Hurricane Gert (1993)

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Hurricane Gert
Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Gert 20 September 1993.jpg
Hurricane Gert approaching the Mexican coastline
Formed September 14, 1993
Dissipated September 26, 1993
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 105 mph (165 km/h)
Lowest pressure 970 mbar (hPa); 28.64 inHg
Fatalities 116 dead, 16 missing
Damage $170 million (1993 USD)
Areas affected Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, Mexico
Part of the 1993 Atlantic hurricane season,
1993 Pacific hurricane season

Hurricane Gert was a large tropical cyclone that caused extensive flood damage throughout Central America and Mexico in September 1993. The seventh named storm and third hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Gert originated as a tropical depression from a tropical wave over the southwestern Caribbean Sea on September 14. The following day, the cyclone briefly attained tropical storm strength before moving ashore in Nicaragua and proceeding through Honduras. It reorganized into a tropical storm over the Gulf of Honduras on September 17, but weakened back to a depression upon crossing the Yucatán Peninsula. Once over the warm waters of the Bay of Campeche, Gert quickly strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane on September 20. The hurricane made a final landfall on the Gulf Coast of Mexico near Tuxpan, Veracruz, with peak winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). The rugged terrain quickly disrupted the cyclone's structure, and Gert entered the Pacific Ocean as a depression near the state of Nayarit on September 21. There, it briefly redeveloped a few strong thunderstorms before dissipating at sea five days later.

Gert's broad wind circulation produced widespread heavy rainfall across Central America through September 15–17. Combined with saturated soil from Tropical Storm Bret's passage a month earlier, the rain triggered flooding and mudslides in numerous communities. In Costa Rica, the storm destroyed a national park and had a significant impact on the agricultural and tourism sectors. Much of the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua and Honduras was affected, and many cities, villages, and crops in those countries were under water. Although Gert's highest winds occurred upon landfall in Mexico, the worst effects in the country were due to extreme rainfall across the Huasteca region, where as many as 31.41 inches (798 mm) of rain were recorded. Following the overflow of several major rivers, catastrophic flooding submerged extensive areas surrounding the Pánuco basin. Tens of thousands were forced to evacuate, and scores of structures were demolished in what was described as the region's worst disaster in 40 years.

In the wake of the hurricane, the road networks across the affected countries were severely disrupted, hampering relief efforts in many regions. Government and emergency officials opened shelters and distributed food for the thousands that had lost their homes or sources of income. Throughout Central America and Mexico, 116 people were killed and 16 were left missing, while private property, infrastructure, and farmland were left in ruins, leading to over $170 million (1993 USD) in losses.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

A tropical wave—an area of low pressure oriented north to south—moved off the African coast well south of Dakar on September 5, 1993, and tracked rapidly westward across the tropical Atlantic. Positioned at a relatively low latitude, the wave interacted with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, allowing for the enhancement of convection in its vicinity. It developed a weak low-pressure center at sea level, which passed directly over Trinidad on September 11. The majority of the system subsequently moved inland along the northern coast of South America, although it maintained its identity and emerged over the southwestern Caribbean Sea on September 13.[1] Owing to favorable tropospheric conditions aloft, the system began showing signs of development as the deep convection organized into well-defined curved rainbands. Based on the increase in organization and the presence of a surface circulation, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) classified it as a tropical depression at 1800 UTC on September 14, about 105 miles (165 km) north of the northern coast of Panama.[1][2]

The depression retained a large circulation during its formative stages, indicated by both satellite observations and data from rawinsondes in the region.[1] Its cloud pattern continued to coalesce, and the NHC upgraded it to Tropical Storm Gert at 0900 UTC on September 15.[3] After tracking west-northwestward, the center of the storm moved ashore near Bluefields, Nicaragua, around 1800 UTC that day, with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h).[1][4] An interaction with land impeded further development, and Gert weakened back to a tropical depression six hours later. Despite the center being inland for nearly two days, a large part of the circulation stayed over the adjacent Caribbean and Pacific waters. This allowed Gert to remain a tropical cyclone while trekking northwestward through Nicaragua and Honduras,[1] defying the NHC's repeated forecasts of its dissipation over land.[5][6]

Satellite image of Tropical Depression Fourteen-E

The cyclone moved into the Gulf of Honduras on September 17, restrengthening into a tropical storm soon thereafter. That same day, a mid- to upper-level trough over the eastern Gulf of Mexico caused the storm to turn to the north-northwest. Gert's duration over water was short lived; the storm moved back inland near Belize City the next day, granting it minimal opportunity for additional strengthening. Once inland, Gert began to feel the effects of a high-pressure ridge to its northwest, causing the storm to again turn west-northwest.[7] After crossing the Yucatán Peninsula and decreasing in organization,[8] it entered the Bay of Campeche offshore Champotón, Campeche, as a tropical depression late on September 18.[4][7] Gert restrengthened over open waters, as light wind shear allowed its deep convection to consolidate; by 0600 UTC the next day, the cyclone once again became a tropical storm.[9] On September 20, data from a United States Air Force aircraft indicated that the storm had further strengthened into a hurricane with winds of 75 mph (120 km/h). Gert veered toward the west and slowed slightly owing to a shortwave trough to its north,[10] giving it more time to organize over water.[7] The cyclone attained its peak intensity as a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale, with winds of 100 mph (165 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 970 mbar (hPa; 28.64 inHg).[7]

Around 2100 UTC on September 20, Gert made a final landfall at peak intensity on the coast of Mexico, just north of Tuxpan, Veracruz. Inland, the hurricane accelerated and weakened rapidly over the mountainous region of the Sierra Madre Oriental, diminishing to a tropical depression by September 21. Despite the degeneration, the large circulation remained intact as it crossed the country. Gert exited the coast of Nayarit and entered the Pacific Ocean later that day, where the NHC reclassified it as Tropical Depression Fourteen-E.[4][7] The remaining deep convection waxed and waned in intensity; satellite observations indicated the depression could have briefly been a tropical storm on September 22. It continued a west to west-northwestward motion for two days, though low-level flow steered it toward the southwest after the convection diminished. There was no redevelopment due to cool sea temperatures, and the system dissipated at sea on September 26.[11][12]

Preparations[edit]

After confirming the development of a tropical depression, authorities in Costa Rica issued a green alert[nb 1] for coastal regions on September 14.[14] The following day, a tropical storm warning was issued for the Atlantic coast of the country.[15] National television and radio stations broadcast warning messages to the public, and emergency crews were dispatched in case conditions were to warrant intervention. This helped with the effective and timely clearing of hospitals, as well as the evacuation of residents in high-risk zones.[14] A tropical storm warning was posted for the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua on September 15, extending south from Puerto Cabezas to the adjacent islands.[15] In Honduras, early storm warnings allowed several hundred residents to evacuate well ahead of Gert's arrival.[16] Once it became evident that the storm would strike the Yucatán Peninsula, coastal areas from Belize northward to Cozumel, Mexico were placed under a tropical storm warning on September 17 until Gert's landfall the next day.[4][15]

While Gert was still located over the peninsula, the government of Mexico issued a tropical storm watch for the Gulf Coast from the city of Veracruz northward to Soto la Marina, Tamaulipas. By September 18, it had been upgraded to a tropical storm warning and extended southward to Minatitlán, although the initial watch area was placed under a hurricane watch after Gert showed signs of strengthening. The next day, the tropical storm watch from Soto La Marina to Nautla was upgraded to a hurricane warning as it became clearer where Gert would make landfall.[4][15] Prior to impact, several ports along the Gulf Coast halted their operations, and people living in risk zones were evacuated.[17] All warnings and watches were discontinued after the hurricane moved inland.[15]


Casualties by country
Country Deaths Missing
Honduras 27 12
Nicaragua 37 N/A
El Salvador 5 4
Costa Rica 1 0
Guatemala 1 0
Mexico 45 0
Total 116 16

Impact[edit]

Gert was a large tropical cyclone for most of its lifespan; it always remained close enough to the coast to restrengthen and redevelop strong thunderstorms. In consequence, the storm produced heavy rainfall over a large area, causing extensive flooding and mudslides from Central America to Mexico. The disaster resulted in at least 116 deaths and 16 missing persons; damage to roads, property, crops and vegetation surmounted $170 million.[nb 2]

The Manuel Antonio National Park, located in the Central Pacific Conservation Area, suffered great destruction from the storm.

Costa Rica[edit]

Although Gert's center remained off the coast of Costa Rica, its large circulation produced brisk winds and heavy rainfall across the country. A local weather station recorded 13.1 inches (332 mm) of rain during the storm.[18] Geologically, the hardest-hit regions consisted of sedimentary layers with poor hydraulic conductivity and were therefore prone to soil saturation.[19] The initial rainfall rose the levels of many rivers, exacerbating the flood threat. The imminent overflow of the Tempisque River prompted wide-scale evacuations, though the river crested gradually without major consequence. After hours of prolonged rainfall, many Pacific regions such as Quepos, Pérez Zeledón, and Osa experienced flooding and landslides, which inflicted moderate damage to roads and bridges.[14]

The floods ruined about 500 acres (2.0 km2) of banana crop and damaged oil palm plantations. Small-scale farmers of reed, maize, beans, and rice were also affected. The storm disrupted local fishing and wrecked several small boats in Quepos.[20] High winds brought great destruction to about 65 percent of the vegetation in the Manuel Antonio National Park, vastly impacting the tourism-driven economy of Quepos.[19] Gert left moderate property damage in its wake; it destroyed 27 homes and otherwise damaged 659, mostly because of flooding. Overall losses totaled $3.1 million, of which $1.7 million was due to the impaired infrastructure.[21] Roughly 1,000 people sought shelter during the storm. Owing to the timely preparations in the country, only one cardiac arrest fatality was attributable to Gert when a landslide buried a home.[14][22]

Nicaragua[edit]

Moving ashore in Nicaragua a month after Tropical Storm Bret's passage, Gert caused excessive rainfall over already saturated regions.[23] Despite striking the Atlantic coast, the storm produced the largest amounts of precipitation over northern and Pacific coastal areas. A maximum of 17.8 in (452 mm) fell at Corinto; other significant totals include 17.6 in (447 mm) at Chinandega and 17.5 in (444 mm) at León. The capital of Managua recorded 9.8 in (249 mm) of rain during the event.[24] Sustained winds from the storm reached no more than 40 mph (65 km/h) upon landfall near Bluefields,[4] though they downed trees and power lines and generated high waves of up to 12 feet (3.7 m) offshore.[25][26] After weakening to a depression inland, Gert continued to produce moderate gales along its path through the country.[25]

Off the coast near Big Corn Island, rough surf and winds destroyed nine fishing boats. Two canoes with an unknown number of occupants disappeared at sea. Gert produced significant coastal flooding on moving ashore near Bluefields and Tasbapauni, prompting about 1,000 residents and hundreds of indigenous Miskito villagers to evacuate.[25] Farther inland, prolonged heavy rain caused numerous rivers to overflow, which in turn led to disastrous freshwater flooding. A river near Rama rose to 32 ft (10 m) above its normal stage, displacing 3,900 people and leaving about 80 percent of the town submerged. Several communities in the Rivas Department were inundated by discharge from a river near the city of Rivas, while Cárdenas, a coastal community along the border with Costa Rica, endured several days of heavy rain. Throughout the Boaco Department, similar flooding killed five people and affected 6,000 others.[27] Landslides moved onto bridges and roads, disrupting local transportation.[23] Gert destroyed at least 252 houses and damaged another 293 across 14 of the country's departments.[23] Moreover, the storm was responsible for considerable infrastructural damage and economic losses.[27] As many as 123,000 people were affected throughout Nicaragua, and there were 37 confirmed fatalities.[28] Since flooding from Tropical Storm Bret had occurred just one month earlier, an exclusive damage estimate for Gert is unavailable. The two storms inflicted a combined $10.7 million in losses, primarily to private property.[29]

Honduras[edit]

Surface weather analysis map of Gert as a tropical depression, located inland near the Honduras–Nicaragua border

Although it had weakened to a depression, Gert continued to drop significant rainfall while crossing Honduras. In Tegucigalpa, at least 6.77 in (172 mm) of rain were recorded.[30] Destructive floods swept through 13 of the country's 18 departments, including much of northern Honduras and the Mosquitia Region, which had already suffered losses from Tropical Storm Bret in the previous month. The additional flooding from Gert affected 24,000 people in the region and made communication with surrounding areas nearly impossible.[16] Elsewhere, the rain filled several major rivers, including the Ulúa;[31] rivers across Sula Valley in particular had their banks destroyed, flooding much of San Pedro Sula—the country's second-largest city—and adjacent municipalities in the Cortés Department. The rising water prompted many residents to evacuate, and the Ramón Villeda Morales International Airport halted all of its operations.[16]

The storm devastated Puerto Cortés, one of the most important port cities in Central America.[32] Elsewhere in the Cortés Department, a river in Choloma overflowed and triggered widespread flooding;[31] landslides in that area claimed the lives of six people.[33] The country's agriculture was devastated, losing about 5,700 acres (23 km2) of low-lying farmland with banana, sugar, and citrus crops.[16][34] In all, Gert wrought $10 million worth of damage to roads, bridges, and property.[30] The disaster affected 67,447 people, of which roughly 60 percent had to evacuate their homes. In its final public statement, the government of Honduras confirmed 27 deaths, though 12 missing persons remain unaccounted for.[16]

Elsewhere in Central America[edit]

While passing through Central America, Gert generated an increase in cloudiness and showers across El Salvador,[35] with a maximum 15.35 in (390 mm) of rain recorded.[36] Strong winds uprooted trees or snapped their limbs, damaging power lines and knocking out power. In one community, mudslides destroyed a major highway.[26] The Río Grande de San Miguel caused an excessive discharge of water just southwest of Usulután,[35] washing out about 2,500 acres (10 km2) of crops from adjacent plantations. Several other areas faced significant losses from the flooding, including San Marcos and San Vicente; some property and road damage occurred in San Miguel.[26] Although fishing operations were suspended at the height the storm, four Salvadorean fishermen disappeared at sea.[35] Overall, Gert affected nearly 8,000 residents and destroyed twelve homes in El Salvador;[26][35] officials there confirmed five drowning deaths related to the storm.[35]

In Guatemala, torrential rains from Gert affected approximately 20,000 people and killed one girl. The agricultural sector in the country suffered substantial losses from the flooding, though there were no specific reports of material damage.[26] Gert moved ashore near Belize City as a minimal tropical storm, dropping rainfall in coastal areas. Just offshore, a weather station on Hunting Caye recorded 9.5 in (241 mm) during the event.[37] Despite the rain, only minor flooding occurred in Belize City.[38]

Mexico[edit]

While crossing the Yucatán Peninsula, Gert dropped considerable rainfall in Quintana Roo; a 24-hour accumulation of 7.4 in (188 mm) was recorded at Chetumal, although higher localized totals of around 15 in (380 mm) fell elsewhere in the state.[12][30] Gusty winds briefly buffeted the coast during the storm's landfall, with a maximum wind speed of 44 mph (70 km/h) recorded in Chetumal.[7] Its effects were limited to localized floods, however, which cut off one road to traffic and forced the inhabitants from low-lying areas in Chetumal and Felipe Carrillo Puerto to evacuate to higher ground.[39] Scattered showers also caused light flooding in parts of the state of Campeche, including Ciudad del Carmen.[40]

Rainfall from Gert across Mexico, showing high values concentrated in the Huasteca region

Upon Gert's final landfall, high gales and waves battered wide stretches of coastline in the states of Tamaulipas and Veracruz, though hurricane-force winds were largely confined to areas within the cyclone's southern eyewall.[30][41] Tuxpan, just south of where the eye moved ashore,[7] recorded wind velocities of more than 100 mph (160 km/h), while 80 mph (130 km/h) gusts occurred farther south in Poza Rica. To the north, winds reached 55 mph (90 km/h) in Tampico, Tamaulipas. Despite the severity of the winds, the worst of Gert was due to orographic lift when its broad circulation interacted with the eastern side of the Sierra Madre Oriental, generating extreme precipitation over much of the Huasteca region.[30] As many as 31.41 in (798 mm) of rain were recorded in Aquismón, San Luis Potosí, while Tempoal in Veracruz observed a 24-hour total of 13.35 in (339 mm) from the storm.[12][30]

The first signs of damage were from high winds on September 20, which uprooted trees and tore off residential roofs in Tuxpan, Naranjos, Cerro Azul, and Poza Rica.[42] Following Gert's extreme rains, catastrophic flooding struck Mexico's Huasteca region over a period of several days as many of its rivers rose to critical levels. Initially, in Veracruz, the imminent overflow of the Tempoal, Moctezuma, and Calabozo rivers forced thousands of residents from the municipalities of Tempoal, El Higo, and Platón Sánchez to leave their homes. The Calabozo River eventually topped its banks, cutting the village of Platón Sánchez off from the outside world. By far the most devastating, however, was the overflow of the Pánuco River on September 24, which runs from the Valley of Mexico through the municipality of Pánuco and empties in the gulf. Rushing water swept through 30 of Veracruz's 212 municipalities, completely submerging more than 5,000 homes. El Higo bore the brunt of the flooding, with 90 percent of its residential area under water.[43]

After days of continued downpours in Gert's wake, the Pánuco River rose to 27.60 ft (8.72 m) above normal by September 27—its highest level in 40 years. Once again exceeding its banks, the river destroyed a major levee in city of Pánuco and forced 8,000 residents to evacuate.[43][44] Disastrous flooding reached as far north as southern Tamaulipas, where 5,000 people had to seek refuge. Half of Tampico was coated in deep layers of mud, with scores of structures demolished.[45] The urban areas of Madero and Altamira were also hard hit by the deluge.[46] Roughly 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) of land around the Pánuco basin and Tampico were under water, including vast amounts of citrus, coffee, corn, maiz, bean, grain, and soy crops. Telephone, water, and electricity services throughout the region were severely disrupted, and numerous communities were isolated due to broken bridges and roads.[43][45]

In San Luis Potosí, water damage to schools, bridges, and roads was particularly widespread. The agricultural sector suffered heavy losses when the flooding washed away large amounts of livestock and roughly 80 percent of its crops. Throughout the state, 55,000 residents were affected by the storm, and 25 people lost their lives.[47] Gert's trail of destruction extended as far inland as Hidalgo, where 35 rivers overtopped their banks. Floods and mudslides destroyed 38 bridges and 86 roads, as well cutting off power, telephone, and water services, disrupting communication in 361 localities. Property damage in Hidalgo was significant; 4,425 homes, 121 schools, and 49 public buildings were compromised across 35 municipalities. About 167,000 acres (680 km2) of farmland were destroyed in the storm. Fifteen deaths occurred in the state, and eight people sustained injuries.[47]

Overall, Gert became the worst natural disaster to strike the region in 40 years;[43] it displaced 203,500 people—many in need of shelter—and left 29,075 houses damaged or destroyed across Mexico.[30][45] More than 667,000 acres (2,700 km2) of crops were in ruins.[43] The associated losses totaled $156 million, and the death toll stood at 45.[30][45]

Aftermath[edit]

Central America[edit]

Because of the storm's impact on the country, the government of Costa Rica declared a national emergency on September 16, 1993.[19] Emergency crews were dispatched to assess the damage and distribute life supplies to the affected population, including 90,940 lbs (41,250 kg) of food, 1,422 mattresses, and 1,350 blankets.[14] With much of the road network left disrupted across the affected regions, the country's agriculture, tourism, and commerce suffered considerable losses.[20] In particular, the obstruction of the major Pan-American Highway, which connects the central region to the south of the country, had a discernible impact on the local economy. Following the expansive flooding of farmland, many independent crop producers were unable to partake in subsequent sowings.[20]

Prior to Gert, a state of emergency was in effect for Nicaragua as a result of Tropical Storm Bret. National and regional aid agencies, including the Red Cross, accordingly extended their relief efforts with the passage of Gert. Although the government did not reappeal for international assistance, several monetary contributions were made by overseas organizations; a transfer channel for cash donations was opened at the Swiss Bank Corporation. The United Nations Development Programme provided $50,000 for the purchase of fuel, and UNICEF distributed $25,000 worth of household supplies and medicine. The World Food Programme donated approximately 160,000 lbs (72 tonnes) of food supply and offered expert services in response to the disaster. The federal governments of Japan, Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, and Spain donated a combined $300,000 in aid.[23]

On September 18, the President of Honduras declared a state of emergency for several municipalities after surveying the affected regions by helicopter. The governments of Japan, Canada, Germany, and the United Kingdom provided a combined $310,300 for the purchase of relief items. Although most storm victims received aid within a few days, the deteriorated road network caused a large delay in relief efforts to the hard-hit Mosquitia region. Sewage systems and waterworks countrywide were in serious need of restoration.[16] With the destruction of its sole water reservoir, much of Puerto Cortés endured potable water shortages for months in Gert's wake.[32] Public health concerns rose in the wake of Gert, with the cost of required medicines pinned at $208,000.[16] A contamination of the water supplies in rural areas exacerbated a cholera outbreak.[48] By September 28, about 27,000 residents unable to reenter their flooded homes remained in government shelters. Seven weeks later, a temporary housing project was implemented for the 120 families most in need. Approximately 5,900 families across Honduras lost their source of income due to the storm.[16]

Mexico[edit]

In response to the flood disaster, the Red Cross immediately began distributing aid to victims across the Huasteca region. After assessing the situation by helicopter, the President of Mexico declared the Pánuco river basin an emergency zone and ordered search and rescue missions.[45][46] Many homes sustained irreparable damage to their roofs, leaving tens of thousands homeless. The government appealed for international aid, seeking clothes, food, and medical supplies.[45] Five storage centers in Hidalgo provided more than 93 million lbs (42,000 tonnes) of food supplies. Throughout San Luis Potosí, 142,000 lbs (64 tonnes) of chicken, 45,000 pantries, and 76,000 disposable plates were distributed, as well as 50,440 blankets and 6,081 airbeds.[47] Several schools served as shelters for the homeless;[47] the sheltered elderly, children, and pregnant or nursing women received $27,000 worth of milk powder donations.[45]

In the wake of Gert, the amount of respiratory disease and skin infection cases rose slightly, although the overall health situation for the country remained well under control. By two weeks after the hurricane, over 65,000 people across the region had been accommodated in the shelters; most of them remained there until the flood waters receded. A grant of $22,000 was made available for the purchase of roofing sheets for those in urgent need of home repair. The president approved $37.4 million for the reconstruction of roads and housing and the assistance of affected farmers.[45]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Latin American hurricane alert system uses the colors blue, green, yellow, orange, and red to denote the scale of danger; blue indicates the lowest threat and red the greatest.[13]
  2. ^ All damage figures in the article are in 1993 United States dollars (USD).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Pasch, Richard J. (1993-11-10). Preliminary Report: Hurricane Gert, 14–21 September 1993 (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  2. ^ Pasch, Richard J. (1993-09-14). Tropical Depression Eight Discussion One (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  3. ^ Pasch, Richard J. (1993-09-15). Tropical Storm Gert Discussion Three (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Pasch, Richard J. (1993-11-10). "Table 1: Preliminary best track: Hurricane Gert, 14–21 September 1993". Preliminary Report: Hurricane Gert, 14–21 September 1993 (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  5. ^ Pasch, Richard J. (1993-10-15). Tropical Depression Gert Discussion Five (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  6. ^ Pasch, Richard J. (1993-10-16). Tropical Depression Gert Discussion Nine (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Pasch, Richard J. (1993-11-10). Preliminary Report: Hurricane Gert, 14-21 September 1993 (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. p. 2. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  8. ^ Lawrence, Miles B. (1993-10-18). Tropical Depression Gert Discussion Sixteen (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  9. ^ Mayfield, Max (1993-09-19). Tropical Storm Gert Discussion Nineteen (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-10-04. 
  10. ^ Mayfield, Max (1993-09-23). Hurricane Gert Discussion Twenty-Three (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  11. ^ Rappaport, Edward N. (1993-09-29). Preliminary Report: Tropical Depression Fourteen-E, 21–26 September 1993 (Report). Tropical Depression Fourteen-E, Hurricane Wallet Digital Archives. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-10-04. 
  12. ^ a b c Roth, David M. (2010-05-10). Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Data. Camp Springs, Maryland: Weather Prediction Center. section "Hurricane Gert/T.D. #14E – September 14–28, 1993". Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  13. ^ "Sistema de Alerta Temprana para Ciclones Tropicales" (PDF) (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: Secretaría de Gobernación. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-08-24. Retrieved 2011-11-14. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Parte A: Informe de operaciónes: Tormenta Gert" (PDF). Plan regulador para la reconstrucción de las zonas afectadas por la Tormenta Tropical Gert (in Spanish). San José, Costa Rica: Comisión Nacional de Emergencias. September 1993. section 3, part A, pp. 2, 3, 7, [9], [15]. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  15. ^ a b c d e Pasch, Richard J. (1993-11-19). "Table 3: Watch and warning summary, Hurricane Gert". Preliminary Report: Hurricane Gert, 14–21 September 1993 (Report). Storm Wallet for Hurricane Gert, 1993. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Honduras: Floods Sep 1993 – UN DHA Situation Reports 1–4. ReliefWeb (Report) (Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs). September 1993. Retrieved 2011-10-10. 
  17. ^ Gutiérrez, Prisciliano H.; Jiménez, Elias M.; de la Fuente, Rigoberto M.; Mendiola, Rubén Dario S. (December 1993). Las inundaciones causadas por el huracán "Gert" sus efectos en Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas y Veracruz (Pamphlet) (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres; archived by Centro Regional de Información sobre Desastres para América Latina y el Caribe. p. 12. Retrieved 2015-09-24. 
  18. ^ Fallas, Jorge; Valverde, Carmen (2007). Aplicación de ENOS como indicador de cambios en la precipitación máxima diaria en la cuenca del río Pejibaye y su impacto en inundaciones (PDF). III Congreso Iberoamericano Sobre Desarrollo Y Ambiente 5–9 de noviembre 2007 (in Spanish). Heredia, Costa Rica: Universidad Nacional. p. [20]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-07. Retrieved 2011-10-08. 
  19. ^ a b c "Plan regulador: Tormenta tropical Gert" (PDF). Plan regulador para la reconstrucción de las zonas afectadas por la Tormenta Tropical Gert (in Spanish). San José, Costa Rica: Comisión Nacional de Emergencias. September 1993. section 1, pp. 2–5. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  20. ^ a b c "Tormenta Tropical Gert: Resumen Ejecutivo" (PDF). Plan regulador para la reconstrucción de las zonas afectadas por la Tormenta Tropical Gert (in Spanish). San José, Costa Rica: Comisión Nacional de Emergencias. September 1993. section 2, p. [5]. Retrieved 2011-10-10. 
  21. ^ "Informe final de operaciónes: Tormenta Gert" (PDF). Plan regulador para la reconstrucción de las zonas afectadas por la Tormenta Tropical Gert (in Spanish). San José, Costa Rica: Comisión Nacional de Emergencias. September 1993. section 4, pp. 4, 13. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  22. ^ "Storm hits two nations". Sun-Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale, Florida). 1993-09-17. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  23. ^ a b c d Nicaragua: Tropical Storm Aug 1993 – UN DHA Situation Reports 1–8. ReliefWeb (Report) (Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs). 1993-09-17. Retrieved 2015-09-24. 
  24. ^ Nicaragua: Assessment of the damage caused by Hurricane Mitch, 1998: Implications for economic and social development and for the environment (PDF) (Report). Santiago, Chile: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 1999-04-19. p. 12. LC/MEX/L.372. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
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