Hungarian Working People's Party

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Hungarian Working People's Party

Magyar Dolgozók Pártja
First leaderMátyás Rákosi
Last leaderJános Kádár
Founded12 June 1948
Dissolved31 October 1956
Merger ofHungarian Communist Party and Social Democratic Party of Hungary
Succeeded byHungarian Socialist Workers' Party
NewspaperSzabad Nép
IdeologyCommunism
Marxism–Leninism
Political positionFar-left
International affiliationCominform
Party flag
Flag of the Hungarian Working People's Party.svg
Unification congress poster

The Hungarian Working People's Party (Hungarian: Magyar Dolgozók Pártja, MDP) was the ruling communist party of Hungary from 1948 to 1956. It was formed by a merger of the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP) and the Hungarian Social Democratic Party.[1] Ostensibly a union of equals, the merger had actually occurred as a result of massive pressure brought to bear on the Social Democrats by both the Hungarian Communists, as well as the Soviet Union. The few independent-minded Social Democrats who had not been sidelined by Communist salami tactics were pushed out in short order after the merger, leaving the party as essentially the MKP under a new name.

Its leader was Mátyás Rákosi until 1956, then Ernő Gerő in the same year for three months, and eventually János Kádár until the party's dissolution. Other minor legal Hungarian political parties were allowed to continue as independent coalition parties until late 1949, but were completely subservient to the MDP.

During the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, the party was reorganised into the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (MSZMP) by a circle of communists around Kádár and Imre Nagy. The new government of Nagy declared to assess the uprising not as counter-revolutionary but as a "great, national and democratic event" and to dissolve State Security Police (ÁVH). Hungary's declaration to become neutral and to exit the Warsaw Pact, caused the second Soviet intervention on 4 November 1956. After 8 November 1956, the MSZMP, under Kádár's leadership, fully supported the Soviet Union.

Chief functionaries of the Hungarian Working People's Party[edit]

First Secretary (titled as General Secretary between 1948 and 1953)

No. Picture Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Position(s) Notes
1 Kommunista politikusok a tribünön fortepan 79084 (profile-4).jpg Mátyás Rákosi
(1892–1971)
12 June 1948 18 July 1956 General Secretary Also Prime Minister (1952–1953)
First Secretary (from 28 June 1953)
2 Gerő Ernő 1955 (cropped).jpg Ernő Gerő
(1898–1980)
18 July 1956 25 October 1956
3 János Kádár (fototeca.iiccr.ro).jpg János Kádár
(1912–1989)
25 October 1956 31 October 1956

Chairman (merely formal post, abolished in 1950)

No. Picture Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Notes
1 Szakasits Árpád 1949.jpg Árpád Szakasits
(1888–1965)
12 June 1948 24 April 1950 Also President (1948–1949) and Chairman of the Presidential Council (1949–1950)

Electoral history[edit]

National Assembly elections[edit]

Election Party leader Votes % Seats +/– Position Government
1949 Mátyás Rákosi as part of HFN
285 / 402
Increase 285 Increase 1st Sole legal party
1953
206 / 298
Decrease 79 Steady 1st Sole legal party

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Neubauer, John, and Borbála Zsuzsanna Török. The Exile and Return of Writers from East-Central Europe: A Compendium. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2009. p. 140