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It was established by the Chinese communist general He Long, who had brought his Second Army Group out from the collapsing Hunan-Western Hubei Soviet. The new Soviet was bolstered in October 1934 by units of the Sixth Army Group (formerly the Eastern Hunan Red Army Independent Division) which had fled the collapsing Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet the previous August. The new soviet's combined force was redesignated the Second Front Red Army, He Long commanding.
The Soviet comprised counties which are located in the modern Chinese prefectures of Western Hunan Tujia-nation and Miao-nation Autonomous (湘西恩施土家族苗族自治州), Hunan, Enshi Tujia-nation & Miao-nation Autonomous (恩施土家族苗族自治州), Hubei, and Tongren (铜仁地区), Guizhou and in the modern unemprovinced municipal region of Chongqing. (From 1997 Chongqing has no longer been part of Sichuan Province; the administrative lines of the 1930s Soviet counties Youyang Tujia-nation and Miao-nation Autonomous (酉阳土家族苗族自治县) and Xiushan Tujia-nation and Miao-nation Autonomous (秀山土家族苗族自治县) thus run to Beijing through Chongqing rather than Chengdu).
- Mao Zedong (27 December 1935). "The Characteristics of the Present Political Situation (extracted)". PLA Daily. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Taken from On Tactics Against Japanese Imperalism; republished 14 August 2006.