiya. 21 April 2013. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014.
- "Indian expat sentenced to 40 lashes in Qatar for drink-driving". Arabian Business. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- "Special report: The punishment was death by stoning. The crime? Having a mobile phone". 29 September 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013.
- Jenifer Fenton. "Religious law, prison for "blasphemy", severe sexual inequalilty: Qatar's human rights review". Archived from the original on 18 March 2015.
- "What are the worst countries in the world to be gay?". Archived from the original on 10 November 2014.
- Alex Delmar-Morgan (7 January 2012). "Qatar, Unveiling Tensions, Suspends Sale of Alcohol". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Jenifer Fenton (16 January 2012). "Qatar's Impromptu Alcohol Ban". The Arabist. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- "Purchasing Alcohol in Qatar". Qatar Visitor. 2 June 2007. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Walid, Tamara (11 November 2009). "Qatar would 'welcome' Israel in 2022". The National. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- James M. Dorsey (17 January 2012). "Debate Questions Emir's Powers To Shape Qatar's Positioning As Sports Hub And Sponsor of Revolts – Analysis". The Eurasia Review. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Elgot, Jessica (28 May 2014). "'Leggings Are Not Pants' Qatar's New Modesty Campaign Aimed at Westerners'". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- Aningtias Jatmika (29 May 2014). "Qatar Bans Tourists from Wearing Leggings in Public". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- Kelly, Tobias (2009). "The UN Committee against Torture: Human Rights Monitoring and the Legal Recognition of Cruelty" (PDF). Human Rights Quarterly. 313 (3): 777–800. doi:10.1353/hrq.0.0094. S2CID 145632406.
- Conclusions and Recommendations: Qatar (Report). UN Committee Against Torture. 25 July 2006. U.N. Doc. CAT/C/QAT/CO/1. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
"Certain provisions of the Criminal Code allow punishments such as flogging and stoning to be imposed as criminal sanctions by judicial and administrative authorities. These practices constitute a breach of the obligations imposed by the Convention. The Committee notes with interest that authorities are presently considering amendments to the Prison Act that would abolish flogging." (Par. 12)
- "Country Narratives". Human Trafficking Report 2011. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, United States Department of State. June 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- "Qatar: Migrant Construction Workers Face Abuse". Human Rights Watch. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- "Trafficking in Persons Report 2008 – Qatar (Tier 3)". Refworld. 4 June 2008. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
- "Qatar: Significant Labor and Kafala Reforms". Human Rights Watch. 24 September 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- "Qatar: National Human Rights Committee report". Qatar National Human Rights Committee. 3 May 2006. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.. According to the source at zawya.com, the web link "...is the unofficial translation by The Peninsula team of the 57-page Arabic text of the report released by the National Human Rights Committee yesterday."
- "NHRC". 26 January 2012. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Qatar: National Human Rights Committee Support Expats". The Peninsula via iLoveQatar.net. 18 June 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2008.
- Bowman, D (2 March 2008). "Qatar to build $1.1bn laborer city". ArabianBusiness.com. Dubai: ITP Digital Publishing. Archived from the original on 3 November 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
- Topham, Gwyn (19 June 2015). "Glass ceiling in the sky: Qatar Airways' problem with pregnant cabin crew". Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "Qatari diplomat treated pensioner like his 'personal slave'". Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- "The demographic Profile of Qatar" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "Qatar 2022 World Cup workers 'treated like cattle', Amnesty report finds". 17 November 2013. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "Revealed: Qatar's World Cup 'slaves', Exclusive: Abuse and exploitation of migrant workers preparing emirate for 2022". 25 September 2013. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Greenslade, Roy (3 June 2015). "Qatar outraged by Washington Post 'myth' about World Cup deaths". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
- "Qatar commits to new welfare standards for World Cup workers". Guardian. 12 February 2014. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017.
- "Workers' group calls FIFA sponsors responsible for Qatar abuses". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- "World Cup 2022 host Qatar to start enforcing Wage Protection System from November". The National. 2 September 2015. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.
- "Middle East :: Qatar". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "Country Narratives – Countries Q through Z". Trafficking in Persons Report. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, United States Department of State. 12 June 2007. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
- Labott, Elise; Verjee, Zane (12 June 2007). "India escapes U.S. list of worst human traffickers". Washington: Cable News Network. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Qatar: National Human Rights Committee report". Qatar National Human Rights Committee. 3 May 2006. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.. According to zawya.com, the web link "is the unofficial translation by The Peninsula team of the 57-page Arabic text of the report released by the National Human Rights Committee yesterday."
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (4 June 2008). "Refworld | Trafficking in Persons Report 2008 – Qatar". UNHCR. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
- "Qatar Finalising New Sponsorship Law for Foreign Workers." Archived 20 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Al-Araby Al-Jadeed, 2014. Web.
- "Qatar: Two new laws on migrant workers signal degree of progress but major gaps remain". Amnesty International. 25 August 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "ILO Governing Body welcomes Qatar's commitment to bolster migrant worker rights". ilo.org. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- "Qatar: Partial abolition of 'exit permit' lifts travel restrictions for most migrant workers". Amnesty International. 5 September 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "Human Rights Watch lauds Qatar's new labour reforms". GoobJoog News. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- "UN Body Welcomes 'Milestone' in Qatar Labor Reforms". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- Lambert, Jennifer (2011). "Political Reform in Qatar: Participation, Legitimacy and Security". 19 (1). Middle East Policy Council. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Cite journal requires
- Miles, Hugh (2005). Al-Jazeera.
- Beydoun, Nasser (2012). The Glass Palace: Illusions of Freedom and Democracy in Qatar. p. 35. ISBN 978-0875869551.
- "Two Local Newcomers, including Qatar's First Female Judge, Added to Arab Women Power List." Archived 14 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine Doha News, 2013. Web.
- "Labor force participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+) (modeled ILO estimate) - Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- "Report: Qatar's Gender Wage Gap Widens Considerably over 10-year-period." Archived 20 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Doha News, 2013. Web. 2 November 2016.
- Tlozek, Eric (28 October 2020). "Human rights groups call on Qatar to stop criminalising sex outside marriage after treatment of women on Sydney-bound flight". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- "Facing Jail, Unmarried Pregnant Women in Qatar Left with Hard Choices. Archived 20 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine" Doha News, 2013. Web. 2 November 2016.
- Bucci, Nino (30 October 2020). "Qatar says those behind search of Australian women at Doha airport committed 'illegal actions'". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- "Qatar: Death Penalty, Firas Nassuh Salim Al-Majali – Amnesty International". amnesty.org. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- "Crusading journalist wins case against Al-Jazeera". journalism.co.uk. 6 April 2005. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- "The Death Penalty in Qatar". Death Penalty Worldwide. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- "The Death Penalty in Qatar".
- "Amnesty International Annual Report 2012 – Qatar". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "Qatar Events of 2017". Human Rights Watch.
- Qatar: Outrageous life sentence for 'Jasmine poet' Archived 7 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine Amnesty International 29 November 2012
- Qatar: Outrageous life sentence for 'Jasmine poet' Archived 28 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine 29 November 2012
- Tim Hume and Schams Elwazer (17 March 2016). "Qatari poet accused of insulting emir freed after 4 years, U.N. says". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Doha News
- "Citizenship". Just Landed. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- Finn, Tom (25 August 2016). "Qatar's recruited athletes stir debate on citizenship". Reuters. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- Ready, Freda. The Cornell Daily Sun, Qatar’s Gay Rights Policy Under Scrutiny Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 4 December 2002
- "Gay Qatar News & Reports". globalgayz.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- "EXCLUSIVE: Under World Cup spotlight, Qataris crack down on LGBT news coverage". ABC news. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "Teen Instagram Star Jailed in Qatar for Two Months, Claims it was for 'Being Gay'". The Daily Dot. 29 August 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- 2004 Census – CIA World Factbook – Qatar .
- U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. International Religious Freedom Report for 2012: Qatar 2. 20 May 2013.
- Sample, Ian (14 April 2005). "Can robots ride camels?". the Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- "Qatar Bans Use of Children as Jockeys for Camels". The New York Times. 30 December 2004. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- Lewis, Jim (11 January 2005). "Robots of Arabia". Wired. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
- "Law No. 39 of 2005 Organising the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Assigning its Competencies (Repealed)". almeezan.qa. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "اللجنة الوطنية لحقوق الإنسان" (in Arabic). Qatar e-Gov. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Vision and mission". National Human Rights Committee. Archived from the original on 27 August 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Freedom House (2012). "Country ratings and status, FIW 1973–2012" (XLS). Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Freedom House (2013). "Freedom in the World 2013: Democratic Breakthroughs in the Balance" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 April 2015.
- Freedom House (2014). "Freedom in the World 2014" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2015.
- Freedom House (2015). "Freedom in the World 2015" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2015.
- Freedom House (2016). "Freedom in the World 2016" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2016.
- Freedom House (2017). "Freedom in the World 2017" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 July 2017.