Humboldt County, Nevada

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Humboldt County
Humboldt County
Humboldt County Courthouse in Winnemucca
Map of Nevada highlighting Humboldt County
Location within the U.S. state of Nevada
Map of the United States highlighting Nevada
Nevada's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 41°25′N 118°07′W / 41.41°N 118.12°W / 41.41; -118.12
Country United States
State Nevada
Founded1856; 165 years ago (1856)
Named forHumboldt River
SeatWinnemucca
Largest cityWinnemucca
Area
 • Total9,658 sq mi (25,010 km2)
 • Land9,641 sq mi (24,970 km2)
 • Water17 sq mi (40 km2)  0.2%
Population
 (2010)
 • Total16,528
 • Estimate 
(2019)
16,831
 • Density1.7/sq mi (0.66/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
Congressional district2nd
Websitehcnv.us

Humboldt County is a county in the U.S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,528.[1]A largely rural county and sparsely populated, the only major city is it county seat is Winnemucca which has a population of 7,396.[2] The county also contains land from several major Native American communities including the Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribe and the Winnemucca Indian Colony of Nevada. Humboldt County comprises the Winnemucca, NV Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Largely a region with ranchers and farmers, the county came under increased attention after the 2017 proposal of the Thacker Pass Lithium Mine. The mine has been controversial in both local indigenous and settler communities, and in the national press -- as it would be the first major lithium mine to open in the United States and be important to the local economy but threatens local ecosystems and indigenous heritage sites.[3][4]

History[edit]

Humboldt County is the oldest county in Nevada, created by the Utah Territorial Legislature in 1856. It was also one of Nevada's original nine counties created in 1861. The county is named after the Humboldt River, which was named by John C. Frémont, after Alexander von Humboldt, a German naturalist, traveler and statesman.[5] Humboldt never saw the places that bear his name. Unionville was the first county seat in 1861 until the mining boom died there and it was moved to Winnemucca on the transcontinental railroad line in 1873.

The county was the site of an arrest in 2000 that led to the U.S. Supreme Court decision Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada in 2004.

Humboldt County is referenced in Brandon Flowers' 2015 song "Digging Up The Heart", in which the protagonist meets "Christie, queen of Humboldt County".[6]

Geography[edit]

The Winnemucca Sand Dunes, north of Winnemucca

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 9,658 square miles (25,010 km2), of which 9,641 square miles (24,970 km2) is land and 17 square miles (44 km2) (0.2%) is water.[7] It is Nevada's fourth-largest county by area.

The Santa Rosa Range runs through eastern Humboldt County. The highest point in the county, 9,731-ft (2966 m) Granite Peak, is in the range.[8] The most topographically prominent mountain in Humboldt County is unofficially known as Dan Dobbins Peak and is in the remote Jackson Mountains.

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected areas[edit]

Reservations[edit]

The county includes land that is held by Indian reservations.

Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribe[edit]

The Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation spans the distance of the Nevada–Oregon border, in Humboldt County, Nevada and Malheur County, Oregon,[9] near the Quinn River, which runs east to west through the Tribe's Nevada lands. Just to the east is southwestern Idaho. The Fort McDermitt Military Reservation was established 14 August 1865 at the former site of Quinn River Camp No. 33 and a stagecoach stop, Quinn River Station, in what was a traditional seasonal homeland of the Paiute, Shoshone and Bannock peoples.

The reservation was established with 16,354 acres (66.2 km2) in Nevada and 19,000 acres (76.9 km2) in Oregon, mostly areas of arid land. In October 2016 the federal government put into trust for the tribe approximately 19,094 acres (77.3 km2) acres of Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land in Nevada, in order to expand their reservation and give them a more sustainable base. Gaming is prohibited on these new lands. This was done under the Nevada Native Nations Land Act (PL No: 114-232).[10]

Winnemucca Indian Colony of Nevada[edit]

The Winnemucca Indian Colony of Nevada has a reservation at in Humboldt County, Nevada. The reservation was established on June 18, 1917, and comprises two parcels of land, 20 acres (0.081 km2) enclosed within the urban area of the City of Winnemucca centered on Cinnabar Street, and 320 acres (1.3 km2) of rural land on the southern edge of the city west of Water Canyon Road. In 1990, 17 tribal members lived on the reservation.[11]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
186040
18701,9164,690.0%
18803,48081.6%
18903,434−1.3%
19004,46330.0%
19106,82552.9%
19203,743−45.2%
19303,7951.4%
19404,74325.0%
19504,8382.0%
19605,70818.0%
19706,37511.7%
19809,43448.0%
199012,84436.1%
200016,10625.4%
201016,5282.6%
202017,2854.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2010-2018[1]

2000 census[edit]

At the 2000 census there were 16,106 people in the county, organized into 5733 households, and 4133 families. The population density was 2 people per square mile (1/km2). There were 6,954 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile (0/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 83.21% White, 4.02% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.51% Black or African American, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 8.54% from other races, and 3.09% from two or more races. 18.87%.[16] were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 5,733 households, 40.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.9% were non-families. 22.8% of households were made up of individuals, and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.28.

The age distribution was 31.40% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, and 7.50% who were 65 or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.20 males.

The median household income was $47,147 and the median family income was $52,156. Males had a median income of $44,694 versus $25,917 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,539. 9.70% of the population and 7.70% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 10.40% of those under the age of 18 and 10.80% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Winnemucca State Bank and Trust building is on the National Register of Historic Places.

2010 census[edit]

At the 2010 census, there were 16,528 people, 6,289 households, and 4,316 families in the county.[17] The population density was 1.7 inhabitants per square mile (0.66/km2). There were 7,123 housing units at an average density of 0.7 per square mile (0.27/km2).[18] The racial makeup of the county was 79.0% white, 4.2% American Indian, 0.7% Asian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 12.7% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 24.4% of the population.[17] In terms of ancestry, 15.0% were English, 14.6% were Irish, 14.1% were German, and 5.1% were American.[19]

Of the 6,289 households, 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families, and 25.6% of households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.13. The median age was 36.2 years.[17]

The median household income was $55,656 and the median family income was $69,032. Males had a median income of $56,843 versus $33,531 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,965. About 7.8% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 4.6% of those age 65 or over.[20]

Education[edit]

Wildflowers in Paradise Valley, 2008

Humboldt County School District serves Humboldt County.

Law enforcement[edit]

There have been at least two allegations of abuse of civil forfeiture by Humboldt County Sheriff's deputy Lee Dove. Both cases were won by the civilians in question, albeit at great personal expense.[21]

Politics[edit]

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[22]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2020 75.6% 5,877 21.7% 1,689 2.7% 205
2016 70.3% 4,521 21.6% 1,386 8.2% 526
2012 66.3% 3,810 30.2% 1,737 3.4% 197
2008 63.3% 3,586 33.7% 1,909 3.0% 169
2004 72.6% 3,896 25.4% 1,361 2.1% 110
2000 72.3% 3,638 22.4% 1,128 5.2% 264
1996 50.9% 2,334 32.0% 1,467 17.2% 789
1992 42.7% 1,505 23.0% 810 34.3% 1,208
1988 66.5% 2,378 28.6% 1,024 4.9% 174
1984 72.4% 2,498 25.0% 862 2.6% 90
1980 68.6% 1,950 24.1% 684 7.4% 209
1976 53.4% 1,380 41.6% 1,074 5.1% 131
1972 69.9% 1,659 30.1% 713
1968 51.0% 1,287 35.1% 885 14.0% 353
1964 43.8% 1,106 56.2% 1,421
1960 49.7% 1,157 50.3% 1,173
1956 60.6% 1,292 39.4% 840
1952 66.9% 1,398 33.1% 691
1948 49.2% 901 48.4% 886 2.4% 44
1944 45.7% 835 54.4% 994
1940 36.6% 789 63.4% 1,367
1936 24.4% 390 75.6% 1,210
1932 26.5% 405 73.6% 1,126
1928 56.5% 783 43.5% 602
1924 35.3% 400 21.9% 248 42.8% 485
1920 51.4% 660 41.4% 532 7.2% 92
1916 33.5% 1,004 56.0% 1,681 10.5% 315
1912 11.5% 207 40.0% 719 48.5% 872[23]
1908 40.1% 823 49.1% 1,009 10.8% 222
1904 57.4% 610 33.5% 356 9.0% 96

Economy[edit]

Lithium mine[edit]

The Thacker Pass Lithium Mine is a proposed lithium clay mining development project in Humboldt County, Nevada and in 2017 was the most significant lithium-clay resource discovered in the US.[24] The project is 21 miles (34 km) west-northwest of Orovada, Nevada within the McDermitt Caldera.[24][25] The mine is proposed by Lithium Nevada, LLC - a wholly owned subsidiary of Lithium Americas Corp. The proposed mine would be the first sedimentary lithium resource ever mined. There has been significant exploration of Thacker Pass since 2007, and Record of Decision approving development of Thacker Pass lithium mine was announced in January, 2021.

Development of Thacker Pass lithium mine is driven by increasing demand for lithium used in electric vehicle batteries, but the project has met resistance in the form of legal challenges and direct action.[26] Several indigenous tribes with traditional homeland in the area oppose the project. These tribes have stated that Thacker Pass is a sacred site, a massacre site, and that they were not adequately consulted by the Bureau of Land Management. Opponents of the mine have voiced concerns about rushed environmental review, threats to critical wildlife habitat, disruption of cultural sites, and links between resource extraction and missing and murdered indigenous women. Proponents of the mine have stated that the project is necessary to limit climate change by reducing carbon emissions from American cars, is benign in its social and environmental impact, and will create jobs in rural Nevada. The New York Times reported that controversy around the mine is "emblematic of a fundamental tension" around resource extraction necessary to support the renewable energy transition.

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Communities[edit]

City[edit]

Winnemucca is the sole incorporated city in the county.

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  2. ^ "County Explorer". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Sonner, Scott (July 26, 2021). "Judge denies environmentalists' request to block digging at Thacker Pass lithium mine". Reno Gazette-Journal. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  4. ^ Great Basin Resource Watch (February 26, 2021). "Conservation and Public Accountability Groups File Legal Challenge to the Thacker Pass Lithium Mine" (PDF). Retrieved April 17, 2021.
  5. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 163. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
  6. ^ "Brandon Flowers - Diggin' Up The Heart Lyrics". Directlyrics.com. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  8. ^ "Granite Peak, Nevada". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved October 11, 2014.[self-published source?]
  9. ^ Pritzker 241
  10. ^ "Nevada Native Nations Land Act" Archived 1 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Propublica website; accessed 30 November 2016
  11. ^ Winnemucca Colony Council (March 5, 1971). "Constitution and Bylaws of the Winnemucca Indian Colony Nevada" (pdf). Harrison Loesch, Assistant Secretary of the Interior. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  14. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  16. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  17. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  18. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  19. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  20. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  21. ^ O’Harrow Jr., Robert; Sallah, Michael (September 8, 2014). "They fought the law. Who won?". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  22. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  23. ^ The leading "other" candidate, Progressive Theodore Roosevelt, received 533 votes, while Socialist candidate Eugene Debs received 339 votes.
  24. ^ a b Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D. (2017). Lithium, Chapter K of Critical Mineral Resources of the United States—Economic and Environmental Geology and Prospects for Future Supply (PDF) (Report). United States Geological Survey.
  25. ^ "Public Input Sought for Clay Mine". Reno Gazette-Journal. January 2, 2014.
  26. ^ Stone, Maddie. "The Battle of Thacker Pass". Grist. Retrieved October 23, 2021.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°25′N 118°07′W / 41.41°N 118.12°W / 41.41; -118.12