Human serum albumin
|, blood albumin, ANALBA, FDAH, PRO0883, PRO0903, PRO1341, albumin, Serum albumin, HSA|
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood. It is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma; it constitutes about half of serum protein. It is produced in the liver. It is soluble in water, and it is monomeric.
Albumin is synthesized in the liver as preproalbumin, which has an N-terminal peptide that is removed before the nascent protein is released from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The product, proalbumin, is in turn cleaved in the Golgi apparatus to produce the secreted albumin.
The gene for albumin is located on chromosome 4 in locus 4q13.3 and mutations in this gene can result in anomalous proteins. The human albumin gene is 16,961 nucleotides long from the putative 'cap' site to the first poly(A) addition site. It is split into 15 exons that are symmetrically placed within the 3 domains thought to have arisen by triplication of a single primordial domain.
Prolonged release of drugs
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells with loss of differentiation and commonly with metastasis. Anticancer drugs are used to control the growth of cancerous cells. Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum-derived antineoplastic agent that has been proved effective mainly against advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). Oxaliplatin administration has an acute excitatory and sensitizing effect, including unpleasant cold allodynia in the distal extremities, mouth, and throat and usually associated with muscle cramps. However, the major side effect, a dose-limiting toxicity of the peripheral nerves, affects the sustainability of the planned treatment. Although these acute symptoms resolve within 1 week, severe chronic sensory neuropathy develops with the increasing cumulative dose and is characterized by distal paresthesia and numbness. Drug delivery systems aim to deliver the drugs over an extended duration or at a specific time during treatment. Therefore, the improvement of the efficiency and convenience of a drug release system is of paramount importance. In the past two decades, numerous nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively explored in order to achieve precisely controlled drug delivery. However, the application and development of high-efficiency drug release system are still limited due to a lacking of simple, stable and efficient drug delivery vehicle. Human serum albumin (HSA) is a highly water-soluble globular monomeric plasma protein with a relative molecular weight of 67 KDa, consisting of 585 amino acid residues, one sulfhydryl group and 17 disulfide bridges. Among nanoparticulate carriers, HSA nanoparticles have long been the center of attention in the pharmaceutical industry due to their ability to bind to various drug molecules, great stability during storage and in vivo usage, no toxicity and antigenicity, biodegradability, reproducibility, scale up of the production process and a better control over release properties. In addition, significant amounts of drug can be incorporated into the particle matrix because of the large number of drug binding sites on the albumin molecule.
- Maintains oncotic pressure
- Transports thyroid hormones
- Transports other hormones, in particular, ones that are fat-soluble
- Transports fatty acids ("free" fatty acids) to the liver and to myocytes for utilization of energy
- Transports unconjugated bilirubin
- Transports many drugs; serum albumin levels can affect the half-life of drugs. Competition between drugs for albumin binding sites may cause drug interaction by increasing the free fraction of one of the drugs, thereby affecting potency.
- Competitively binds calcium ions (Ca2+)
- Serum albumin, as a negative acute-phase protein, is down-regulated in inflammatory states. As such, it is not a valid marker of nutritional status; rather, it is a marker of an inflammatory state
- Prevents photodegradation of folic acid
- Prevent pathogenic effects of Clostridium difficile toxins
The normal range of human serum albumin in adults (> 3 y.o.) is 3.5–5.0 g/dL (35–50 g/L). For children less than three years of age, the normal range is broader, 2.9–5.5 g/dL.
Low albumin (hypoalbuminemia) may be caused by liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, burns, protein-losing enteropathy, malabsorption, malnutrition, late pregnancy, artefact, genetic variations and malignancy.
High albumin (hyperalbuminemia) is almost always caused by dehydration. In some cases of retinol (Vitamin A) deficiency, the albumin level can be elevated to high-normal values (e.g., 4.9 g/dL). This is because retinol causes cells to swell with water (this is also the reason too much Vitamin A is toxic). This swelling also likely occurs during treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid (isotretnoin), a pharmaceutical for treating severe acne, amongst other conditions. In lab experiments it has been shown that all-trans retinoic acid down regulates human albumin production.
- Liver disease; cirrhosis of the liver is most common
- Excess excretion by the kidneys (as in nephrotic syndrome)
- Excess loss in bowel (protein-losing enteropathy, e.g., Ménétrier's disease)
- Burns (plasma loss in the absence of skin barrier)
- Redistribution (hemodilution [as in pregnancy], increased vascular permeability or decreased lymphatic clearance)
- Acute disease states (referred to as a negative acute-phase protein)
- Malnutrition and wasting
- Mutation causing analbuminemia (very rare)
- Anorexia nervosa ( commonest cause in Adolescents )
Human albumin solution (HSA) is available for medical use, usually at concentrations of 5–25%.
Human albumin is often used to replace lost fluid and help restore blood volume in trauma, burns and surgery patients. There is no strong medical evidence that albumin administration (compared to saline) saves lives for people who have hypovolaemia or for those who are critically ill due to burns or hypoalbuminaemia. It is also not known if there are people who are critically ill that may benefit from albumin. Therefore, the Cochrane Collaboration recommends that it should not be used, except in clinical trials.[needs update]
Human serum albumin may be used to potentially reverse drug/chemical toxicity by binding to free drug/agent.
Human albumin may also be used in treatment of decompensated cirrhosis.
It has not been shown to give better results than other fluids when used simply to replace volume, but is frequently used in conditions where loss of albumin is a major problem, such as liver disease with ascites.
It has been known for a long time that human blood proteins like hemoglobin and serum albumin may undergo a slow non-enzymatic glycation, mainly by formation of a Schiff base between ε-amino groups of lysine (and sometimes arginine) residues and glucose molecules in blood (Maillard reaction). This reaction can be inhibited in the presence of antioxidant agents. Although this reaction may happen normally, elevated glycoalbumin is observed in diabetes mellitus.
Moreover, the glycation can result in the formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE), which result in abnormal biological effects. Accumulation of AGEs leads to tissue damage via alteration of the structures and functions of tissue proteins, stimulation of cellular responses, through receptors specific for AGE-proteins, and generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. AGEs also react with DNA, thus causing mutations and DNA transposition. Thermal processing of proteins and carbohydrates brings major changes in allergenicity. AGEs are antigenic and represent many of the important neoantigens found in cooked or stored foods. They also interfere with the normal product of nitric oxide in cells.
The albumin is the predominant protein in most body fluids, its Cys34 represents the largest fraction of free thiols within body. The albumin Cys34 thiol exists in both reduced and oxidized forms. In plasma of healthy young adults, 70–80% of total HSA contains the free sulfhydryl group of Cys34 in a reduced form or mercaptoalbumin (HSA-SH). However, in pathological states characterized by oxidative stress and during the aging process, the oxidized form, or non-mercaptoalbumin (HNA), could predominate. The albumin thiol reacts with radical hydroxyl (.OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the reactive nitrogen species as peroxynitrite (ONOO.), and have been shown to oxidize Cys34 to sulfenic acid derivate (HSA-SOH), it can be recycled to mercapto-albumin; however at high concentrations of reactive species leads to the irreversible oxidation to sulfinic (HSA-SO2H) or sulfonic acid (HSA-SO3H) affecting its structure. Presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), can induce irreversible structural damage and alter protein activities.
Loss via kidneys
In the healthy kidney, albumin's size and negative electric charge exclude it from excretion in the glomerulus. This is not always the case, as in some diseases including diabetic nephropathy, which can sometimes be a complication of uncontrolled or of longer term diabetes in which proteins can cross the glomerulus. The lost albumin can be detected by a simple urine test. Depending on the amount of albumin lost, a patient may have normal renal function, microalbuminuria, or albuminuria.
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