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Humanitarian logistics is a branch of logistics which specializes in organizing the delivery and warehousing of supplies during natural disasters or complex emergencies to the affected area and people. Although they have been mostly utilized in commercial supply chain, logistics is one of the most important tools now in disaster relief operations. Type and quantity of the resources, way of procurement and storage of the supplies, tools of tracking and means transportation to the stricken area, specialization of teams participating in the operation and plan of cooperation between these teams, are some important issues that are connected directly to humanitarian logistics.
Developing logistics warehousing to store all essential goods is one of the tools utilized in disaster response planning. Warehouses should be designed by taking precautions for contamination or waste of materials and organized in order to facilitate deliveries to the desired area at the desired time and quantities. Successful humanitarian operations also presuppose that distribution centers are located in the correct area, which is obviously near the region that tends to be hit by a disaster and can be indicated through software or mathematical models. The responsible authorities aim at maximization of response and minimization of distribution time, money spent and number of distribution centers. Coordination of the delivery of goods, organization of teams, supplies and equipment movement is realized by mobilization centers, which are located near the affected region. A way of taking precautions before a disaster occurs, is to organize emergency response plans which will help preparation and consequently mobilization in the time of the disaster.
A logistical technique which can improve responsiveness is inventory pre-positioning. This technique is used for estimating item quantities required according to specific safety stock levels and order frequency, or for searching optimal locations for warehouses using facility location. Logistics is one of the major tools of disaster preparedness, among surveillance, rehearsal, warning, and hazard analysis. Besides, success and performance in humanitarian relief chains is very difficult to measure because of some distinct characteristics that humanitarian operations have, such as very unpredictable demand, difficulty to obtain data from operations, unpredictable working environment, lack of incentive for measurement(due to their non-profit character), very short lead time and unknown variables, like geography, political situation or weather.
Technology is a key factor to achieve better results in disaster logistics. Implementing up-to-date information or tracking systems and using humanitarian logistics software which can provide real-time supply chain information, organizations can enhance decision making, increase the quickness of the relief operations and achieve better coordination of the relief effort. Biometrics for identifying persons or unauthorized substances, wireless telecommunications, media technology for promoting donations, and medical technologies are some more aspects of technology applied in humanitarian operations.
The Logistics Cluster is an Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) humanitarian coordination mechanism. Following the recommendations of an independent Humanitarian Response Review in 2005, the cluster approach was adopted in 2005 as a way of addressing gaps and strengthening the effectiveness of humanitarian response through building partnerships. The Logistics Cluster is one of the eleven sectoral coordination bodies. The basis of this current international humanitarian coordination system was set by UN General Assembly resolution 46/182 in December 1991 and extended in the Humanitarian Reform of 2005, with these new elements adopted to improve capacity, predictability, accountability, leadership and partnership.
The Logistics Cluster provides coordination and information management services to support operational decision-making and improve the predictability, timeliness and efficiency of humanitarian emergency responses. Where necessary, the Logistics Cluster also facilitates access to common logistics services. Due to its expertise in the field of humanitarian logistics, the World Food Programme (WFP) was chosen by the IASC as the lead agency for the Logistics Cluster. WFP hosts the Global Logistics Cluster support team in its headquarters in Rome. WFP also acts as a ‘provider of last resort’ offering common logistics services, when critical gaps hamper the humanitarian response.
The Logistics Cluster’s primary role lies in supporting emergency responses. For an overview of current Logistics Cluster Operations, please consult the Logistics Cluster Website.
- "Logistics Cluster". logcluster.org. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
- Blanco, Edgar E.; Goentzel, Jarrod (2006). Humanitarian supply chains: a review. MIT Center for Transportation & Logistics, POMS.
- Iqbal, Qamar; Mehler, Kristin; Yildirim, Mehmet Bayram (2007). "Comparison of Disaster Logistics Planning and Execution for 2005 Hurricane Season". InTrans Project Reports. 167.
- Margaret O'Leary, 2004. Measuring disaster preparedness: a practical guide to indicator, iUniverse, ISBN 978-0-595-53170-7
- Kevin Cahill, 2005, Technology for humanitarian action, Fordham Univ Press, ISBN 978-0-8232-2394-7
- Anup Roop Akkihal. (2006). "Inventory pre-positioning for humanitarian operations" (PDF).
- Anne Leslie Davidson (2006). "Key performance indicators in humanitarian logistics" (PDF).
- Martin Christopher and Peter Tatham, 2011, Humanitarian Logistics: Meeting the Challenge of Preparing for and Responding to Disasters, Kogan Page, ISBN 0749462469, ISBN 978-0749462468
- Karen Spens and Gyöngyi Kovacs, 2010, Back to basics - is logistics again about cutting costs?, http://lipas.uwasa.fi/~phelo/ICIL_2010_Proceedings_Rio.pdf
- Tatham, Peter; Kovács, Gyöngyi (2010). "The application of "swift trust" to humanitarian logistics". International Journal of Production Economics. 126: 35. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2009.10.006.
- Kovács, Gyöngyi; Spens, Karen (2009). "Identifying challenges in humanitarian logistics". International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. 39 (6): 506. doi:10.1108/09600030910985848.
- Humanitarian Logistics Research at MIT Center for Transportation & Logistics
- The Center for Health & Humanitarian Systems at Georgia Tech (formerly Health & Humanitarian Logistics)
- The Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Research Institute (HUMLOG) at HANKEN School of Economics (Helsinki, Finland)
- Humanitarian Logistics in Emergencies training at RedR Australia