Humberto Ortega

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General Humberto Ortega Saavedra (born January 10, 1947 in Managua) is a Nicaraguan military leader, often self-called leading Latin American revolutionary strategist, and published writer. He was Minister of Defense between the victory of the Sandinista revolution in 1979 under the National Reconstruction Government, through the first presidency of his brother Daniel Ortega Saavedra, and through the presidency of Violeta Barrios de Chamorro who defeated Daniel Ortega in the elections of 1990.


Humberto Ortega and his brother, current President of Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega, founded the Tercerista tendency of the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) in 1975. He, among others leaders, crafted the urban insurrection strategy that ignited civil war in Nicaragua in October 1977 which led to the fall of the Somoza dynastic dictatorship in July 1979. As Minister of Defense during the decade of Sandinista rule, Ortega oversaw the buildup of the Sandinista Popular Army (EPS) and the prosecution of the war against the "contra" resistance factions and their peasant support base.

Following the electoral defeat of Daniel Ortega and the Sandinista Party in 1990, Humberto maintained control of the military. He retired in 1995, turning the job over to his second in command, Joaquín Cuadra. General Humberto Ortega started transforming the EPS into the non-political Nicaraguan National Army. Allegedly, he was behind the assassination of many retired anti-sandinistas rebels.[1] This allegation has not been put forward by any legal authority inside or outside of Nicaragua.

Published writer[edit]

In December 2004 he released a book titled La Epopeya de la Insurrección (Epic of the Insurrection). Ortega says he worked 10 hours a day on the book for two years using his own records, meeting notes, archives and analytical schemes to reconstruct the history of the struggle that ultimately brought down the 43-year Somoza family dictatorship.[1] Among his other books are, 50 Años de Lucha Sandinista, Sobre la Insurrección and Nicaragua Revolución y Democracia.


  • A diez años de la rendición total de la guardia somocista (1989).
  • Sobre la insurrección (1981).
  • 50 años de lucha sandinista (1978).
  • La Epopeya de la Insurrección (2004).
  • Nicaragua (1992).
  • Sobre la insurrección (1981).
  • Insurrección y Nicaragua Revolución
  • Democracia de Sobre.


  1. ^ "The General's Book". Revista Envío. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 

External links[edit]

Website for the book. 'La Epopeya de la Insurrección