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FoundedJanuary 22, 1992; 28 years ago (1992-01-22)
HeadquartersDetroit, Michigan, U.S.
(General Motors)

Hummer (stylized as HUMMER) is a brand of trucks and SUVs, first marketed in 1992 when AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 Humvee.[1] In 1998, General Motors (GM) purchased the brand name from AM General and marketed three vehicles: the original Hummer H1, based on the military Humvee, as well as the new H2 and H3 models that were based on smaller, civilian-market GM platforms.

By 2008, Hummer's viability in the economic downturn was being questioned, and it was placed under review by GM management. Rather than being transferred to the Motors Liquidation Company as part of the GM bankruptcy in 2009, the brand was retained by GM, in order to investigate its sale.

In 2009, a Chinese manufacturer, Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company, announced that it would acquire Hummer, pending government approvals, but later withdrew its bid.[2] On February 24, 2010, Reuters reported that the Chinese ministry of commerce had prevented the deal,[3] although a ministry spokesperson denied rejecting the application, which had been stalled for eight months.[4] At the end of February, General Motors announced it would begin dismantling the Hummer brand.[5]

Although the automaker announced two days later that it had been approached with new offers,[6] by April 2010, any sale became unlikely, as inventory was depleted and Hummer dealerships began shutting down.[7] After filling a rental-car fleet order, the last Hummer H3 rolled off the line at Shreveport on May 24, 2010.[8]

The manufacturer of the Hummer H1 and H2, AM General, lost their bid to build the HMMWV's replacement for the U.S. military in 2015, to Oshkosh Corporation.

On January 30, 2020, General Motors released a series of short teaser videos revealing the return of HUMMER.[9] The short spots tease a 30-second Super Bowl ad featuring NBA superstar LeBron James. The teasers confirm the nameplate's return—this time not as a separate brand, but as two models, an electric pickup truck and SUV, to be sold under the GMC brand as the "GMC Hummer EV". According to the teasers, the production EV will feature 1,000 horsepower, hit 60 mph in 3 seconds and is scheduled to launch in fall 2021. While the new HUMMER EV was scheduled to be revealed on May 20, 2020, concerns over the COVID-19 pandemic have forced the revealing to be pushed back to October 20th, 2020. Multiple trims will be available over the next few years.



AM General had planned to sell a civilian version of its Humvee as far back as the late 1980s. Having the same structure and most mechanical components, the civilian Hummers were finished in automotive gloss paint, adding passenger car enhancements such as air conditioning, sound insulation, upgraded upholstery, stereo systems, wood trim, and convenience packages.[10] The civilian model began in part because of the persistence of Arnold Schwarzenegger, who saw an Army convoy while filming Kindergarten Cop in Oregon and began to campaign and lobby for a civilian version to be available on the market.[11]

In 1992, AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 Humvee vehicle to the public under the brand name "Hummer".[12] The first two Hummer H1s to be sold were purchased by Schwarzenegger.

From left: HUMMER H3, H1, and H2
From left: HUMMER H3, H1, and H2

GM purchase[edit]

In December 1999, AM General sold the brand name to General Motors, but continued to manufacture the vehicles.[12] GM was responsible for the marketing and distribution of all civilian Hummers produced by AM General. Shortly thereafter, GM introduced two of its own design models, the H2 and H3, and renamed the original vehicle H1. AM General continued to build the H1 until it was discontinued in 2006,[13] and was contracted by GM to produce the H2. The H3 was built in Shreveport, LA alongside the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon pickups, with which it shared the GMT-355 platform (modified and designated GMT-345). Hummer dealership buildings featured an oversized half Quonset Hut style roof, themed to the Hummer brand's military origins.[14]

By 2006, the Hummer began to be exported and sold through importers and distributors in 33 countries.[15] On October 10, 2006, GM began producing the Hummer H3 at its Port Elizabeth plant in South Africa for international markets.[15] The Hummers built there at first were only left-hand drive, but right-hand drive versions were added and exported to Australia and other markets.

The H2 was also assembled in Kaliningrad, Russia, by Avtotor, starting in 2006 and ending in 2009.[16] The plant produced a few hundred vehicles annually, and its output was limited to local consumption with five dealers in Russia.

On June 3, 2008, one day prior to GM's annual shareholder meeting, Rick Wagoner, GM's CEO at that time, said the brand was being reviewed, and had the possibility of either being sold, having the production line completely redesigned, or being discontinued.[17] This was due to the decreasing demand for large SUVs as a result of higher oil prices. Almost immediately after the announcement, a pair of Indian automakers, including Mahindra & Mahindra, expressed interest in purchasing all or part of Hummer.[18]

In April 2009, GM President Fritz Henderson stated several interested parties had approached GM regarding the Hummer business.[19]

Failed sale[edit]

On June 1, 2009, as a part of the General Motors bankruptcy announcement, the company revealed that the Hummer brand would be discontinued. However, the following day GM announced that instead it had reached a deal to sell the brand to an undisclosed buyer.[20] After GM announced that same day that the sale was to an undisclosed Chinese company,[21] CNN and the New York Times identified the buyer of the Hummer truck unit as China-based Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company Ltd.[20][22][23] Later that day, Sichuan Tengzhong itself announced the deal on their own website.

On January 6, 2010, GM CEO Ed Whitacre said he hoped to close the deal with Tengzhong by the end of that month.[24] On February 1, 2010, it was announced that Sichuan and General Motors had agreed to extend the deadline until the end of February as Sichuan tried to get approval by the Chinese government.[25] It was also revealed that the price tag of the Hummer brand was $150 million.[26]

Later, on February 24, 2010, GM announced the Tengzhong deal had collapsed and the Hummer brand would soon shut down.[27] There were reports that Sichuan Tengzhong might pursue the purchase of the Hummer brand from GM by purchasing it privately through the company's new J&A Tengzhong Fund SPC, a private equity investment fund owned by an offshore entity that was recruiting private investors to buy into its acquisition plan.[28] The financial markets posed problems for established borrowers and even more for Tengzhong, a little-known company from western China, at the same time as the potential value of the Hummer brand continued to decline given high fuel prices and weak consumer demand.[29]

The company announced it was willing to consider offers for all or part of the assets. American company Raser Technologies along with several others expressed interest in buying the company. However, on April 7, 2010, this attempt failed as well, and General Motors officially said it was shutting down the Hummer SUV brand and offering rich rebates in a bid to move the remaining 2,200 vehicles.[30][31]


In mid-2019, rumors began to circulate that General Motors was considering reviving the Hummer nameplate in 2021, as the market for off-road vehicles was reaching historic levels of sales.[32] GM President Mark Ruess was asked about the possible return in the summer of 2019, and said, "I love Hummer. I don't know. We're looking at everything."[32] Credibility to the earlier reporting began to solidify after the conclusion of the 2019 General Motors strike, as contract negotiations led to the commitment by GM of saving its Detroit-Hamtramck facility from closing by investing in and retooling it to build future electric trucks and SUVs; the products were to be built on GM's upcoming "BT1" electric truck platform.[33] GM's own documentation listed three brands as receiving products from the BT1 architecture: Cadillac (presumably an electric Cadillac Escalade), Chevrolet (likely under the Silverado nameplate), and a third unknown brand referred to as the "M-Brand."[33]

Industry insiders claimed they had sources saying that the "M-Brand" was indeed Hummer, as a revival of the brand would make great business sense, with well-established name recognition removing the need for extensive marketing costs. The Hummer revival on the BT1 platform was known internally as "Project O," potentially named after former Chief Camaro Engineer Al Oppenheiser (the man responsible for the return of the Camaro in 2010), who was curiously and abruptly moved from Camaro development to overseeing an EV program sources have claimed to be the Hummer revival project.[34] Oppenheiser later confirmed this himself.[35] By November 2019, prominent automotive industry forecasters, such as AutoForecast Solutions and LMC Automotive, told news outlets that it was all but confirmed that Hummer would return with two electric models, a truck and an SUV, sometime in 2021.[36] GM declined to comment on the matter.[37] On November 21, 2019, General Motors CEO Mary Barra confirmed in a press release that GM would indeed be releasing an electric pickup truck in the fall of 2021, but curiously did not name the brand under which it would be built.[38]

The new Hummer line will not be a stand-alone brand, as it was before General Motors filed for bankruptcy, but instead will be a model within GM's GMC brand. [39] This will allow GM to bypass the pricey constructing of a dealer infrastructure for Hummer, all while capitalizing on the strong GMC brand image.

On January 30, 2020, GM released a series of short teaser videos, finally revealing the official return of Hummer. The short spots tease a 30-second Super Bowl ad featuring NBA superstar LeBron James. The teasers confirm the nameplate's return as an electric SUV and truck sub-brand to be sold under the GMC brand. According to the teasers, the production EV will feature 1,000 horsepower, hit 60 mph in 3 seconds, and be revealed on May 20, 2020 (the date was later pushed back to October 20th, 2020). The GMC Hummer EV, as it will be known, will go head-to-head against upcoming battery-powered rivals like the Tesla CyberTruck, Rivian R1T and Bollinger B1. An electric SUV will follow in 2022, with the pickup truck being called the "Hummer EV SUT," and the SUV being called the "Hummer EV SUV."

The GMC Hummer EV was officially revealed on October 20, 2020.


Hummer H1[edit]

The first vehicle in the Hummer range was the Hummer H1, based on the Humvee. Originally released in 1992, this vehicle was designed by American Motors' AM General subsidiary for the U.S. Military. Five years previously, AMC had been bought by Chrysler.

Hummer H2[edit]

The Hummer H2 was the second vehicle in the Hummer range. There were two variations: The H2 SUV and H2 SUT.

Hummer H3[edit]

The H3 and H3T truck were the smallest of the Hummer models and were based on the GMT355 platform shared with the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon compact pickup trucks.

Concept vehicles[edit]

Hummer HX[edit]

The Hummer HX was developed in 2008 as an open-air, two-door off-road concept car, smaller than other Hummer models.

Plug-in hybrid[edit]

Raser Technologies (formerly of Utah)[40] was to use technology similar to that in the Chevrolet Volt. The company unveiled the prototype to the 2009 Society of Automotive Engineers World Congress in Detroit.[41] The E-REV (Extended-Range Electric Vehicle) powertrain technology, was claimed to power the vehicle for up to 40 miles (64 km) on its battery, and then a small 4-cylinder internal combustion engine would start to generate more electricity.[42]


Rod Hall in the 2005 Baja 1000

Team Hummer Racing was created in 1993. Led by off-road racer Rod Hall, Team Hummer competed in the stock classes of both BitD and SCORE, with specialized racing shock absorbers, tires, and other modifications, along with mandatory safety equipment. Team Hummer stock-class H3 driven by Hall finished first in class with the H3 in the 2005 Baja 1000. Team Hummer earned 11 production-class wins at the Baja 1000.

A highly modified, two-wheel drive Hummer was raced by Robby Gordon in the 2006 (did not finish), 2007 (8th place), 2009 (3rd place), 2010 (8th place), 2011 (did not finish), 2012 (disqualified), and 2013 (14th place) Dakar Rally.

Stretch limousines[edit]

Hummer modified into a limousine

The popularity of the Hummer H2 with the general public created a demand for a stretched limousine version. The Hummer H2 was cut behind the cab and the chassis extended to create a passenger section for 14, 16 or even 22 passengers. The demand initially was for clients in the United States but quickly became popular in the UK and especially Australia. The limousine hire industry have adapted the all terrain vehicle to become a social vehicle to celebrate events. Although not in mass production since 2010, the H2 vehicles are still engineered and modified by private manufacturers worldwide.[citation needed]


  • AM General Hummer H1 Assembly Plant, Mishawaka, Indiana – 500,000-square-foot plant (46,000 m2) opened 1984 to build HMMWV (HUMVEE) and began production of the H1 in 1992. Production ceased 2006, but HMMWV production continues.
  • AM General Hummer H2 Assembly Plant, Mishawaka, Indiana – 673,000-square-foot plant (62,500 m2) opened 2002. H2 production ended 2009. Plant sold to SF Motors, maker of electric vehicles, in 2017.[43]
  • General Motors South Africa Struandale Assembly Plant, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa – built in 1996, expanded to 75,625 square meters (814,000 sq ft) to build H3 models. H3 production ended 2009.
  • General Motors Shreveport Operations, Shreveport, Louisiana – in 2005, to accommodate the production of the H3, an additional 296,000 square feet (27,500 m2) was added to plant built by GM in 1981. In July 2009, GM had shut down Hummer production of the H3, but the automaker had a special fleet order from Avis Rent a Car System.[44]
  • Avtotor Kaliningrad, Russia – licensed version of H2 starting from 2006 and production ended in 2009.


Criticism of Hummers mirrors the criticism of SUVs in general, but to a higher degree. Specific criticisms of Hummers include:

Hummers (specifically the H1 and H2) are significantly bigger than other SUVs, which can cause problems parking, driving and fitting in a garage. Their large size may also pose a serious threat to smaller vehicles and pedestrians.[45]
Poor fuel economy
Even compared to other heavy passenger vehicles, Hummers without the diesel engine options have very poor fuel economy. Because the H2 is built to the over-8500-lb GVW, its fuel economy is neither published by the U.S. EPA nor counted toward Corporate Average Fuel Economy.[46] For example, H2 in one engine configuration averages an estimated 14 mpg‑US (17 L/100 km; 17 mpg‑imp) on the highway and 10 mpg‑US (24 L/100 km; 12 mpg‑imp) in the city.[46] It has a curb weight of around 6,400 lb (2,900 kg).[46]
Crash data for Hummers is less complete than for other SUVs. As a Class 3 truck, the Hummer is exempt from many DOT safety regulations.[47] The H1 lacks standard safety features, including child safety locks, child seat tethers, side airbags, and stability control. Large blind spots make parking difficult and possibly dangerous.[47]
A one-year study, conducted by a firm that provides statistical information to insurance companies, found that drivers of Hummer H2 and H3s receive about five times as many traffic tickets as the national average for all vehicles (standardized based on the number of violations per 100,000 miles driven).[48]


GM is active in licensing the Hummer. Various companies have licensed the Hummer trademarks for use on colognes, flashlights, bicycles, shoes, coats, hats, laptops, toys, clothing, CD players, video games and other items. An electric quadricycle badged as a Hummer was produced in the UK.[49][50]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Marketing: AM General". Forbes. 170. 2002. Retrieved December 7, 2017. 1992: AM General creates the first civilian version of the truck, the $100,000 HUMMER. Arnold Schwarzenegger is among the first buyers.
  2. ^ "Hummer: China isn't buying it either". Los Angeles Times. February 25, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  3. ^ Kim, Soyoung; Bailey, David (February 24, 2010). "GM to shut down HUMMER after China deal fizzles". Reuters. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  4. ^ Ho, Patricia (February 24, 2010). "China Commerce Ministry denies reports it rejected HUMMER deal". MarketWatch. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  5. ^ Ramzy, Austin (February 25, 2010). "A Deal Sours, and the Hummer Bites the Dust". Time. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  6. ^ "GM studying new offers for HUMMER". February 27, 2010. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  7. ^ Meenan, Jim (April 17, 2010). "Hummer's days are dwindling: Sale unlikely; dealerships begin process of winding down". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved February 28, 2010.[dead link]
  8. ^ Roy, Carolyn (May 24, 2010). "Last Hummer rolls off line at Shreveport GM plant". KSLA-TV. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  9. ^ Paukert, Chris. "Hummer's electrifying return teased in GMC Super Bowl trailer". Roadshow. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
  10. ^ Hass, Al (June 20, 1998). "Hummer still a rich man's toy". Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  11. ^ Leamer, Laurence (2006). Fantastic: The Life of Arnold Schwarzenegger. St. Martin's Press. p. 278. ISBN 9781429906364. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Company History". AM General LLC. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
  13. ^ "Page expired – MSN Money". Retrieved September 6, 2010.[dead link]
  14. ^ "Roofing for HUMMER Dealerships". September 17, 2009. Archived from the original on September 24, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
  15. ^ a b GM Media Online, partially archived at GM Inside News Forum (October 10, 2006). "Hummer Sustains Steady, Upward Sales Trend In North America And Overseas". Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  16. ^ "GM's Iconic Military Offroad Vehicle Becomes History". March 26, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  17. ^ Schneider, Howard (June 3, 2008). "GM Closing 4 Truck and SUV Plants in North America". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  18. ^ Keegan, Matt (June 9, 2008). "Indian Automakers Eyeing Hummer?". Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  19. ^ Lassa, Todd (April 17, 2009). "According to Fritz: Hummer Sale Likely Soon; Buick, GMC Profitable". Motor Trend. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  20. ^ a b Bradsher, Keith; Bunkley, Nick (June 3, 2009). "Chinese Company Buying G.M.'s HUMMER Brand". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  21. ^ "Chinese company to buy HUMMER from GM". NBC News. Associated Press. June 24, 2009. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  22. ^ Smith, Aaron (June 2, 2009). "Who bought Hummer? Sichuan Tengzhong of China". CNN. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  23. ^ "Chinese company to buy HUMMER from GM". NBC News. Associated Press. June 24, 2009. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  24. ^ Kim, Soyoung (January 6, 2010). "GM not hopeful on Saab deal, proceeds with closure". Reuters. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  25. ^ "UPDATE 1-Tengzhong agrees with GM to extend Hummer deadline". Reuters. February 1, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  26. ^ "Buyer hopes Tengzhong-Hummer deal done in Spring". Reuters. February 1, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  27. ^ Isidore, Chris (February 24, 2010). "HUMMER to close after collapse of Chinese deal". CNN. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  28. ^ "Tengzhong Seeks Private Equity Solution for HUMMER". The New York Times. February 24, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  29. ^ Bunkley, Nick (February 24, 2010). "G.M. to Close HUMMER After Sale Fails". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  30. ^ Valdes-Dapena, Peter (April 12, 2010). "HUMMER sale: Only 2,200 left". Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  31. ^ Indiviglio, Daniel (April 8, 2010). "Why Isn't GM Selling HUMMER?". The Atlantic com. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  32. ^ a b "An all-electric Hummer is reportedly under consideration at GM". AutoBlog. July 17, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "An electric Hummer comeback? We discuss with an expert". CNET. October 21, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  34. ^ "Electric Hummer, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC Trucks and SUVs Coming". Muscle Cars and Trucks. October 22, 2019. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  35. ^ "Oppenheiser Camaro6 Post on Reborn Hummer". Camaro6 Forums. February 22, 2020. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  36. ^ "Hummer electric pickup truck scheduled to kick off brand's rebirth in 2021". CNET. November 15, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  37. ^ "Hummer electric pickup truck scheduled to kick off brand's rebirth in 2021". CNET. November 15, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  38. ^ "GM's Electric Pickup to Hit Dealer Showrooms in Fall 2021 - CEO". Rueters. November 21, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  39. ^ "GM to Revive Hummer Name On New Electric Pickup Model". Rueters. January 10, 2020. Retrieved January 10, 2020.
  40. ^ Bathon, Michael (April 29, 2011). "Raser Technologies, Renewable Energy Developer, Files for Bankruptcy". Bloomberg. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  41. ^ "Raser Technologies Unveils 100+ MPG Plug-In Hybrid HUMMER at the SAE World Congress in Detroit". Raser Technologies. 2009. Archived from the original on December 30, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  42. ^ "100 MPG HUMMER H3 Plug-In Hybrid to be Unveiled". April 13, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  43. ^
  44. ^ Kreindler, Derek (May 25, 2010). "Hummer H3 Dies An Undignified Death, Last Unit Headed For Rental Car Lot". Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  45. ^ Walczak, Jim (June 11, 2009). "Hummer Cons: The Downsides Of Owning a HUMMER H1 or H2". Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  46. ^ a b c "Road Test: 2003 HUMMER H2: a tweaked Tahoe or the real thing?". Motor Trend. August 2002. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
  47. ^ a b Walczak, Jim (June 11, 2009). "Hummer FAQ – Little Known Facts About HUMMER H1 and H2 Vehicles". Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  48. ^ Travers, Jim (October 6, 2009). "Hummer drivers lead in tickets". Consumer Reports. Archived from the original on August 22, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
  49. ^ "Electric shock: The HUMMER is back". BBC. July 27, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  50. ^ Cupler, Justin (August 30, 2012). "2013 Hummer H3 Electric By Prindiville". Top Speed. Retrieved April 6, 2015.

External links[edit]