- Not to be confused with Hummer.
one of the plaques on the works building
|Subsidiaries||1929–1931 Hillman Motor Car Company|
|Previous owners||1868–1931 Humber
1931–1967 Rootes Group
Humber is a dormant British automobile marque which dates its beginnings to Thomas Humber's bicycle company founded in 1868. Following their involvement in Humber through Hillman in 1928 the Rootes brothers acquired a controlling interest and joined the Humber board in 1932 making Humber part of their Rootes Group. The range focused on luxury models, such as the Humber Super Snipe.
In 1896 Humber built a prototype and nine production motorcars in their new Coventry premises. In November 1896 a car was exhibited at the 'Stanley Cycle Show' in London. They are claimed to be the first series production cars made in England.
At Humber & Company's next general meeting in 1897 the managing director said they had received many letters asking if they would produce a motorised vehicle, and they had in fact been working on this project for 2 years, but had delayed production until they found a suitably reliable engine. Having now found an engine they were gearing up for production.
The first Humber car was produced in 1898 under the guidance of Thomas Humber and was a three-wheeled tricar with their first conventional four-wheeled car appearing in 1901. The company had factories in Beeston near Nottingham as well as Stoke, Coventry. The Beeston factory produced a more expensive range known as Beeston-Humbers but the factory closed in 1908.
On 12 March 1908 a new works was officially opened at Stoke, then just outside the city of Coventry. New buildings covered 13.5 acres and allowed for the employment of 5,000 hands. The new works was designed to be capable of producing 150 cars and 1,500 cycles per week. The Humber Motor Works in Coventry still survives—a rare thing as the majority of the city was destroyed in the November 1940 air raid.
Before the First World War a wide range of models were produced from the 600 cc Humberette to several six-cylinder 6-litre models. In 1913 Humber was second only to Wolseley as the largest manufacturer of cars in the United Kingdom.
In 1925 Humber moved into the production of commercial vehicles with the purchase of Commer. In 1929 Hillman, under the control of the Rootes brothers, was added but independence ended in 1931 when the Rootes brothers bought a majority shareholding.
Prior to WWII and after, many large long wheel based Humber Limousines were built with English, Australian, American and even a few European coachbuilders' special bodies. Thrupp & Maberly of London, later acquired by Rootes, built many of the coachbuilt bodies for the Pullman and Imperial limousines. Most of these surviving cars in Australia are fitted with Thrupp and Maberly aluminium bodies. The series V Imperial was bodied by Thrupp and Maberly and is quite rare today.
Thrupp and Maberly built a special body for an eight-cylinder Sunbeam in 1936 which was given to King Edward VIII. After his abdication the car was returned to the factory, significantly altered and then eventually sold as a Humber with a new six cylinder engine and altered grille and body.
The Ryton on Dunsmore plant began as a 1939 shadow factory to build aero engines. It was closed at the end of 2006 and demolished in 2007. There are more details at the separate article on Ryton plant.
During World War II, military ordered cars were produced for the armed services. several armoured cars These were produced under the Humber name, along with heavy-duty "staff" cars. The standard Humber cars, limousines,specially prepared war models and military 4x4 vehicles (which were fitted with Rolls Royce engines), were extremely robust and gave excellent reliability and performance in difficult terrain in both Northern Africa and Europe.
General Montgomery, Commander of the British and Allied forces in Northern Africa during the Desert war of WWII, had two specially built Humber Super Snipe four door convertibles made with larger front wings or guards, mine proof floors, special fittings and long range fuel tanks. Two cars were built for him and used in the Africa campaign against General Rommel, who used open tourer large, long range convertible Mercedes Benz's. Montgomery's Humbers were known as 'Old Faithful' and the 'Victory Car'. Both cars still exist in full military regalia in museums in England and are a testament to the high engineering and manufacturing standards of Humber and Rootes Ltd. The victory car drove Montgomery and Churchill through the streets of London during the VE parades at the end of WWII.
These side valve, large Humber cars, trucks,4 x 4 vehicles and armoured cars were remarkably robust and have amazing longevity. In Australia many war surplus Humber cars and trucks spent over forty years on farms used by farmers and the Country fire authority in very reliable service in tough and harsh conditions.
In the postwar era, Humber's mainstay products included the four-cylinder Hawk and six-cylinder Super Snipe. Being a choice of businessmen and officialdom alike, Humbers gained a reputation for beautifully appointed interiors and build quality. The Hawk and the Super Snipe went through various designs, though all had a "transatlantic" influence. They offered disc brakes and automatic transmission at a time when these fitments were rare. Powersteering was also available in Australia.
A top-flight model, the Imperial, had these as standard, along with metallic paintwork and other luxury touches such as extra courtesy lights and vinyl covered black roof and electrically operated rear adjustable suspension. The last of the traditional large Humbers, the series VA Super Snipe (fitted with twin Stromberg CD 100 Carburettors) were sold in 1968, when Chrysler, who by then owned the Rootes group, ended production. Several V8 models had been in pre-production at this time, but were never publicly sold. Several of these test examples survive today.
Rootes' last car was the second generation of Humber Sceptre, a badge-engineered Rootes Arrow model. The marque was shelved in 1976 when all Hillmans became badged as Chryslers. The Hillman Hunter (another Arrow model) was subsequently badged as a Chrysler until production ceased in 1979 when Chrysler's European division was sold to Peugeot and the marque renamed Talbot. The Talbot marque was abandoned at the end of 1986 on passenger cars, although it was continued on vans for six years afterwards.
- Humber 8 1902
- Humber 12 1902
- Humber 20 1903
- Humberette Voiturette 1903-1911
- Humber 8/10 1905
- Humber 10/12 1905–07
- Humber 30/40 1908–09
- Humberette Cycle Car 1912-1915
- Humber 11 1912
- Humber 10 1919–21
- Humber 15.9 1919–25
- Humber 11.4 and 12/25 1921–25
- Humber 8/18 1922–25
- Humber 15/40 1924–28
- Humber 9/20 and 9/28 1925–30
- Humber 14/40 1926–29
- Humber 20/55 and 20/65 1926–29
- Humber 16/50 1928–32
- Humber Snipe 1929–47
- Humber 16–60 1933–35
- Humber 12 1933–37
- Humber 16 1936–40
- Humber Pullman 1930–54
- Humber Imperial 1938–67
- Humber Hawk 1945–67
- Humber Super Snipe 1938–67
- Humber Sceptre 1961–67,1967–76
- Humber Vogue 1963–66 (Australia)
Humber catalogue for 1930
"Such Cars As Even Humber Never Built Before"
|'||NEW SEASON'S MODELS & PRICES||'|
|16/50||Imperial Touring Car||£410|
|16/50||Humber Touring Car||£425|
|16/50||Six-Light Weymann Saloon||£465|
|16/50||Four-Door Weymann Coupé||£475|
|Humber||"Snipe" Touring Car||£495|
|Humber||"Snipe" Six-Light Weymann Saloon||£535|
|Humber||"Snipe" Four-Door Weymann Coupé||£545|
|Humber||"Snipe" Drop-Head Coupé||£565|
|Humber||Cabriolet de Ville||£1,095|
|(Coachwork by Thrupp & Maberly)|
There is a thriving club, and many of these upmarket cars survive today.
The world's largest collection of Humber cars can be viewed at the Marshalls Post-Vintage Humber Car Museum in Hull. It includes 21 Humber cars dating from 1932 to 1970 on permanent display, plus 24 unrestored cars.
When Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother visited Western Australia in the 1950s, a Humber was shipped over for her. It was left in a paddock, and was rediscovered and verified in 2002. It has since been restored and is currently privately owned.
Humber produced a number of aircraft and aero-engines in the years before the First World War. In 1909 the company signed a contract to build 40 copies of the Blériot XI monoplane, powered by their own three-cylinder engine, and four aircraft were exhibited at the Aero Show at Olympia in 1910.
- "In December 1928 Rootes Limited, the well-known Distributors of Motor Vehicles, acquired an important financial interest in the Company and since then great improvement in the methods of manufacture and sales including the re-equipment of the Works on up-to-date lines, has taken place. In July 1932 a thorough reorganization of the financial structure of the Company was effected, unproductive capital being written off and new capital introduced, and Mr W E Rootes and Mr R C Rootes joined the Board of the Company."
Humber Limited, prospectus for the issue of preference shares. The Times, Thursday, Feb 07, 1935; pg. 19; Issue 46982; col. F.
- The Stanley Cycle Show. The Times, Saturday, Nov 21, 1896; pg. 13; Issue 35054
- "Humber & Co", The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle Journal, Dec 1897, p91
- Humber (Limited), New Motor-car and Cycle Works. The Times, Wednesday, Mar 18, 1908; pg. 5; Issue 38597.
- Display Advertising, Humber Limited The Times, Thursday, Sep 26, 1929; pg. 11; Issue 45318; col E
- "BBC News UK Remembering the Humber". 26 April 2000. Retrieved 18 August 2006.
- "www.MotorSnippets.com". Retrieved 18 August 2006.[dead link]
- "British-Built Engines and Bleriot Monoplanes"Flight 25 September 1909
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Humber vehicles.|
- Humber 16 1909
- The Post Vintage Humber Car Club
- The Humber Register 1896-1932
- Marshalls Humber Car (Museum)
- Enthusiasts Mark 1 Sceptre Site