Human rights in the Philippines
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Human rights in the Philippines has been a subject of concern and controversy.
In 2014, the Freedom House in their standard-setting comparative assessment of global political rights and civil liberties of 195 countries assessed the freedom status of the Philippines as "Partly Free", with a political rights rating of 3.0; with 1.0 being the highest obtainable rating. The Philippines also obtained a 3.0 rating for civil rights and freedom rating. The ratings obtained by the Philippines is the highest obtained by a country in the region of South East Asia.
In 2006 the U.S. State Department reported that Philippine security forces were responsible for serious human rights abuses despite the efforts of civilian authorities to control them. The report found that although the government generally respected human rights, some security forces elements—particularly the Philippine National Police—practiced extrajudicial killings, vigilantism, disappearances, torture, and arbitrary arrest and detention in their battle against criminals and terrorists.
Prison conditions were reported as being harsh, and the judicial process slow. Corrupt police, judges, and prosecutors impaired due process and the rule of law. Besides criminals and terrorists, atheists, agnostics, human rights activists, left-wing political activists, and Muslims were sometimes the victims of improper police conduct. Violence against women and abuse of children remained serious problems, and some children were pressed into slave labor and prostitution.[dated info]
|This section requires expansion. (December 2013)|
Prior to the establishment of the Republic of the Philippines the inhabitants were the victims of numerous historically documented human rights violations during the more the 300 years of Spanish colonization, 40 years of American colonization, and three years of Japanese administration. Most of its celebrated national heroes were victims of the culture of impunity imposed by oppressive Spanish, American, and Japanese rule.
Land seizures from indigenous peoples
Mindanao, the home of the Moro Muslims, is rich in natural resources and minerals. The American colonial government and subsequently the Philippine government followed a policy of demographic swamping by settling massive amounts of Filipino Christian settlers from the Visayan islands and Luzon onto Moro Muslim lands in Mindanao. The policy resulted in a massive wave of Filipino Christians settling on Mindanao where the population of Filipino Christian settlers now outnumbers the native Moro Muslims by the millions. This was an additional factor in aggravating conflicts between the native Moro Muslims and Filipino Christian settlers as disputes over land increased. Another complaint of the Moros is the extraction of Mindanao's natural resources and wealth by the central government while the Moro population live in mass poverty.
The native peoples of Mindanao are the Moro Muslims and the Lumad Animists. They have been turned into a minority by the settlement of millions of Filipino Christians from Luzon and the Visayas onto their land.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Moro and Lumads controlled an area which now covers 17 of Mindanao’s 24 provinces, but by the 1980 census, they constituted less than 6% of the population of Mindanao and Sulu. Heavy migration to Mindanao of Luzon and Visayans, spurred by government-sponsored resettlement programs, turned the indigenous Lumads and Moros into minorities.
The native Moro Muslims and Lumads were supplanted by the first Spanish and American colonization programs with Christian settlers taking control of key areas and disrupting the Muslim's administrative structures and control over resources, the Americans chose Christian settlers to become officials of settler populated townships instead of Lumads and Muslims, with the environment becoming ruined due to the activities of the settlers and logging. Severe deterioration of the land in Mindanao ensued after the continuing influx of Filipino settlers, with the land becoming essentially useless. Eric S. Casiño wrote on the interaction between the Filipino settlers, the Moro Muslim and Lumad natives and the impact on the environment in his book "Mindanao Statecraft and Ecology: Moros, Lumads, and Settlers Across the Lowland-highland Continuum".
The Americans started a colonization program on Mindanao for foreign agricultural companies and Filipino Christian settlers against the native Muslims and non-Muslim Lumads of Mindanao, in order to secure the area with a Christian presence and help the American military assert control over the area once it was conquered.
90% of Mindanao's people used to consist of native Moro Muslims at the start of the 20th century but the invasion and colonization sponsored by the American and Philippine governments led to Filipino Christian settlers turning into the majority of almost 75% of the population, with the American colonial government helping to kick natives off their land and giving the land titles to Christian colonists. Media compared the American conquest of the west from the Native Americans to the Filipino conquest and settlement of Mindanao from the Muslims, the Philippine government, Philippine military and Filipino militias used extremely violent tactics against natives to support the settlers.
The government agencies involved in settlement on Mindanao were the National Land Settlement Administration (NLSA) and subsequently the Land Settlement and Development Corporation (LASEDECO), followed by the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA).
The Americans used their control over property and land laws to let American corporations and Filipino Christian settlers take over Lumad and Moro Muslim resources and land and depriving them of self-governance after eliminating the sovereignty of the Moro Sultanates, and ignoring Moro requests for their own independence, with the Philippine government continuing the colonization program after independence leading to a humongous number of Filipino settlers streaming into Moro territories, and this led to Moros making moves for independence and armed struggle against the Philippines.
After 1960 the settlement program turned the Moro Muslims into a minority from their previous majority in Mindanao, similar to what happened in the Indonesian Transmigration program where Javanese people where frontier areas are settled with ethnic Madurese and Javanese people.
Severe violence between native Muslims and Christian settlers erupted due to the influx of Christian colonists, companies and other entities seeking to exploit new land on Mindanao who engaged in land grabbing. Lumad and Muslim interests were ignored by the state sponsored colonization program led by the National Land Settlement Administration (NLSA) which provided benefits for the colonists and made no consideration for the Muslims.
Moro Muslims are just 17% of Mindanao's population whereas prior to the colonization program initiated by the governments of the Philippines they had been a massive majority and the colonization and land grabs led to the current violent conflict, with private companies and Filipino colonists from the Visayas and Luzon taking lands from Moro clans with the Philippine government issuing land titles to settlers and ignoring Moro ownership of the land since they declared Moro land as public lands.
Massive settlement by Filipino Christian colonists continued after independence was granted and rule passed to Christian Filipinos from the Americans and land disputes the Christian settlers had with the Muslim and tribal natives broke out in violence, eventually the colonization, along with the Jabidah massacre, led to the formation of the Moro National Liberation Front and Moro armed insurgency against Philippine rule.
The Philippine government encouraged Filipino Christian settlers in Mindanao to form militias called Ilaga to fight the Moros. The Ilaga engaged in massacres and atrocities and were responsible for Manili massacre of 65 Moro Muslim civilians in a Mosque on June 1971, including women and children. The Ilaga also engaged in cannibalism, cutting off the body parts of their victims to eat in rituals. The Ilaga settlers were given the sarcastic nickname as an acronym, the "Ilonggo Land Grabbers’ Association".
The Moros were only incorporated into the Philippines by "conquest and colonization", constituting a separate nation from Filipinos analogous to the experience of Native Americans who violently resisted American conquest.
The Philippine military burned down the city of Jolo when fighting against the native Moro Muslims. Over 10,000 Moro and Chinese civilians were killed by the Philippine Armed Forces when they burned Jolo to the ground.
The Philippine government encouraged Filipino Christian settlers in Mindanao to form militias called Ilaga to fight the Moros. The Ilaga engaged in massacres and atrocities and were responsible for Manili massacre of 65 Moro Muslim civilians in a Mosque on June 1971, including women and children. The Ilaga also engaged in cannibalism, cutting off the body parts of their victims to eat in rituals.
Other massacres committed by the Philippine armed forces against Moro civilians include the November 1971 Tacub massacre, 1974 Malisbong massacre, October 1977 Patikul massacre, February 1981 Pata Island massacre.
On September 24, 1974, in the Malisbong massacre the Armed Forces of the Philippines slaughtered 1,766 Moro Muslim civilians who were praying at a Mosque in addition to mass raping Moro girls who had been taken aboard a boat.
In 1977, Shiekh Salamat Hashim established the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), a splinter group of the MNLF seeking to establish an Islamic state. Conflicts between these rebel groups and the Armed Forces of the Philippines would continue until the end of the regime of President Marcos.
On September 15, 2013, the New York Times published an article crediting "every" Philippine government for having "struggled" to "bring peace" to the Muslims of Mindanao since 1946 when it became independent and claimed that it is the "belief" of the Muslims that they are being subjected to oppression and exploitation by the Christians that is the "problem" which is causing the conflict and the newspaper also claimed that the conflict stretched back to 1899 when Moro "insurrectionists" were "quelled" by the American army. On January 26, 2014 the New York Times published another article claiming that "every Philippine government" has "struggled to bring peace to Mindanao" and claimed that reports of exploitation and oppression by the Filipino Christians originated from what Muslims "say" and the newspaper also praised President Benigno S. Aquino III's "landmark peace deal". The New York Times labelled Moro fighters as "Muslim-led groups" and as "violent". The New York Times blamed "Islamic extremist groups" for carrying out attacks in the Philippines. The New York Times editorial board endorsed Philippine President Benigno Aquino's planned peace deal and the passage of "Bangsamoro Basic Law", blaming the "Muslim insurgency" for causing trouble to the "largely Catholic country". The New York Times claimed that "Islamic militants" were fighting the Philippine military.
The New York Times claimed the peace deal between the Philippines and MILF "seeks to bring prosperity to the restive south and weaken the appeal of the extremist groups.", and linked the winding down of the insurgency to increased American military cooperation with the Philippines against China. The New York Times hailed Mr Aquino's "peace agreement" as an "accomplishment" as it reported on Aquino raising the "alarm" on China in the South China Sea. The New York Times editorial board published an article siding with the Philippines against China in the South China Sea dispute and supporting the Philippines actions against China. The New York Times editorial board endorsed aggressive American military action against China in the South China Sea.
According to historians, the Moro Rebellion between the Americans and Moros broke out in 1904 when America unilaterally violated the Bates Treaty and invaded the Moro territories. The current Moro insurgency broke out after the Philippine government massacred Moro Muslims in the Jabidah massacre.
On 7 December 2006 International Labor Rights Fund's Brian Campbell tried to enter the Philippines to continue investigations of recent human rights violations and murders in the Philippines. Mr. Campbell had previously visited the Philippines in early 2006 to investigate various deaths of trade unionists including Diosdado Fortuna. Mr. Campbell was informed he was on a blacklist by the Filipino immigration authorities, was barred from entering, and was immediately forced to leave the country.
In 2007 Philip Alston, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary executions, spent 10 days in the Philippines investigating these killings. He spoke to witnesses and victims, as well as senior members of the military and the government, finding that witnesses have been systematically intimidated and harassed. He says the military is implicated directly or indirectly in a significant number of deaths. Victims included trade unionists, farmers' rights activists, people from indigenous communities, lawyers, journalists, human rights campaigners and people of religion.
In June 2007 the European Commission (EC) sent a six-man team of experts from the European Union (EU) to the Philippines on a 10-day mission to evaluate needs and identify technical assistance that the EU might provide to help its government prosecute those behind the killings.
On 22 November 2012, President Benigno S. C. Aquino signed Administrative Order No. 35 creating the Inter-Agency Committee on Extra-Legal Killings, Enforced Disappearances, Torture and other Grave Violations of the Right to Life, Liberty and Property without due process of law. With Chairperson Leila M. De Lima, the Secretary of Justice and former Chairperson of the country's independent human rights institution (IHRI), the Commission on Human Rights (CHR). Other members of the committee are the heads of the following offices, the Chairman of the Presidential Human Rights Committee (PHRC), the Secretary of the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), the Secretary of the Department of National Defense (DND), the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process (PAPP), Presidential Adviser for Political Affairs (PAPA), the Director General of Philippine National Police (PNP), and the Director of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI).
The fifth annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index released by the international press freedom watchdog Reporters Without Borders (RSF) has ranked the Philippines among the worst-ranked countries for 2006 at 142nd place. It indicates the continuing murders of journalists and increased legal harassment in the form of libel suits as part of the problem in the Philippines. Between 1986 to 2005, 52 journalists have been murdered.
Freedom of expression
In 2012, acting on a complaint by an imprisoned broadcaster who dramatised a newspaper account reporting that a particular politician was seen running naked in a hotel when caught in bed by the husband of the woman with whom he was said to have spent the night, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights ruled that the criminalization of libel violates freedom of expression and is inconsistent with Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, commenting that "Defamations laws should not ... stifle freedom of expression" and that "Penal defamation laws should include defense of truth."
In 2012, the Philippines enacted Republic Act 10175, titled The Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012. Essentially, this Act provides that libel is criminally punishable and describes it as: "Libel – the unlawful or prohibited act as defined in Article 355 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended, committed through a computer system or any other similar means which may be devised in the future." Professor Harry Roque of the University of the Philippines has written that under this law, electronic libel is punished with imprisonment from 6 years and one day to up to 12 years.
Freedom to travel
Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights says, in part, "Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country." The Covenant was adopted on 10 December 1948 and, as of 30 September 1995, had been ratified or acceded to by 132 States, including the Philippines. Article III Section 6 of the Philippine constitution provides, in part, that the right to travel shall not be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law.
The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA), the main government agency assigned to monitor and supervise recruitment agencies in the Philippines, enforces a system of exit clearances for overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). OFWs are required to obtain a POEA exit clearance in order to be allowed to leave the country. The process of obtaining a POEA exit clearances has been described in the Philippine press as a "nightmare". In a Philippine Daily Inquirer piece dated 14 July 2011, Rigoberto Tiglao, Philippine ambassador to Greece and Cyprus, questioned the POEA exit clearances, opining that they may be unconstitutional.
As of December 2003, the human rights watchdog KARAPATAN had documented human rights violations against 169,530 individuals, 18,515 families, 71 communities, and 196 households. One person, it said, was being killed every three days under the Macapagal-Arroyo government or a total of 271 persons as of December 2003.
A spate of extrajudicial killings, estimated in 2007 by human rights groups at over 800 between 2002 and 2007, has put the Philippines on the human rights watch list of the United Nations and the US Congress. A UN special rapporteur criticized the Arroyo administration for not doing enough to stop the killings, many of which had been linked to government anti-insurgency operations. Interior Assistant Secretary Danilo Valero said the sharp decline, 83%, in the number of political killings last year, as well as the filing of cases against the suspects, “underline the Arroyo government’s strong commitment to human rights and its firm resolve to put an end to these unexplained killings and put their perpetrators behind bars.” Task Force Usig was created in 2006 as the government’s response to the extrajudicial killings. Valero said the yearend statistics showed “the creation of the task force has been a deterrent” to such crimes.
According to Cher S Jimenez writing in Asia Times Online, as of 2007 there was an increasing international awareness of the extrajudicial harassment, torture, disappearances and murder of Filipino civilian non-combatants by the Philippine's military and police. Since the advent of the "War on Terrorism" in 2001, the people of the Philippines have witnessed the assassinations of more than 850 mainstream journalists and other public figures and the harassment, detention, or torture of untold more.
E. San Juan, Jr. writes that estimates of killings vary on the precise number, with Task Force Usig estimating only 114. It has failed to gain any convictions, and as of February 2007 had only arrested 3 suspects in the over 100 cases of assassination. The online publication Bulatlat states that "[A]ccording to a recent international fact-finding mission of Dutch and Belgian judges and lawyers, Task Force Usig 'has not proven to be an independent body…the PNP has a poor record as far as the effective investigation of the killings is concerned and is mistrusted by the Philippine people." Task Force Usig dismissed nearly half of the 114 cases of assassination as "cold" and, of the 58 cases where charges were brought, has secured only convictions only twice.
Amnesty International stated in 2006 that the more than 860 confirmed murders were clearly political in nature because of "the methodology of the attacks, including prior death threats and patterns of surveillance by persons reportedly linked to the security forces, the leftist profile of the victims and climate of impunity which, in practice, shields the perpetrators from prosecution." The AI report continued:
the arrest and threatened arrest of leftist Congress Representatives and others on charges of rebellion, and intensifying counter-insurgency operations in the context of a declaration by officials in June of 'all-out-war' against the New People's Army . . . [and] the parallel public labeling by officials of a broad range of legal leftist groups as communist 'front organizations'...has created an environment in which there is heightened concern that further political killings of civilians are likely to take place.—Amnesty International, 
Human Rights Watch reported in 2008
2006 saw a sharp increase in the number of extrajudicial killings, which coincided with President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo’s June 2006 declaration of an “all-out war” against communist insurgents called the National People’s Army (NPA)...the Philippine government is consistently failing in its obligations under international human rights law to hold accountable perpetrators of politically motivated killings....With inconclusive investigations, implausible suspects, and no convictions, impunity prevails....Out of hundreds of killings and “disappearances” over the past five years, there have been only two successfully prosecuted cases resulting in the conviction of four defendants....The number of senior military officers convicted either for direct involvement or under command responsibility remains zero. The doctrine of command responsibility in international law means that superior officers can be held criminally liable for the actions of their subordinates, and also if a superior had reason to know that subordinates under his command committed an offence and failed to use all feasible means under his command to prevent and punish it, he too may be found guilty for the offence.—Human Rights Watch, 
Human Rights Watch wrote that the murders and kidnappings were rarely investigated by the police or other government agencies and often go unreported because of fears of reprisal against the victims or their families. The Philippine National Police blame investigative failures on this reluctance, but as Human Rights Watch writes:
[W]itnesses are indeed reluctant to cooperate with police investigations, because of fear that they would be targeted by doing so. An extremely weak witness protection program exacerbates this problem....[P]olice are often unwilling to vigorously investigate cases implicating members of the AFP. Families of some victims told Human Rights Watch that when they reported relevant cases to the police, police often demanded that the families themselves produce evidence and witnesses. Even when police filed cases with a court, they often identified the perpetrators either as long-wanted members of the NPA or simply as “John Doe.” Some families told Human Rights Watch that police gave up investigating after only a few days.—Human Rights Watch, 
The Asian Human Rights Commission reported in 2006,
Most of those killed or "disappeared" were peasant or worker activists belonging to progressive groups such as Bayan Muna, Anakpawis, GABRIELA, Anakbayan, Karapatan, KMU, and others (Petras and Abaya 2006). They were protesting Arroyo's repressive taxation, collusion with foreign capital tied to oil and mining companies that destroy people's livelihood and environment, fraudulent use of public funds, and other anti-people measures. Such groups and individuals have been tagged as "communist fronts" by Arroyo's National Security Advisers, the military, and police; the latter agencies have been implicated in perpetrating or tolerating those ruthless atrocities.
Right from the beginning, Arroyo's ascendancy was characterized by rampant human rights violations. Based on the reports of numerous fact-finding missions, Arroyo has presided over an unprecedented series of harassments, warrantless arrests, and assassinations of journalists, lawyers, church people, peasant leaders, legislators, doctors, women activists, youthful students, indigenous leaders, and workers.
According to commentators James Petras and Robin Eastman-Abaya, "Human rights groups provide evidence that death squads operate under the protective umbrella of regional military commands, especially the U.S.-trained Special Forces.
2006 is also the year President Arroyo issued Presidential Proclamation 1017. According to Cher S Jimenez writing in Asia Times Online, this proclamation "grants exceptional unchecked powers to the executive branch", placing the country in a state of emergency and permitting the police and security forces to "conduct warrantless arrests against enemies of the state, including...members of the political opposition and journalists from critical media outlets." With 185 dead, 2006 is so far (2007) the highest annual mark for extrajudicial government murders. Of the 2006 killings, the dead were "mostly left-leaning activists, murdered without trial or punishment for the perpetrators." The issuance of the proclamation conspicuously coincided with a dramatic increase in political violence and extrajudicial killings.
E. San Juan, Jr. alleges that the Arroyo government initially made no response to the dramatic increase in violence and killings. He writes, "Arroyo has been tellingly silent over the killing and abduction of countless members of opposition parties and popular organizations." An independent commission was assembled in August 2006 to investigate the killings. Headed by former Supreme Court Justice Jose Melo, the group known as the Melo Commission concluded that most of the killings were instigated by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, but found no proof linking the murder of activists to a "national policy" as claimed by the left-wing groups. On the other hand the report "linked state security forces to the murder of militants and recommended that military officials, notably retired major general Jovito Palparan, be held liable under the principle of command responsibility for killings in their areas of assignment."
E. San Juan, Jr. wrote that later, in February 2007, UN Special Rapporteur Philip Alston implicated the Philippine police and military as responsible for the crimes. Alston charged in his report that Arroyo’s propaganda and counter-insurgency strategy “encourage or facilitate the extra-judicial killings of activists and other enemies” of the state. and that "the AFP remains in a state of almost total denial… of its need to respond effectively and authentically to the significant number of killings which have been convincingly attributed to them".
In her 2006 State of the Nation address, then-president Arroyo condemned political killings "in the harshest possible terms" and urged witnesses to come forward.
International human rights treaties
The Philippines is signatory to a number of United Nations human rights treaties, including:
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR);
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), ratified on 23 October 1986;
- United Nations Convention Against Torture, acceded to on 18 June 1986;
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, ratified on 15 September 1967;
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, ratified on 7 June 1974;
- United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, ratified on 5 July 1995;
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, ratified on 5 August 1981;
- Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified on 21 August 1990; and,
- Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, ratified on 15 April 2008.
Compliance and adherence to obligations under international human rights instruments, including the timely submission of treaty implementation reports to the United Nations is one of the functions of the Presidential Human Rights Committee (PHRC) under Administrative Order No. 29 dated 27 January 2002 and No. 163 dated 8 December 2006.
- Extrajudicial killings and forced disappearances in the Philippines
- Karapatan - Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights - a Filipino Human Rights Organization
- Satur Ocampo - congressman who is alleged to be held as a political prisoner in the Philippines
- Corruption in the Philippines
- Crispin Beltran - late congressman alleged to have been held as a political prisoner in the Philippines
- Children in jail in Philippines - Over 50,000 children in the Philippines have been arrested and detained in Jails since 1995.
- Child labour in the Philippines
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.
- "Ratings" (PDF). FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2014. Freedom House.
- Country Profile: Philippines (PDF). U.S. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. March 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2008.
- "Islam and the Politics of Identity". University of Hawaii – Center for Philippine Studies.
- Hiromitsu Umehara; Germelino M. Bautista (2004). Communities at the Margins: Reflections on Social, Economic, and Environmental Change in the Philippines. Ateneo University Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-971-550-464-5.
- Eric S. Casiño (2000). Mindanao Statecraft and Ecology: Moros, Lumads, and Settlers Across the Lowland-highland Continuum. Notre Dame University. ISBN 978-971-555-354-4.
- Jennifer Conroy Franco (2001). Elections and Democratization in the Philippines. Taylor & Francis. pp. 221–. ISBN 978-0-8153-3734-8.
- Human Rights Watch (Organization) (1992). Bad Blood: Militia Abuses in Mindanao, the Philippines. Human Rights Watch. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-56432-060-5.
- Hongchao Dai; Hung-chao Tai (1 January 1974). Land Reform and Politics: A Comparative Analysis. University of California Press. pp. 259–. ISBN 978-0-520-02337-6.
- Kamlian, Jamail A. (October 20, 2012). "Who are the Moro people?". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Magdalena, Federico V. "Islam and the Politics of Identity". University of Hawai'i at Manoā. Center for Philippine Studies. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
- Eva Horakova (1971). Problems of Filipino Settlers. Institute of Southeast Asian. pp. 2–. GGKEY:LLSBZXRXTWT.
- William Larousse (1 January 2001). A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines : 1965-2000. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-88-7652-879-8.
- Angel Rabasa (2007). Ungoverned Territories: Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks. Rand Corporation. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-0-8330-4152-4.
- Colin Mackerras; Foundation Professor in the School of Asian and International Studies Colin Mackerras (2 September 2003). Ethnicity in Asia. Routledge. pp. 143–. ISBN 978-1-134-51517-2.
- Colin Mackerras (18 June 2004). Ethnicity in Asia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 143–. ISBN 978-0-203-38046-8.
- "PH south’s separatist, armed groups". Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- "MILF wants international group to probe govt ‘atrocities’". GMA News Online. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "MILF seeks compensation for Moro victims of martial law". Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- Shamsuddin L. Taya (November 2006). "The Strategies and Tactics of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in the southern Philippines, 1994-2005: An Organizational Approach". Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences. International Islamic University Malaysia. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- "[PhilConcerns] Fwd: Justice for the Moros victims of Martial Law, Pass the Marcos Victims Compensation Bill NOW --- MCPA". Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- Abu Shamiir. "Transitional Justice and Reconciliation Committee holds advocacy in Biwang Province". Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "www.morowomen.com". Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "Speech of Former President Estrada on the GRP-MORO Conflict". Human Development Network. September 18, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- WHALEY, FLOYD (Sep 15, 2013). "Rebel Rifts on Island Confound Philippines". The New York Times.
- WHALEY, FLOYD (Jan 26, 2014). "Peace Deal to End Insurgency Came After Philippine Leader’s Ultimatum to Rebels". The New York Times.
- WHALEY, FLOYD (Sep 12, 2013). "New Clash in the Philippines Raises Fears of a Wider Threat". The New York Times.
- WHALEY, FLOYD (July 28, 2014). "Filipino Rebels Kill 21 Villagers Over Peace Deal". The New York Times.
- THE EDITORIAL BOARD (Aug 1, 2014). "The Philippines’ Insurgency Crisis". The New York Times.
- WHALEY, FLOYD (March 10, 2015). "Refugee Crisis in Philippines as Peace Deal Is at Risk". The New York Times.
- WHALEY, FLOYD; SCHMITT, ERIC (June 26, 2014). "U.S. Phasing Out Its Counterterrorism Unit in Philippines". The New York Times.
- BRADSHER, KEITH (February 5, 2014). "Philippine Leader Sounds Alarm on China". The New York Times.
- THE EDITORIAL BOARD (July 17, 2015). "The South China Sea, in Court". The New York Times.
- THE EDITORIAL BOARD (April 2, 2014). "Risky Games in the South China Sea". The New York Times.
- THE EDITORIAL BOARD (May 29, 2015). "Pushback in the South China Sea". The New York Times.
- THE EDITORIAL BOARD (July 12, 2014). "Still at Odds With China". The New York Times.
- Marwaan Macan-Markar (12 February 2007). "RIGHTS-PHILIPPINES: UN Probes Extra-Judicial Killings". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved 22 August 2007.
- Bloodshed in the Picketline news article in Bulatlat, 2 September 2005.
- Deported lawyer prodded US firms to sign letter on killings news article in Inquirer (Philippines), 8 December 2006.
- Karen Percy (21 February 2007). "UN links Philippines military to political killings". Retrieved 22 August 2007.
- "Dangerous Regime, Defiant People - KARAPATAN 2007 Human Rights Report". stopthekillings.org. Retrieved 16 January 2008.
- Vincent Brossel and Jean-François Julliard. Philippines—An End to Impunity (PDF). Reporters Without Borders; International Secrétariat; Asia Desk.
- Rev. Fr. Jessie Somosierra, Jr. (30 June 2007). "EC: Serious problems remain amid RP efforts to end killings". wordpress.com, citing inquirer.net.
- "Philippines among worst-ranked countries in press freedom index". freeexpressionasia.wordpress.com/. Retrieved 22 August 2007.
- "52 journalists killed since the return to democracy in 1986". 2 May 2005. Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- Libel law violates freedom of expression – UN rights panel, The Manila Times, 30 January 2012.
- "Lee: The Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012". Sun*Star - Davao. September 21, 2012.
- Harry Roque, Jr. (20 September 2012). "Cybercrime law and freedom of expression". Manila Standard.
- "Republic Act No. 10175". Official Gazette. Office of the Presiden of the Philippinest. 12 September 2012.
- "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". The United Nations.
- "Fact Sheet No.2 (Rev.1), The International Bill of Human Rights" (PDF). U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1996.
- "Article II : Bill of Rights". 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. Chan Robles Law Library.
- "OFW exit procedures made easy". Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. 25 March 2008.
- "POEA restores validation of OFW exit clearance at NAIA terminals" (Press release). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. 23 February 2011.
OEA administrator Carlos S. Cao Jr., in a press release, said that the validation of OFW documents at the airports is necessary to ensure that only workers who are properly documented or have passed through the legal processes are allowed to leave the country.
- Stella Ruth O. Gonzales (July 2011). "Exit clearance: An OFW’s nightmare". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Rigoberto Tiglao (14 July 2011). "OFW ‘exit permits’: unconstitutional?". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- "Human Rights Violations in the Philippines: A Grim Reality". Butalot (bulatlat.com) III (43). November 30–6 December 2003. Retrieved 8 April 2009. Check date values in:
- "PNP: Extrajudicial killings fell by 83% in 2007". Inquirer.net. 14 January 2008.
- "Deadly dirty work in the Philippines (page 1)". Asia Times. 13 February 2007.
- E. San Juan, Jr., "Class Struggle and Socialist Revolution in the Philippines: Understanding the Crisis of U.S. Hegemony, Arroyo State Terrorism, and Neoliberal Globalization"
- "What Drives Macapagal-Arroyo’s "Silent War"?". Bulatlat.
- "DILG should urge Task Force Usig to really investigate all political killings - KMU". Retrieved 5 April 2008.
- A Human Rights Watch Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights regarding the Universal Periodic Review of the Republic of the Philippines Human Rights Watch 2003
- Philippines: Political Killings, Human Rights and the Peace ..., Amnesty International (archived from the original on
- E. San Juan, Jr. (18 September 2006). PHILIPPINES: Class Struggle and Socialist Revolution in the Philippines: Understanding the Crisis of U.S. Hegemony, Arroyo State Terrorism, and Neoliberal Globalization [Monthly Review]. Asian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 9 May 2008.[dead link]
- CounterPunch: "America's Best Political Newsletter"
- "Deadly dirty work in the Philippines (page 2)". Asia Times. 13 February 2007.
- Alberto, Thea (15 February 2007). "Melo: Commission report 'complete'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
- "Philippines: Filpina Militants Indict Bush-Arroyo For Crimes Against Humanity". Bay Area Indymedia. 28 April 2007. Article written by E. San Juan, Jr. for Bay Area Indymedia. Republished by "Asian Human Rights Commission in News".
- "State of the Nation Address of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo". The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines. 24 July 2006. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
- "Administrative Order No. 163, s. 2006". Official Gazette of the Philippine Government. 8 December 2006.
- Human Rights Philippine
- KARAPATAN - Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights
- "IFEX Philippines". International Freedom of Expression eXchange (IFEX).
- "Human rights issues in Philippines". Asian Human Rights Commission.