Hundred Family Surnames

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Hundred Family Surnames
Chinese百家姓
Hanyu PinyinBǎijiā Xìng

The Hundred Family Surnames is a classic Chinese text composed of common Chinese surnames. The book was composed in the early Song dynasty.[1] It originally contained 411 surnames, and was later expanded to 504.[1] Of these, 444 are single-character surnames, and 60 are double-character surnames. About 800 names have been derived from the original ones.[2]

In the dynasties following the Song, the Three Character Classic, the Hundred Family Surnames, and Thousand Character Classic came to be known as San Bai Qian (Three, Hundred, Thousand), from the first character in their titles. They were the almost universal introductory literary texts for students, almost exclusively boys, from elite backgrounds and even for a number of ordinary villagers. Each was available in many versions, printed cheaply, and available to all since they did not become superseded. When a student had memorized all three, he had a knowledge of roughly 2,000 characters. Since Chinese did not use an alphabet, this was an effective, though time-consuming, way of giving a "crash course" in character recognition before going on to understanding texts and writing characters.[3]

The Hundred Family Surnames was translated into Manchu as ᠪᡝ ᡤᡳᠶᠠ ᠰᡳᠩ (Wylie: Pe giya sing, Möllendorff: Be giya sing).

Form[edit]

The work is a rhyming poem in lines of eight characters. The surnames are not listed in order of commonality. According to Song dynasty scholar Wang Mingqing (王明清), the first four surnames listed represent the most important families in the empire at the time:[4]

  • 1st: Zhao () is the surname of the Song dynasty emperors.
  • 2nd: Qian () is the surname of the kings of Wuyue.
  • 3rd: Sun () is the surname of the queen of Wuyue.
  • 4th: Li () is the surname of the kings of Southern Tang.

The next four, Zhou 周, Wu 吳, Zheng 鄭, and Wang 王, were the surnames of the other wives of Qian Chu, the last king of Wuyue.[5]

Complete text[edit]

This text is written in Traditional Chinese.

Zhao Qian Sun Li Zhou Wu Zheng Wang Feng Chen Chu Wei Jiang Shen Han Yang
Zhu Qin You Xu He Shi Zhang Kong Cao Yan Hua Jin Wei Tao Jiang
Qi Xie Zou Yu Bai Shui Dou Zhang Yun Su Pan Ge Xi Fan Peng Lang
Lu Wei Chang Ma Miao Feng Hua Fang Yu Ren Yuan Liu Feng Bao Shi Tang
Fei Lian Cen Xue Lei He Ni Tang Teng Yin Luo Bi Hao Wu An Chang
Yue Yu Shi Fu Pi Bian Qi Kang Wu Yu Yuan Bu Gu Meng Ping Huang
He Mu Xiao Yin Yao Shao Zhan Wang Qi Mao Yu Di Mi Bei Ming Zang
Ji Fu Cheng Dai Tan Song Mao Pang Xiong Ji Shu Qu Xiang Zhu Dong Liang
Du Ruan Lan Min Xi Ji Ma Qiang Jia Lu Lou Wei Jiang Tong Yan Guo
Mei Sheng Lin Diao Zhong Xu Qiu Luo Gao Xia Cai Tian Fan Hu Ling Huo
Yu Wan Zhi Ke Zan Guan Lu Mo Jing Fang Qiu Miao Gan Xie Ying Zong
Ding Xuan Ben Deng Yu Shan Hang Hong Bao Zhu Zuo Shi Cui Ji Niu Gong
Cheng Ji Xing Hua Pei Lu Rong Weng Xun Yang Yu Hui Zhen Qu Jia Feng
Rui 羿Yi Chu Jin Ji Bing Mi Song Jing Duan Fu Wu Wu Jiao Ba Gong
Mu Kui Shan Gu Che Hou Mi Peng Quan Xi Ban Yang Qiu Zhong Yi Gong
Ning Qiu Luan Bao Gan Tou Li Rong Zu Wu Fu Liu Jing Zhan Shu Long
Ye Xing Si Shao Gao Li Ji Bo Yin 宿Su Bai Huai Pu Tai Cong E
Suo Xian Ji Lai Zhuo Lin Tu Meng Chi Qiao Yin Yu Xu Nai Cang Shuang
Wen Shen Dang Zhai Tan Gong Lao Pang Ji Shen Fu Du Ran Zai Li Yong
Xi Qu Sang Gui Pu Niu Shou Tong Bian Hu Yan Ji Jia Pu Shang Nong
Wen Bie Zhuang Yan Chai Qu Yan Chong Mu Lian Ru Xi Huan Ai Yu Rong
Xiang Gu Yi Shen Ge Liao Yu Zhong Ji Ju Heng Bu Du Geng 滿Man Hong
Kuang Guo Wen Kou Guang 祿Lu Que Dong Ou Shu Wo Li Yu Yue Kui Long
Shi Gong She Nie Chao Gou Ao Rong Leng Zi Xin Kan Na Jian Rao Kong
Zeng Wu Sha Nie Yang Ju Xu Feng Chao Guan Kuai Xiang Zha Hou Jing Hong
You Zhu Quan Lu Ge Yi Huan Gong 万俟Moqi 司馬Sima 上官Shangguan 歐陽Ouyang
夏侯Xiahou 諸葛Zhuge 聞人Wenren 東方Dongfang 赫連Helian 皇甫Huangfu 尉遲Yuchi 公羊Gongyang
澹臺Tantai 公冶Gongye 宗政Zongzheng 濮陽Puyang 淳于Chunyu 單于Chanyu 太叔Taishu 申屠Shentu
公孫Gongsun 仲孫Zhongsun 軒轅Xuanyuan 令狐Linghu 鐘離Zhongli 宇文Yuwen 長孫Zhangsun 慕容Murong
鮮于Xianyu 閭丘Lüqiu 司徒Situ 司空Sikong 亓官Qiguan 司寇Sikou Zhang Du 子車Ziju
顓孫Zhuansun 端木Duanmu 巫馬Wuma 公西Gongxi 漆雕Qidiao 樂正Yuezheng 壤駟Rangsi 公良Gongliang
拓拔Tuoba 夾谷Jiagu 宰父Zaifu 穀粱Guliang Jin Chu Yan Fa Ru Yan Tu Qin
段干Duangan 百里Baili 東郭Dongguo 南門Nanmen 呼延Huyan Gui Hai 羊舌Yangshe 微生Weisheng
Yue Shuai Gou Kang Kuang Hou You Qin 梁丘Liangqiu 左丘Zuoqiu 東門Dongmen 西門Ximen
Shang Mou She Nai Bo Shang 南宮Nangong Mo Ha Qiao Da Nian Ai Yang Tong
第五Diwu Yan Fu Bǎi jiā xìng zhōng[6]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b K. S. Tom. [1989] (1989). Echoes from Old China: Life, Legends and Lore of the Middle Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1285-9.
  2. ^ Chen, Janey. [1992] (1992). A Practical English-Chinese Pronouncing Dictionary. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-1877-0
  3. ^ Rawski (1979), pp. 46–48.
  4. ^ "百家姓"排列终有序 姓氏文化有何内涵? (in Chinese). Xinhua. 2006-03-05. Retrieved 2014-11-07.
  5. ^ Chen Danning (2014-09-03). 钱氏修"百家姓"将钱姓排第2位 钱王妃子姓氏靠前 (in Chinese). China News. Retrieved 2014-11-07.
  6. ^ The last four-character line means "thus ends the Hundred Family Surnames." It is not intended to contain surnames.

References[edit]

  • Rawski, Evelyn Sakakida (1979). Education and Popular Literacy in Ch'ing China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08753-3.

External links[edit]