Human rights in Turkey
|This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (June 2013)|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Human rights in Turkey are protected by a variety of international law treaties, which take precedence over domestic legislation, according to Article 90 of the 1982 Constitution. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was not signed by Turkey until 2000. The issue of human rights is of high importance for the negotiations with the European Union (EU). Acute human rights issues include in particular the status of Kurds in Turkey. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict has caused numerous human rights violations over the years. There is an ongoing debate in the country on the right to life, torture, freedom of expression as well as freedoms of religion, assembly and association.
Turkey still keeps laws which are seen against human rights, such as prohibiting minorities to get a primary education in their mother tongue. The country's largest minority, the Kurds, which comprise 20% of the population, don't have a right to self-determination even though Turkey has signed the ICCPR. There is ongoing discrimination against and “otherization” of Kurds in society.
- 1 Commitment to international human rights law
- 2 The right to live
- 3 Torture
- 4 Freedom of religion
- 5 Freedom of expression
- 6 Freedom of assembly
- 7 Freedom of association
- 8 Ethnic rights
- 9 Other discrimination
- 10 Internally displaced people
- 11 Workers' rights
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Commitment to international human rights law
The Republic of Turkey has entered various human rights commitments, some of which are expressed in the 1982 Turkish Constitution, Part Two of which guarantees "fundamental rights and freedoms" such as the right to life, security of person, and right to property. In addition, Turkey has signed a number of treaties, shown in the tables below:
- The European Convention on Human Rights (1954) places Turkey under the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). In 1987, Turkey accepted the right to apply individually to the ECtHR (Article 25 of the European Convention on Human Rights = ECHR) and 1990 recognised the compulsory jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights under Article 46 of the ECHR.
In October 2009 the European Commission on Enlargement to the European Union attested regarding Turkey that
some progress on observance of international human rights law. However, implementation of some ECtHR judgments requiring legislative amendments has been outstanding for several years. Further efforts are needed to strengthening the institutional framework on human rights, in particular as regards the establishment of an independent human rights institution and of an Ombudsman.
European Court of Human Rights judgments
|Number of decisions
made by the ECtHR.
(Some cases did not
find a violation)
Turkey's human rights record has long continued to attract scrutiny, both internally and externally. According to the Foreign Ministry, Turkey was sentenced to 33 million euros in 567 different cases between 1990—when Turkey effectively allowed individual applications to the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)—and 2006. Most abuses were done in the South-East, in the frame of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict.
In 2007, there were 2830 applications lodged against the Republic of Turkey before the ECtHR and consequently 331 judgments on the merits have been issued affirming 319 violations and 9 non-violations. In 2008, Turkey ranked second after Russia in the list of countries with the largest number of human rights violation cases open at the European Court of Human Rights, with 9,000 cases pending as of August 2008. In 2011, the ECtHR issued 159 judgments that found violations by Turkey, the most of any country, with Russia coming second at 121 judgments.
Between 1 November 1998 and 31 December 2008 the ECtHR received 24,945 applications from Turkey. It declared 2,237 cases admissible and 13,615 inadmissible. During the same time it reached 1,905 judgments finding at least one violation in 1,652 cases. While there are hardly any decision regarding Article 14 of the European Convention of Human Rights (ban of discrimination), many judgments concerning Article 2 (right to life) and Article 3 of the Convention (ban of torture) were taken on procedural grounds rather than testifying an involvement of State agencies. According to the European Commission on Enlargement of the EU Turkey continued to make progress on the execution of ECtHR judgments. All pecuniary compensation was paid on time, totalling €5.2 million in 2008.
The ECtHR has heard nine cases against Turkey concerning political party bans by the Constitutional Court of Turkey. In all but one case (which concerned the Islamist Welfare Party), the European Court has ruled against the decision to ban, finding Turkey in violation of articles 10 and 11 of the European Convention (freedom of expression and freedom of association). The ECtHR's decision concerning the Welfare Party has been criticized for lack of consistency with its other decisions, in particular by Human Rights Watch.
One ECtHR judgment sentenced Turkey to a 103,000 euros fine for its decisions about the Yüksekova Gang (aka "the gang with uniforms"), related to the JİTEM clandestine gendarmerie intelligence unit. The EHCR also sentenced in 2006 Turkey to a 28,500 Euros fine for the JİTEM murder of 72-year-old Kurdish writer Musa Anter, in 1992 in Diyarbakir. Other cases include the 2000 Akkoç v. Turkey judgment, concerning the assassination of a trade-unionist; or the Loizidou v. Turkey case in 1996, which set a precedent in the Cyprus dispute, as the ECtHR ordered Turkey to give financial compensation to a person expelled from the Turkish-controlled side of Cyprus.
The ECtHR also awarded in 2005 Kurdish deputy Leyla Zana 9000 € from the Turkish government, ruling Turkey had violated her rights of free expression. Zana, who had been recognized as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International and had been awarded the Sakharov Prize by the European Parliament, had been jailed in 1994, allegedly for being a member of the outlawed PKK, but officiously for having spoken Kurdish in public during her parliamentary oath.
The right to live
The right to live may be threatened by other means than the death penalty. In particular during the 1990s there were many instances of extrajudicial executions, (political) killings by unidentified perpetrators (faili meçhul cinayetler) and cases of "disappearances".
The death penalty has not been implemented in Turkey since 1984. Turkey abolished the sentence for peace time offences in 2002 and for all offences in 2004. The sentence was replaced by aggravated life imprisonment (ağırlaştırılmış müebbet hapis cezası). According to Article 9 of Law 5275 on the Execution of Sentences these prisoners are held in individual cells in high security prisons and are allowed to exercise in a neighbouring yard one hour per day.
In 1990 Amnesty International published its first report on extrajudicial executions in Turkey. In the following years the problem became more serious. The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey determined the following figures on extrajudicial executions in Turkey for the years 1991 to 2001:
In 2001 the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Ms. Asma Jahangir, presented a report on a visit to Turkey. The report presented details of killings of prisoners (26 September 1999, 10 prisoners killed in a prison in Ankara; 19 December 2000, an operation in 20 prisons launched throughout Turkey resulted in the death of 30 inmates and two gendarmes).
In 2008 the human rights organization Mazlum Der counted 25 extrajudicial killings in Turkey.
The mass violations of human rights in the mainly Kurdish-populated southeast and eastern regions of Turkey in the 1990s took the form of enforced disappearances and killings by unknown perpetrators which the state authorities showed no willingness to solve. In 2009 the Human Rights Association stated that up to the end of 2008 a total of 2,949 people had been killed by unknown perpetrators and 2,308 people had become victims of extrajudicial executions.
A parliamentary commission to research killings by unknown perpetrators (faili meçhul cinayetleri araştırma komisyonu) was founded in 1993 and worked for about two years. Many members complained that they had not been assisted and their work had been undermined. One member of the commission, Eyüp Aşık, stated that the Turkish Hezbollah had been behind many of these killings and added that the State had had three effective arms in the fight against terrorism: special teams, village guards and Hezbollah. Although he had witnessed about 80 actions of Hezbollah in Adıyaman province the then Minister for the Interior had said that there was nothing by that name. This in turn had made him believe that the State supported Hezbollah.
During 1992 there was an extremely disturbing increase in the number of suspicious deaths in southeast Turkey. Hundreds of people were killed by unknown assailants; many of those people were leaders or in positions of responsibility in the Kurdish community — doctors, lawyers, teachers, political leaders, journalists, human rights activists, businessmen... Human rights activists were among the victims. Thirteen of the suspicious killings since January 1992 were of journalists.
Based on the data of the Interior Ministry, the daily “Zaman” reported that between 1987-2001 a total of 2,914 political killings, 1,334 of them in the responsibility area of the police and 1,580 in area of the gendarmerie, were committed in the Eastern and Southern Eastern Anatolia Regions. 457 of the killings in areas of the police and 1,291 in areas of the gendarmerie had not been clarified.
The following figures were presented in the annual reports of the HRFT between 1990 and 2001
The Human Rights Association (HRA) presents the following figures for the years 1999 to 2008:
The Human Rights Association Mazlumder presented figures on killing by unknown assailants and suspicious death for the years 2005 to 2008:
In Turkey, the military campaign against Kurdish secessionists in Eastern Anatolia has been accompanied by numerous enforced disappearances, which also gave rise to judgments of the European Court of Human Rights. There were only a handful of cases of "disappearances" in Turkey in the 1980s, but a high number of deaths in custody. The opposite was true for the 1990s, when the number of people who "disappeared" after having been abducted by agents of the States rapidly increased.
In 1998 the UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances issued a Report on the visit to Turkey by two members of the Working Group from 20–26 September 1998. It stated inter alia:
Most of the disappearances concerned persons of Kurdish ethnic origin and occurred in the provinces of Diyarbakir and Siirt, in south-east Anatolia, where the armed and security forces are combating the PKK and where a state of emergency is in force. Some of the reported disappearances took place in Antalya, İzmir and Istanbul. Most of the cases followed the same pattern: the missing persons had allegedly been arrested at their homes on charges of belonging to the PKK and taken to the police station but their detention was later denied by the authorities.
In her report of 18 December 2001 the UN Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Ms. Asma Jahangir, wrote: While the number of cases of abductions or “disappearances” have decreased over the last few years, at the time of the Special Rapporteur’s visit such incidents still did occur, particularly in the remote areas of south-east Turkey, and there was deep concern at the recent disappearance of two persons.
In some places on the Internet a list attributed to the HRA can be found (but not on the website of the HRA). It is said that the original list contained 839 names, but that adding further names the list covered 1,251 names in the end. In a revised list that covers only the time between 1980 and 1999 Helmut Oberdiek reached a figure of 818 cases of "disappearances" in Turkey.
The Saturday Mothers held weekly protests against "disappearances" between May 1995 and 1999. They had to suspend their action on 13 March 1999 after week 200, because of intense pressure, detention and ill-treatment. In March 2009 the Saturday Mothers took their action up again.
The widespread and systematic use of torture in Turkey was first observed by Amnesty International (AI) after the 1971 Turkish coup d'état. Until 2002 the organization continued to speak of systematic torture in Turkey. Günter Verheugen, Commissioner for Enlargement of the European Union went to Turkey in September 2004 and maintained that torture was no longer systematic practice in Turkey. The Human Rights Association (HRA) protested against this evaluation and pointed at recent figures and definitions of systematic torture by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and the UN Committee against Torture.
Since 2005 incidents of torture seem to be on the rise. According to an October report by the Prime Ministry's Human Rights Presidency (HRP), the number of torture and cruel treatment cases reported in the first six months of the year surpassed the number reported in the first half of 2007. The HRP reported that, in the first half of the year, 178 persons reported cruel treatment and 26 reported torture, up from 79 reports of cruel treatment and 17 reports of torture during the same period in 2007. In the report on progress of November 2008 the European Commission stated, "the number of applications to NGOs in relation to cases of torture and ill-treatment has increased, in particular outside official places of detention, notably during apprehension, transfer, or in the open with no detention registered... There is a lack of prompt, impartial and independent investigation into allegations of human rights violations by members of security forces." In the 2009 annual report Amnesty International stated: "Reports of torture and other ill-treatment rose during 2008, especially outside official places of detention but also in police stations and prisons." In its 2012 Annual Review, Freedom from Torture the UK charity which works with survivors of victims of torture, stated that the charity had received 79 referrals of individuals from Turkey for clinical treatment and other services.
Deaths in custody
An important characteristics of the period following the 12 September 1980 military intervention was the disregard to the right to life and the increase in torture cases and deaths due to torture. The HRFT published two reports on Deaths in Custody (14 and 15 years since the military take over) presenting a list of 419 deaths in custody (in 15 years) with a suspicion that torture might have been the reason. Another 15 deaths were attributed to hunger strikes while medical neglect was given as the reason for 26 deaths. On the basis of this list Helmut Oberdiek compiled a revised list for 20 years (12 September 1980 to 12 September 2000) and concluded that in 428 cases torture may have been the reason for the death of prisoners. In 2008 alone the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey reported of 39 deaths in prison. In some cases torture was involved. In 2012, two prison guards and an official were given life sentences for the torture death of activist Engin Çeber, the first such verdict in Turkey's history.
Turkey has repeatedly been criticized for poor prison conditions and in particular for not solving the problem of overcrowding. Following the 1980 Turkish coup d'état political prisoners tried in military courts were held in military prisons and were thus subjected to military discipline. Prisoners were obliged to participate in daily roll-calls, the singing of marches and drills in the open air. In particular, Diyarbakır and Mamak Military Prisons (the latter in Ankara) became notorious for the routine beatings which accompanied attempts to enforce military discipline among civilians. In addition, so-called "inaugural-beatings" had been institutionalized in almost all prisons in Turkey.
In 2008 allegations of ill-treatment in prisons and during transfer continued. Small-group isolation remained a problem across the prison system for people accused or convicted of politically motivated offences. The Human Rights Foundation of Turkey registered 39 deaths in prison.
Freedom of religion
Although its population is overwhelmingly Muslim, Turkey claims to be a secular country per Article 24 of the Turkish Constitution. The two main Islamic streams in Turkey are Sunni and Alevi, a branch of Shia Islam. In Turkey Alevi are the minority, estimated at 17 percent of the Muslim population.
Religious education is compulsory in primary and secondary education (Article 24 of the Constitution). Mainly Sunni theology is taught. The government oversees Muslim religious facilities and education through its Directorate of Religious Affairs, which is under the authority of the Prime Ministry. The Directory regulates the operation of the country's 77,777 registered mosques and employs local and provincial imams, who are civil servants. Sunni imams are nominated and paid by the state. The Alevis pray in cemevis. "Cemevleri" (places of gathering) have no legal status as places of worship in the state. However, Kuşadası and Tunceli municipalities ruled in 2008 that Alevi cemevleri are considered places of worship.
Exact figures on the non-Islamic population in Turkey are not available. Some sources estimate the Christian population between three and five percent. Their communities mainly exist in Istanbul with Armenian and Greek-Orthodox Christians; in southeastern Turkey other groups like the Syriacs and Yazidi (a syncretistic faith) can be found. In the big cities Jewish and other communities such as the Jehovah's Witnesses exist. According to the Treaty of Lausanne only the Armenian, Greek and Jewish communities are recognized as minorities.
According to the human rights organization Mazlumder, the military charged individuals with lack of discipline for activities that included performing Muslim prayers or being married to women who wore headscarves. In December 2008 the General Staff issued 24 dismissals, five of which pertained to alleged Islamic fundamentalism. According to the progress report 2008 of the European Union freedom of religion, freedom of worship continued to be generally respected. The Law on foundations adopted in February 2008 addresses, among other things, a number of property issues regarding non-Muslim minorities.
Freedom of expression
Article 26 of the Constitution guarantees freedom of expression. Articles 27 and 28 of the Constitution guarantee the "freedom of expression" and "unhindered dissemination of thought". Paragraph 2 of Article 27 affirms that "the right to disseminate shall not be exercised for the purpose of changing the provisions of Articles 1, 2 and 3 of [the] Constitution", articles in question referring to the unitary, secular, democratic and republican nature of the state.
Law 765 (the old penal code) that entered into force on 1 March 1926 restricted freedom of expression, despite several amendments. Law 5237 that replaced the old penal code on 1 June 2005 preserved several provisions that restrict freedom of thought and expression. A number of special laws such as the Law 5816 (offences against the memory of Atatürk), Press Law and the Law on Political Parties also restrict freedom of expression.
In the 1970s and 1980s the Articles 141 (membership of communist organizations), 142 (communist or separatist propaganda) and 163 (membership of or propaganda for anti-secular organizations) of Law 765 (the Turkish Penal Code, TPC) were most frequently used to punish peaceful opposition. On 12 April 1991 Law 3713 on the Fight against Terrorism (or Anti-Terror Law, ATL) entered into force. It abolished these provisions, but retained part of Article 142 TPC in Article 8 ATL. Journalists, politicians, human rights defenders and trade unionists were convicted under this provision, often simply for having used the word "Kurdistan".
After the European Court of Human Rights had passed more than 100 judgments finding a violation of Article 10 of the European Convention of Human Rights some changes were made to existing legislation. Article 8 of the ATL was abolished by Law 4928 of 30 July 2003. Another frequently used Article 312/2 of the TPC (incitement to hatred and enmity) was amended by Law 4744 of 9 February 2002. The new version narrowed the use of this Article by introducing the condition "if the incitement might endanger public order". The new wording (and sentences) for such an "offence" are now contained in Article 216 of Law 5237. The sentence that mere criticism should not be punishable under Article 159 of Law 765 (denigrating Turkishness, the Republic or the Grand National Assembly of Turkey) was added to the law text, although this had already been established in the case law. The "offence" is now described in Article 301 of Law 5237.
After severe criticism from NGOs and European institutions Article 301 was once again amended on 30 April 2008. The amendments introduced a requirement for permission to be obtained from the Justice Minister in order to launch a criminal investigation.
Following the adoption of the amendments to Article 301, Turkish courts had forwarded, by September 2008, 257 cases to the Minister of Justice for prior authorisation. The Minister had reviewed 163 cases and refused to grant permission to proceed in 126 cases. The Minister of Justice authorised the criminal investigations to continue in 37 cases. This included one case which was initiated following a statement made by a Turkish writer on the Armenian issue shortly after the assassination of the Turkish journalist of Armenian origin, Hrant Dink.
Other legal provisions that restrict freedom of expression include Articles 215, 216 and 217 of the Turkish Criminal Code, that criminalise offences against public order, and the Anti-Terror Law have been applied to prosecute and convict those expressing non-violent opinions on Kurdish issues.
The use of the Turkish alphabet is mandated by law, reflecting the historic transition from an Arabic to a Latin script.
There is currently no provision for conscientious objection. Article 72 of the Turkish Constitution states: “National service is the right and duty of every Turk. The manner in which this service shall be performed, or considered as performed, either in the Armed Forces or in public service, shall be regulated by law.” This in principle would allow for a non-military alternative. Turkey, Belarus and Azerbaijan are the only European countries that have not introduced any legislation on conscientious objection.
In January 2006, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Turkey had violated Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights that prohibits degrading treatment in a case relating to Osman Murat Ulke, the first conscientious objector to be imprisoned for his objection. Another conscientious objector, Mehmet Tarhan, was sentenced to four years in prison by a military court in 2005 for refusing to do his military service, but he was later released in March 2006. However, he is still a convict and shall be arrested on sight. In a related case, journalist Perihan Mağden was tried and acquitted by a Turkish court for supporting Tarhan and advocating conscientious objection as a human right.
Since 1989, 74 people have refused to perform compulsory military service in Turkey. Only six of them have been tried for being a conscientious objector or sent to the military unit they were assigned to after being captured. COs may be punished under Article 63 of the Turkish Military Penal Code for avoiding military service. COs who attract media attention or publish articles about their refusal to perform military service may also be punished to between six months’ and two years' imprisonment under Article 318 of the Turkish Criminal Code for "alienating the people from the armed forces". In 2004, a new Criminal Code was introduced (Law No 5237). Under the previous Criminal Code, "alienating people from the armed forces" was punishable under Article 155 with a similar term of imprisonment.
Some members of religious denominations who forbid their members to bear arms, in particular Jehovah’s Witnesses, have also refused to perform military service. Members of Jehovah's Witnesses have regularly been sentenced to imprisonment under Article 63 of the Penal Code for avoiding military service. In recent years, Jehovah's Witnesses are reportedly regularly allowed to perform unarmed military service within the armed forces. They have complied with this. Muhammed Serdar Delice, a young Muslim, declared his conscientious objection to military service in 2011 and argued that his objection was based on his Muslim faith. After serving a few months in the Armed Forces he claimed that he had experienced disrespectful interference with his religious practice, as well as indoctrination about Turkey's three-decade-old war with Kurdish insurgents. Most Kurds are fellow Muslims.
Further instances of imprisonment included
- Halil Savda: He was sentenced to 21.5 months' imprisonment
- Mehmet Bal: He was repeatedly imprisoned in 2002, 2003 and 2008 He was allegedly beaten in prison.
The Council of Europe and the United Nations have regularly called upon Turkey to legally recognise the right to conscientious objection. In March 2004, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe stated that: “Despite Turkey’s geostrategic position, the Assembly demands that Turkey recognises the right to conscientious objection and introduce an alternative civilian service.” In September 2009 the Turkish press reported that the Turkish government is considering creating regulations regarding conscientious objectors. According to the amendment planned on the issue, those refusing to perform compulsory military service will no longer be forcibly drafted to the military while they are under detention and will be able to be defended by a lawyer while being tried. They will also be able to benefit from the Probation Law.
Quotes on free opinion in Turkey
- Amnesty International: "Human rights defenders, writers, journalists and others were unjustly prosecuted under unfair laws and subjected to arbitrary decisions by judges and prosecutors. Courts also acted disproportionately when shutting down websites on the basis of posted items. People expressing dissenting views remained at risk, with individuals threatened with violence by unknown individuals or groups. Police bodyguards were provided in a number of cases."
- Human Rights Watch: "Critical and open debate increased, even as restrictions on free speech continue."
- US Department of State: "The government limited freedom of expression through the use of constitutional restrictions and numerous laws, including articles of the penal code prohibiting insults to the government, the state, the "Turkish nation," or the institution and symbols of the republic. Limitations on freedom of expression applied to the Internet, and courts and an independent board ordered telecommunications providers to block access to Web sites on approximately 1,475 occasions."
- European Union: "There has been some progress in the efforts to strengthen the safeguards for freedom of expression, which is a priority of the Accession Partnership. However, only a consistent track record of implementation will show whether or not the revised article is adequate."
Freedom of assembly
Article 34 of the 1982 Constitute (as amended on October 17, 2001) states, "Everyone has the right to hold unarmed and peaceful meetings and demonstration marches without prior permission." Restrictions may only be introduced on the grounds of national security, and public order, or prevention of crime commitment, public health and public morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. Article 3 of Law 2911 on demonstrations and meeting provides, "Everybody has the right to hold unarmed and peaceful assembly without prior permission." Nevertheless, Amnesty International stated in 2009 that the right to freedom of peaceful assembly was denied, and law enforcement officials used excessive force to disperse demonstrations.
Deaths due to excessive police force during demonstrations have a long history in Turkey. They include
- Taksim Square massacre of 1 May 1977, death toll varies between 34 and 42
- Further casualties on 1 May Labour Day (all in Istanbul):
- 1989: 1 person killed
- 1996: 3 demonstrators killed.
- Newroz celebrations; usually on or around 21 March each year
- Newroz 1991: 31 people shot dead The annual report of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) reported that one demonstrator was killed in Nusaybin.
- Newroz 1992: The Newroz festivities left at least 91 people dead in three towns of the southeast, Cizre, Sirnak and Nusaybin, and 9 others elsewhere in the region, and according to Helsinki Watch, 'all or nearly all of the casualties resulted from unprovoked, unnecessary and unjustified attacks by Turkish security forces against peaceful Kurdish civilian demonstrators'.
- Newroz 1993: Three people were killed in Adana and Batman.
- Different occasions
- Funeral of Vedat Aydin in Diyarbakir in June 1991, 15 people were shot dead The annual report of the HRFT reported that seven demonstrators were killed.
- Demonstration in Digor because of the 9th anniversary of the beginning of the armed fight of the PKK on 15 August 1984. 15 demonstrators were killed.
- 20 people died in Gazi and 1 May quarter of Istanbul during an unrest that started with shots on coffee shop frequented by Alevis.
- Funeral of PKK militants at the end of March 2006: 13 people were killed in Diyarbakir and further places
Freedom of association
The law provides for freedom of association. Under the law persons organizing an association do not need to notify authorities beforehand, but an association must provide notification before interacting with international organizations or receiving financial support from abroad, and must provide detailed documents on such activities.
The Constitution affirms the right of workers to form labor unions "without obtaining permission" and "to possess the right to become a member of a union and to freely withdraw from membership" (Article 51). Articles 53 and 54 affirm the right of workers to bargain collectively and to strike, respectively.
Until March 2008 a total of 26 political parties had been banned, two of them before the Constitutional Court (the place where such decisions are taken) was established on 25 April 1962. This figure does not include the 18 political parties that were banned immediately after the 1980 coup d'état and dissolved on 16 October 1981. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey passed Law 2533 on 19 June 1992 allowing these parties to be opened again.
The Foundation for social, economic and political research (TESAV) has detailed information on the closure of political parties. They list ten political parties (instead of two) that were closed before the Constitutional Court was established. The details are (in collapsible tables)
1. political parties closed before the Constitutional Court was founded:
|No.||Name (en)||Name (tr)||founded||closed||HQ|
|1||Democrat Party||Demokrat Parti||07.01.1946||29.09.1960||Ankara|
|2||Peasants and Villagers Party||Çiftçi ve Köylü Partisi||24.04.1946||02.06.1946||Bursa|
|3||Turkey Socialist Party||Türkiye Sosyalist Partisi||14.05.1946||1952||İstanbul|
|4||Nation Party||Millet Partisi||20.07.1948||27.01.1954||Ankara|
|5||Democratic Workers' Party||Demokrat İşçi Partisi||26.09.1950||1950||İstanbul|
|6||Ruling Party||Güden Partisi||14.07.1951||1951||İstanbul|
|7||Islamic Democrat Party||İslam Demokrat Partisi||01.08.1951||1952||İstanbul|
|8||Fatherland's Party||Vatan Partisi||22.10.1954||1966||İstanbul|
|9||Small Party||Ufak Parti||23.05.1957||1957||Erzurum|
|10||Equality Party||Müsavat Partisi||13.02.1961||1961||İstanbul|
2. Political parties closed by the Constitutional Court
|No.||Name (en)||Name (tr)||founded||closed|
|1||Turkey Workers' Party||Türkiye İşçi Partisi||13.02.1961||20.07.1971|
|2||Workers – Peasants Party||İşçi - Çiftçi Partisi||30.03.1961||15.10.1968|
|3||Turkey Progressive Ideal Party||Türkiye İleri Ülkü Partisi||06.05.1969||29.06.1971|
|4||Great Anatolia Party||Büyük Anadolu Partisi||05.11.1969||19.12.1972|
|5||National Order Party||Milli Nizam Partisi||26.01.1970||20.05.1971|
|6||Turkey Labourer Party||Türkiye Emekçi Partisi||12.02.1975||08.05.1980|
|7||Welfare Party||Refah Partisi||19.07.1983||16.01.1998|
|8||Turkey Comfort Party||Türkiye Huzur Partisi||22.07.1983||25.10.1983|
|9||Socialist Party||Sosyalist Parti||01.02.1988||10.07.1992|
|10||Green Party||Yeşiller Partisi||06.06.1988||10.02.1994|
|11||People Party||Halk Partisi||20.12.1989||24.09.1991|
|12||Revival Party||Diriliş Partisi||26.03.1990||18.02.1997|
|13||Turkey United Communist Party||Türkiye Birleşik Komünist Partisi||04.06.1990||16.07.1991|
|14||People's Labour Party||Halkın Emek Partisi||07.06.1990||14.07.1993|
|15||Socialist Union Party||Sosyalist Birlik Partisi||15.01.1991||19.07.1995|
|16||Freedom and Democracy Party||Özgürlük ve Demokrasi Partisi||19.10.1992||23.11.1993|
|17||Socialist Turkey Party||Sosyalist Türkiye Partisi||06.11.1992||30.11.1993|
|18||Democrat Party||Demokrat Parti||12.12.1992||13.09.1994|
|19||Democracy Party||Demokrasi Partisi||07.05.1993||16.06.1994|
|20||Democracy and Change Party||Demokrasi ve Değişim Partisi||03.04.1995||19.03.1996|
|21||Labour Party||Emek Partisi||25.03.1996||14.02.1997|
|22||Democratic Mass Party||Demokratik Kitle Partisi||03.01.1997||26.02.1999|
|23||Virtue Party||Fazilet Partisi||18.12.1997||22.06.2001|
|24||People's Democracy Party||Halkın Demokrasi Partisi||11.05.1994||13.03.2003|
|27||Democratic Society Party||Demokratik Toplum Partisi||09.11.2005||12.12.2009|
For the number of associations, trade unions, political parties and cultural centres that were closed down or raided the Human Rights Association presented the following figure for the years 1999 to 2008:
Though Turkey is a land of vast ethnic, linguistic and religious diversity – home not only to Turks, Kurds and Armenians, but also, among others, Alevis, Ezidis, Assyrians, Laz, Caferis, Roma, Greeks, Caucasians and Jews, the history of the state is one of severe repression of minorities in the name of nationalism. (See Demographics of Turkey).
According to Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution, "everyone bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship is a Turk". The Constitution affirms the principle of the indivisibility of the Turkish Nation, Nation State and of constitutional citizenship that is not based on ethnicity. Consequently, the word "Turkish" legally refers to all citizens of Turkey, though individual interpretation can be more limited. According to the constitution, there are no minority rights since all citizens are Turks. This constitutional article ignore the basic ethnic and religious minority rights. Although the Treaty of Lausanne, before the proclamation of the Republic, guarantees some rights to non-Muslim minorities, in practise Turkey has recognised only Armenians, Greeks and Jews as minorities and excluded other non-Muslim groups, such as Assyrians and Yazidis, from the minority status and these rights. Advocacy for protection of minorities' rights can lead to legal prosecutions as a number of provisions in Turkish law prohibits creation of minorities or alleging existence of minorities, such as Article 81 of the Law on Political Parties.
|People's Labor Party (HEP)||
|Freedom and Democracy Party (ÖZDEP)||
|Democracy Party (DEP)||
|People's Democracy Party (HADEP)||
|Democratic Society Party (DTP)||
Due to the large population of Kurdish people, successive governments have viewed the expression of a Kurdish identity as a potential threat to Turkish unity, a feeling that has been compounded since the armed rebellion initiated by the PKK in 1984. One of the main accusations of cultural assimilation comes from the state's historic suppression of the Kurdish language. Kurdish publications created throughout the 1960s and 1970s were shut down under various legal pretexts. Following the military coup of 1980, the Kurdish language was officially prohibited from government institutions. The Kurdish alphabet is not recognized.
Since the 1970s, the European Court of Human Rights has condemned Turkey for the thousands of human rights abuses against Kurdish people. The judgments are related to systematic executions of Kurdish civilians, forced recruitments, torturing, forced displacements, thousands of destroyed villages, arbitrary arrests, murdered and disappeared Kurdish journalists.
Since 2002, as part of its reforms aimed at European Union integration and under pressure to further the rights of Kurds, Turkey passed laws allowing Kurdish radio and television broadcasts as well the option of private Kurdish education. In 2010 a master level and in 2011 a graduate level university program were started and a Kurdish Language and Literature Department was established in the state-owned Mardin Artuklu University.
In August 2009, Turkish government begun restoring names of Kurdish villages, as well as considering allowing religious sermons to be made in Kurdish as part of reforms to answer the grievances of the ethnic minority and advance its EU candidacy.
More than 4,000 Kurds were arrested in 2011, including dozens of journalists and politicians. Mass trials of local deputies, mayors, academics and human rights activists have occurred in Diyarbakir. Hundreds of Kurds remain in pre-trial detention, some of them for many months.
In January 2013, the Turkish parliament passed a law that permits use of the Kurdish language in the courts, albeit with restrictions. The law was passed by votes of the ruling AKP and the pro-Kurdish rights opposition party BDP, against criticism from the secularist CHP party and the nationalist MHP, with MHP and CHP deputies nearly coming to blows with BDP deputies over the law. In spite of their support in the parliament, the BDP was critical of the provision in the law that the defendants will pay for the translation fees and that the law applies only to spoken defense in court but not to a written defense or the pre-trial investigation. According to one source the law does not comply with EU standards.[which?] Deputy prime minister of Turkey Bekir Bozdağ replied to criticism of the law from both sides saying that the fees of defendants who does not speak Turkish will be paid by the state, while, those who speak Turkish yet prefer to speak in the court in another language will have to pay the fees themselves. European Commissioner for Enlargement Stefan Füle welcomed the new law.
In February 2013, Turkish prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said during a meeting with Muslim opinion leaders, that he has "positive views" about imams delivering sermons in Turkish, Kurdish or Arabic, according to the most widely spoken language among the mosque attendees. This move received support from Kurdish politicians and human rights groups.
|Video of the TRT news station stopping the broadcast of a speech made in Kurdish by politician Ahmet Türk. Following the interruption, the newscaster said, "since no language other than Turkish can be used in the parliament meetings according to the constitution of the Turkish Republic and the Political Parties Law, we had to stop our broadcast. We apologize to our viewers for this and continue our broadcast with the next news item scheduled."|
Despite the improvement of minorities language rights in Turkey, the only language of instruction in the education system is Turkish language. Minority languages are illegal to use as a main languages in the education. Minorities are allowed to study their languages only as a minor subject in private and public educational institutions. Until reforms that started in 2002, there were legal restrictions on publishing in minority languages except for Greek, Armenian and Hebrew which are the languages of minorities officially recognized by the Lausanne Treaty. Since September 2002, those minorities, too, have the right to operate private courses that teach any language spoken in Turkey. Some of the Kurdish courses were closed down by their owners in 2005 due to their limitations and a lack of interest. However, as of 2010, there were active Kurdish language minor subject courses with increasing number of students. In 2008, privately owned Istanbul Bilgi University started to give Kurdish courses. In 2009, Turkish Higher Education Council (Yüksek Öğretim Kurulu) announced that there were no legal obstacles for teaching Kurdish language as a minor subject in universities. In 2010, state-owned Mardin Artuklu University started a master-level Kurdish language and literature ("Kurdology")program. Dicle University, another Turkish state university in Diyarbakır, started to give Kurdish courses in June 2011. In September 2011, the first undergraduate level Kurdish Language and Literature Department in Turkey was opened in the Mardin Artuklu University. According to the deputy rector of the university, this was not only the first university department on this subject in Turkey, but also the first one of the whole world.
NGOs have called on Turkey to adopt the definitions of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. If Turkey were to become a signatory to this treaty, it would have to accept and subsidise the education of minorities in their own first languages, and that for at least all the period of mandatory education. To this day 21 member states of the Council of Europe out of 49 have proceeded with ratification.
The state-owned TRT has been broadcasting short programmes in a number of minority languages, including Bosnian, Arabic, Kabardian and Kurdish, since July 2003. The legal basis were the Regulation on the Language of Radio and Television Broadcasts of December 2002 In the beginning TV programs were restricted to 45 minutes per day; radio programs had a limit of 60 minutes per day. In June 2006 the restrictions were lifted for music and film programs in minority languages.
Since January 2006 the official TV channel TRT has established an additional channel TRT 6 that is broadcasting in the Kurmanji, Sorani dialects of Kurdish and also in the Zaza language. There were plans to broadcast in Armenian as well.
In the 1930s, Turkey became one of the first countries in the world to give full political rights to women, including the right to elect and be elected locally (in 1930) and nationwide (in 1934). Therefore, the Constitution was amended.
Article 10 of the Turkish Constitution bans any discrimination, state or private, on the grounds of sex. Turkey elected a female prime minister, Tansu Çiller in 1995. It is also the first country which had a woman, Tülay Tuğcu, as the President of its Constitutional Court. In addition, Turkish Council of State, the supreme court for administrative cases, also has a woman judge Sumru Çörtoğlu as its President. However, representation of women in political and decision making bodies is low. In the Grand National Assembly of Turkey the percentage of women is 9.1 (17.3 percent is the average in the world). In 1975 the percentage was 10.9 and in 2006 it was 16.3. Only 5.58 percent of mayors are women and in the whole of Turkey there is one governor (among 81) and 14 local governors.
Since 1985, Turkish women have the right to freely exercise abortions in the first 10 weeks of pregnancy and the right to contraceptive medicine paid for by the Social Security. Modifications to the Civil Code in 1926 gave the right to women to initiate and obtain a divorce; a right still not recognized in Malta, an EU country.
Nevertheless, in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia regions, older attitudes prevail among the local Kurdish, Turkish and Arab populations, where women still face domestic violence, forced marriages, and so-called honor killings. To combat this, the government and various other foundations are engaged in education campaigns in Southeastern Anatolia to improve the rate of literacy and education levels of women.
In 2008, critics have pointed out that Turkey has become a major market for foreign women who are coaxed and forcibly brought to the country by international mafia to work as sex slaves, especially in big and touristic cities.
A 2008 poll by the Women Entrepreneurs Association of Turkey showed that almost half of urban Turkish women believe economic independence for women is unnecessary reflecting, in the view of psychologist Leyla Navaro, a heritage of patriarchy.
Child labor is a minor yet still occurring issue in Turkey. Despite the Government's moderate advancement in eliminating child labor and its worst forms, children continue to engage in agricultural activities for the most part. In 2013, the U.S. Department of Labor reported that 2.6% (corresponding to around 320,000 children) of children aged 5 to 14 work, and that 57% of them are found in the agricultural sector, 15% in the industrial sector and 27% in services. Even though these children's work remains seasonal, the fact that child labor still occurs is partly due to the fact that agricultural enterprises with a very limited workforce are not subject to Government law. In December 2014, the Department's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor reported 8 goods produced exclusively by child labor in Turkey. The majority of these products are agricultural goods including cotton, cumin, hazelnuts, peanuts, pulses and sugar beets.
Homosexual sexual relationships between consenting adults in private are not a crime in Turkey. The age of consent for both heterosexual and homosexual sex is eighteen. On the other hand, the criminal code has vaguely worded prohibitions on "public exhibitionism" and "offenses against public morality" that are sometimes used to discriminate against the LGBT community. As of 2006, Turkey neither has a law permitting homosexuals to get married, nor does it have a law against the discrimination of Turkey's LGBT community. Lambda Istanbul, a LGBT organization founded in 1996, was dissolved in May 2008 following a court decision. The prosecution argued that its objectives went against "the law and morality", but Human Rights Watch has criticized the decision, claiming it had been closed only on procedural grounds. On 28 November 2008, the Supreme Court of Appeals overturned an Istanbul court's decision ordering the closure of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender solidarity organization, Lambda Istanbul.
Homosexuals have the right to exemption from military service, if they so request, only if their "condition" is verified by medical and psychological tests, which often involves presenting humiliating, graphic proof of homosexuality, and anal examination.
The killing of Ebru Soykan, a prominent transgender human rights activist, on March 10, 2009, "shows a continuing climate of violence based on gender identity that authorities should urgently take steps to combat," Human Rights Watch said on 13 March 2009. News reports and members of a Turkish human rights group said that an assailant stabbed and killed Ebru, 28, in her home in the center of Istanbul. Members of Lambda Istanbul, which works for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and transsexual (LGBTT) people, told Human Rights Watch that in the last month Ebru had asked the Prosecutor's Office for protection from the man who had beaten her on several occasions and threatened to kill her. Lambda Istanbul was told that a few weeks ago police detained the man but released him two hours later. The same man is under police custody as the murder suspect.
On 21 May 2008 Human Rights Watch published a 123-page report documenting a long and continuing history of violence and abuse based on sexual orientation and gender identity in Turkey. Human Rights Watch conducted more than 70 interviews over a three-year period, documenting how gay men and transgender people face beatings, robberies, police harassment, and the threat of murder. The interviews also exposed the physical and psychological violence lesbian and bisexual women and girls confront within their families. Human Rights Watch found that, in most cases, the response by the authorities is inadequate if not nonexistent.
The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was signed by the Turkish Republic on 30 March 2007. The convention was discussed in TBMM (Turkish Grand National Assembly) on 8 May 2008 and it was ratified on 3 December 2008. In July 2005 Law 5378 on Disabled People was enacted.
In one particular case, an advocacy group for people with mental disabilities called Mental Disability Rights International criticized the treatment of the mentally ill in a report called "Behind Closed Doors: Human Rights Abuses in the Psychiatric Facilities, Orphanages and Rehabilitation Centers of Turkey". As a result of this criticism, Turkey's largest psychiatric hospital, the Bakırköy Psychiatric Hospital in Istanbul, abolished the use of "unmodified" ECT procedures.
Analysts pointed (in 2010) to racism and hate speech on the rise in Turkey, including against Armenians and against Jews. The report says "If one goes through the press in Turkey, one would easily find cases of racism and hate speech, particularly in response to the deplorable carnage and suffering in Gaza. These are the cases in which there is no longer a distinction between criticizing and condemning Israel's acts and placing Jews on the firing line."
Mistreatment of religious minorities is a common problem in Turkey and is sometimes sanctioned by the state's leadership. Christians for example live in fear of persecution and suffer from discriminatory laws that give non-Muslims disadvantages in comparison to the country's Muslim majority.
Amongst discriminated religious minorities are the Alevis who's "Muslimness" is still unconfirmed. As a result of national and government policy, their religious rights are also restricted and at many instances are a persecuted religious minority.
During 2008 there has been an increase in "hate crimes" in Turkey originating from racism, nationalism and intolerance. Despite provisions in the Constitution and the laws there have been no convictions for a hate crime so far, from either racism or discrimination. Since the beginning of 2006 a number of killings were committed in Turkey against people of ethnic or religious minorities or different sexual orientation or social sexual identity. Article 216 of the Turkish Penal Code provides for a general ban of publicly inciting people to hatred and disgust.
Turkey does not appear to be the scene of large-scale or overt expressions of racism against individuals in the strictest sense of term. However, one of the main challenges facing Turkey in the field of ECRI's (European Commission against Racism and Intolerance) concerns would appear to be the need to reconcile the strong sense of national identity and the wish to preserve the unity and integrity of the State with the right of different minority groups within Turkey to express their own sense of ethnic identity, for example through the maintenance and development of linguistic and cultural aspects of that identity.
- See also: Hate Crimes in Turkey; Documentation prepared by the Democratic Turkey Forum, cases between 2007–2009
Internally displaced people
Around a million people became displaced from towns and villages in south-eastern Turkey during the 1980s and 1990s as a result of the insurgent actions of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) and the counter-insurgency policies of the Turkish government.
The Migrants’ Association for Social Cooperation and Culture (GÖÇ-DER) was founded in Istanbul in 1997. Branches were later established in Diyarbakir, Van and Hakkari. GÖÇ-DER has been sued five times for its activities. Four of them ended in acquittal. One case demanding the closure of GÖÇ-DER Diyarbakir is still pending after the Court of Cassation cancelled the decision of Diyarbakir Judicial Court No. 1 not to band the association. This court has to hear the case again and scheduled the next hearing for 2 February 2010.
In July 2008 Beşir Atalay, Minister of the Interior, answered a request by CHP for Adıyaman province, Şevket Köse. He said that 314,000 people had applied for aid in order to return to their village. As of May 2008 151,469 people had returned to their villages in 14 provinces. They had been paid about 530 million Turkish Lira.
On 12 April 2006, Human Rights Watch researcher Jonathan Sugden was detained by police in Bingöl, while he was carrying out research in the predominantly Kurdish southeast of the country into the possibilities for IDPs to return and abuses allegedly involving the Turkish gendarmerie and government-armed local defense units called “village guards.” He was deported to London the next day.
The Constitution affirms the right of workers to form labor unions "without obtaining permission" and "to possess the right to become a member of a union and to freely withdraw from membership" (Article 51). Articles 53 and 54 affirm the right of workers to bargain collectively and to strike, respectively. The law prohibits strikes by civil servants, public workers engaged in the safeguarding of life and property, workers in the coal mining and petroleum industries, sanitation services, national defense, banking, and education; however, many workers in these sectors conducted strikes in violation of these restrictions with general impunity. The law requires that, in order to become a bargaining agent, a union must represent 50 percent plus one of the employees at a given work site and 10 percent of all the workers in that particular industry. Labor law prohibits union leaders from becoming officers of or otherwise performing duties for political parties and from working for or being involved in the operation of any profit-making enterprise Most labor experts in the country estimated that approximately 20 percent of the wage and salary workers in the labor force were unionized.
The Labor Act of 2003 established a 45-hour workweek, banned discrimination based on sex, religion, or political affiliation, and entitlement to compensation in case of termination without valid cause. It also manded that working hours per day cannot exceed 11 hours,
Turkey has had a standard state-run pensions system based on European models since the 1930s. Furthermore, since 1999, Turkey has a state-run unemployment insurance system, introduced by Law 4447 obligatory for all declared workers.
- Racism and discrimination in Turkey
- Deep state in Turkey
- Human rights in Islamic countries
- Arat, Zehra F. Kabasakal (1 January 2011). "Human Rights in Turkey". University of Pennsylvania Press – via Google Books.
- "Kurdophobia". www.rightsagenda.org. Human Right Agenda Assosication. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- The information was taken from a page of the University of Minnesota; accessed on 10 September 2009
- Report of State Party - Turkey by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights, 2001 - See section 84
- Mentioned in Resolution 985 (1992) reproduced as a word-file under http://insanhaklarimerkezi.bilgi.edu.tr/data/raporlar_avrupa/985.doc; accessed on 10 September 2009
- 2009 Report on Progress announced on 14 October 2009
- Duvakli, Melik. JİTEM’s illegal actions cost Turkey a fortune, Today's Zaman, 27 August 2008; reprinted by Info Turk edition 360, August 2008.
- Cases against Turkey before the ECtHR in 2007 Archived April 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- Annual Report 2011 (PDF). France: European Court of Human Rights. 2012. ISBN 978-92-871-9972-0.
- Statistics compiled by using the official data of the ECtHR
- Entry of Helmut Oberdiek in his private Wiki and additional article on his website.
- Turkey: Party Case Shows Need for Reform - Ruling Party Narrowly Escapes Court Ban, Human Rights Watch, 31 July 2008
- An online edition of Law 5275 (in Turkish on pages of the Turkish Government); accessed on 10 September 2009
- The report Turkey: Extra-judicial Executions (AI Index: EUR 44/45/90) was accessed on 10 September 2009
- Source: Report for 2001, published on 10 March 2003, Ankara, ISBN 975-7217-38-7, page 49 (Turkish)
- The full report as pdf-file Archived October 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.; accessed on 10 September 2009
- The comparative balance sheet of the HRA is available in English; accessed on 10 September 2009
- The full report in Turkish as word-file Archived February 27, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.; accessed on 10 September 2009
- Report by Amnesty International: The Entrenched Culture of Impunity Must End Index Number: EUR 44/008/2007, Date Published: 5 July 2007
- The press release is available in Turkish, accessed on 11 September 2009
- Radikal, 24 October 2008, Faili meçhul komisyonu üyeleri 1000 cinayeti 15 yıl önce görmüştü...
- The HRW backgrounder: What is Turkey's Hizbullah? was published in 2000; accessed on 12 September 2009
- Quotes taken from the HRW Report The Kurds of Turkey: Killings, Disappearances and Torture, March 1993, accessed on 12 September 2009
- Quote taken from the English version of the Annual Report 2001 of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, Ankara 2003, p. 68, ISBN 975-7217-38-7
- Figures were taken from the Turkish version of the comparative balance sheet; accessed on 12 September 2009
- The report in Turkish can be downloaded at http://www.mazlumder.org/dosyalar/2005-2008bilabco.doc; accessed on 12 September 2009
- Draft Resolution (Doc. 10679) of 19 September 2005 on Enforced disappearances, prepared by the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights for the General Assembly of the Council of Europe; accessed on 13 September 2009
- Article by Helmut Oberdiek on The Right to Life: Disappearances, report compiled in 2007, accessed on 12 September 2009
- See a press release of the Human Rights Association of 15 May 1995; accessed on 12 September 2009
- Full text of the Report of the UN Working Group; accessed on 13. September 2009
- See the daily Radikal of 6 December 2008 (Turkish); accessed on 13 September 2009
- The cover article on the right to life in Turkey and details on cases of "disappearances" in English; accessed on 13 September 2009
- See the Annual Report 1999 of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (English, page 338); accessed on 15 September 2009
- See an article in the daily Radikal of 31 December 2002 (Turkish); accessed on 16 September 2009
- See the Report of Amnesty International Turkey: Listen to the Saturday Mothers; Index Number: EUR 44/017/1998 Date Published: 1 November 1998; accessed on 15 September 2009
- Reported in Bianet of 18 May 2004 and France24 of 16 March 2009; both accessed on 15 September 2009
- The File on Torture that was included in the newsletter of September 1987 is not available any more. A copy of images can be found as Illustrated Reports of Amnesty International; accessed on 14 September 2009
- Letter of AI to Günter Verheugen, quoted on Bianet of 19 September 2002; accessed on 14 September 2009
- See a press release of the European People's Party in the European Parliament of 6 October 2004; accessed on 14 September 2009
- See press release of 10 September 2004 (Turkish); accessed on 14 September 2009
- See paragraph 36 of the Report A/48/44/Add.1 of 15 November 1993 of the UN Committee against Torture; accessed on 14 September 2009
- See 2008 Human Rights Report: Turkey, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor as part of the US Department of State on February 25, 2009; accessed on 16 September 2009 Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "US2008" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Report of the EU Commission - Enlargement of 5 November 2008; accessed on 16 September 2009
- The report reflecting the development in 2008 was accessed on 17 August 2009
- "Freedom from Torture's Annual Review 2012" (PDF). Freedomfortorture.org.
- Report of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey: File of Torture: Deaths in Detention Places or Prisons (12 September 1980 to 12 September 1995), Ankara, March 1996 ISBN 975-7217-09-3, page 20
- Report of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey: File of Torture: Deaths in Detention Places or Prisons (12 September 1980 to 12 September 1995), Ankara, March 1996 ISBN 975-7217-09-3, pages 51 to 68
- Text and lists can be found at http://ob.nubati.net/wiki/Turkey:_Deaths_in_Custody; accessed on 17 September 2009
- See the Annual Report 2008 (Turkish); accessed on 17 September 2009
- "Historic verdict finds Turkish officials caused activist's death in custody". Amnesty International. 2 October 2012. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- See the country report 2005 of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor in US Department of State, dated 8 March 2006, accessed on 17 September 2006
- Report of Amnesty International Turkey: The Istanbul Devrimci Sol Trial; online edition, accessed on 18 September 2009
- Compare the 2009 Report of Amnesty International; accessed on 20 September 2009
- 2008 Annual Report to be found on the pages of the Democratic Turkey Forum (Turkish); accessed on 20 September 2009
- The report of Amnesty International on Prosecution of Religious Activists was published in November 1987
- See Background to the Legal System; accessed on 11 October 2009
- The report of Amnesty International Turkey: Human Rights Denied appeared in November 1988 (AI Index: EUR/44/65/88); the report can be accessed as scanned images. Freedom of expression are the page (images 3-6)
- See an Issue Paper on the Situation of the Kurds by the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, February 1996; accessed on 11 October 2009
- See Resolution ResDH(2004)38; accessed on 11 October 2009
- For a (German) list of offences see this page of the Democratic Turkey Forum (DTF). The DTF also has a page on verdicts in 2008 and statistics for 2008
- "Turkey (News)". The Guardian. London.
- "Turkey: Destruction Of Ahmet Sik's Unpublished Book 'A Very Dangerous Precedent' Eurasia Review". Eurasiareview.com. 2011-03-28. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Turkey". Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- See Report of the Quaker Council for European Affairs on The Right to Conscientious Objection in Europe: A Review of the Current Situation
- "Chamber Judgement Ulke vs. Turkey", Accessed June 7, 2006
- See an article in the Turkish daily ZamanToday of 8 September 2009
- Country report of the Quakers, 2005
- Pinar Kemerli (2012-02-17). "Turkey's civilian-military complex". Aljazeera. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
- "Article of War Resisters International on Halil Savda". Wri-irg.org. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Related article of War Resisters International on Mehmet Bal". Wri-irg.org. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "War Resisters International on Mehmet Bal's ill-treatment". Wri-irg.org. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "2009 Annual Report of Amnesty International". Report2009.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- HRW Annual Report 2009 on Turkey Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Country report for 2008". State.gov. 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Text of the Constitution in Wikisource. The Turkish text of Law 2911
- See the Turkish Wikipedia
- The independent correspondence network BIANET on 20 March 2003, Article by Hacer Yildirim Foggo, Turkish, accessed on 12 October 2009
- Annual Report 1991, Ankara January 1992, (Turkish version) page 62
- Turkey's Kurdish Policy in the Nineties, paper presented at the Middle East Studies Association in Washington, DC in December 1995 by Lord Eric Avebury
- HRFT: Annual Report 1993, Ankara June 1994, (English version) page 41
- German press statement of a delegation to South-East Turkey; accessed on 12 October 2009
- HRFT, Annual Report 1993, Ankara June 1994, (English version) page 114
- HRFT: Annual Report 1995, Ankara February 1997, ISBN 975-7217-13-1 (English version) page 193
- See the weekly summary of events in Turkey; published by the Democratic Forum in German, week 14/2006
- Article in Samanyolu of 16 March 2008, Turkish; accessed on 12 October 2009
- Yeni Özgür Politka of 17 March 2008; accessed on 12 October 2009
- In October 2009 the website of TESAV had direct links to the documents in Turkish.
- "Turkish Constitutional Court Bans Kurdish Political Party, Turkey's Largest Minority Group Loses Its Political Voice". Hrbrief.org. 2010-02-02. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- The statistics of the Human Rights Association are also available in English; accessed on 12 October 2009.
- A Quest for Equality: Minorities in Turkey, Report of Minorities Rights Group International, December 2007, 48 pages, ISBN 1-904584-63-2
- Saatci, Mustafa (1 October 2002). "Nation–states and ethnic boundaries: modern Turkish identity and Turkish–Kurdish conflict". 8 (4): 549–564. doi:10.1111/1469-8219.00065 – via Wiley Online Library.
- Nurcan Kaya and Clive Baldwin (July 2004), "Minorities in Turkey". (299 KB) Submission to the European Union and the Government of Turkey, Minority Rights Group International
- Aslan, Senem (2014). Nation-Building in Turkey and Morocco: Governing Kurdish and Berber Dissent. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1316194906.
- Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Kurds, Turkey: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1995.
- Toumani, Meline. Minority Rules, New York Times, 17 February 2008
- "EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS: Turkey Ranks First in Violations in between 1959-2011". Bianet - Bagimsiz Iletisim Agi. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Annual report" (PDF) (The European Court of Human Rights). 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "The European Court of Human Rights: Case of Benzer and others v. Turkey" (PDF) (Mass execution of Kurdish villagers). 24 March 2014: 57. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "The prohibition of torture" (PDF) (Torturing). 2003: 11, 13. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Human Rights Watch. HRW. 2002. p. 7.
- Abdulla, Jamal Jalal. The Kurds: A Nation on the Way to Statehood. AuthorHouse. p. 36. ISBN 9781467879729. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Police arrest and assistance of a lawyer". 2015: 1.
- "Justice Comes from European Court for a Kurdish Journalist". Kurdish Human Rights Project. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Turkey passes key reform package". BBC News. 2002-08-03. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
- Tezli yüksek lisans programı 'Kürdoloji' geliyor Radikal, 9 February 2010 
- First undergrad Kurdish department opens in SE Hürriyet Daily News, 24 September 2011
- Villelabeitia, Ibon (20 August 2009). "Turkey renames village as part of Kurdish reforms". Reuters.
- Constanze Letsch in Diyarbakir (28 December 2011). "Kurds in Turkey: arrests and violence threaten to radicalise a generation". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "Turkey allows Kurdish language in courts". Deutsche Welle. 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Geerdink, Fréderike (2013-01-24). "Kurdish permitted in Turkish courts". Journalists in Turkey. Retrieved 2013-03-02. External link in
- Butler, Daren (2013-01-25). "Turkey approves court reform, Kurds remain critical". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-03-03. External link in
- "Scuffles at Parliament over defense in Kurdish". Hürriyet Daily News. 2013-01-23. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "EU Official Welcomes Use Of Mother Tongue In Court". haberler.com. 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Gov't move for delivery of sermons in local language receives applause". Today's Zaman. 2013-02-18. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Turkish TV cuts politician during speech in Kurdish". CNN. February 24, 2009.
- Turkish text of the by-law and an inofficial translation
- "''Kürtçe kurslar ilgi görmedi'' NTVMSNBC, 2 August 2005". Arsiv.ntvmsnbc.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- İstanbul’daki Kürtçe kurslarına talep her geçen gün artıyor Euractiv, 10 October 2010 
- "''Kürtçe tamamen serbest'' Yeni Şafak, 1 September 2009". Yenisafak.com.tr. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- "''Dicle Üniversitesi'nde Kürtçe kursu'' Haber 7, 16 June 2011". Haber7.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Dicle Üniversitesi'nde Kürtçe kurs başladı Ntvmsnbc, 17 June 2011 Archived August 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Ratifications of European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages by the members of the Council of Europe". Conventions.coe.int. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Erdem, Zihni (2006-06-11). "Kürtçe yayında sınırlar kalkıyor". Radikal. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
- An unofficial translation can be found on the pages of the Democratic Turkey Forum; accessed on 22 October 2009
- "TRT to air programs for Alevis during Muharram". Today's Zaman. 2008-12-30. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- Questions and Answers on Women's Right Turkish, prepared by the Human Rights Agenda Association; accessed on 14 October 2009
- UN Joint Program for the Development of Women and Children's Rights, Turkish: Türkiye'de Kadın Olmak; accessed on 14 October 2009
- Moss, Stephen (2005-04-05). "'If the inquisitor was working today, he would commit suicide'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
- Wilkinson, Tracy (2007-01-09). "Taking the 'honor' out of killing women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- Dymond, Jonny (2004-10-18). "Turkish girls in literacy battle". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-12-11.
- "Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Turkey". Gvnet.com. Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- Finnegan, William (2008-05-05). "The Countertraffickers: Rescuing the victims of the global sex trade". New Yorker. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- Smith, Craig S (2005-06-28). "Turkey's sex trade entraps Slavic women". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- "Half of women say they do not need economic independence". Turkish Daily News. 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
- "Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Turkey". 30 September 2016.
- Turkey: Court Shows Bias, Dissolves Lambda Istanbul, Human Rights Watch, June 2, 2008
- Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs; Asylum and Migration Division (July 2001). "Turkey/Military service" (PDF). United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-11-22. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
- Quoted for instance at Gays Without Border; accessed on 14 October 2009
- An online edition of the report “We Need a Law for Liberation” is available
- Administration for Disabled People is part of the Prime Ministry in Turkey
- The English text of this law can be found on the website of the Administration for Diabled People
- "European Union Calls on Turkey to Improve Rights of People with Mental Disabilities". Disability World. Mental Disability Rights International. 27. 2005-12-27. Retrieved 2008-08-29.
- See http://www.mdri.org/mdri-web-2007/PR/033106_MDRIPR.pdf press release of MDRI of 31 March 206
- Hate speech and racism: Turkey’s ‘untouchables’ on the rise , August 30, 2010, Todayszaman 
- "The Myth of Turkish Secularism". Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- "Minority Rights Group International : Press releases : Turkey's Christian and other religious minorities face discrimination and rights violations". Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- Tóth Renáta. "Alevi's rights and the freedom of religion in Turkey". Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- Handbook of the Human Rights Agenda Association on Hate Crimes in Turkey; accessed on 14 October 2009
- First report of ECRI on Turkey (1999)
- "The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre in its country report 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-06.
- The report of Istanbul GÖÇ-DER (in English and Turkish) can be found on the website of Diyarbakir GÖÇ-DER; accessed on 14 October 2009
- Information from the website of the association; accessed on 14 October 2009
- Source found on 14 October 2009
- See the press release of Human Rights Watch; accessed on 14 October 2009
- "Turkey Continues Its Reform Of Labor And Employment Laws Despite Waning Enthusiasm For EU Membership - Employment and HR - United States".
- For the full text of the law see http://www.mevzuat.adalet.gov.tr/html/1097.html an official site of the Justice Ministry; accessed on 22 October 2009
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human rights in Turkey.|
- US Department of State: Bureau for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (country reports)
- European Commission for Enlargement
- Turkey Press Freedom Website covering press freedom situation in Turkey by SEEMO
- Human Rights Watch Reports on Turkey
- Amnesty International Library you can search for Reports on Turkey
- Progress Reports on Turkey
- Reports and Investigations of Mazlumder about Turkish Human Rights
- Questions and Answers; Human Rights in Turkey, Human Rights Agenda Association
- Database on Refugee Rights in Turkey
- The Turkish Spring: Lawyers Rounded Up