Hurricane Luis

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Hurricane Luis
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Luis September 3 1995 1645Z.png
Hurricane Luis near peak intensity east of the Lesser Antilles on September 3, 1995
FormedAugust 28, 1995
DissipatedSeptember 12, 1995
(Extratropical after September 11)
Highest winds1-minute sustained: 150 mph (240 km/h)
Lowest pressure935 mbar (hPa); 27.61 inHg
Fatalities19 total
Damage$3.3 billion (1995 USD)
Areas affectedLeeward Islands (Antigua and Barbuda, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Kitts and Nevis, Sint Eustatius, Saba, St. Barthelemy, St. Martin and Anguilla), Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Bermuda, parts of the Northeastern USA, Newfoundland
Part of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Luis was a long lived and powerful Category 4 hurricane. It was the strongest hurricane to make landfall, and the third-most intense hurricane recorded during the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm, along with Humberto, Iris, and Karen, was one of four simultaneous tropical systems in the Atlantic basin.

Luis caused extensive damage to Antigua, St. Barthelemy, the island of St. Martin, Anguilla, and Bermuda. The storm accounted for 19 confirmed deaths, left nearly 20,000 homeless (mostly in Anguilla, Barbuda, and St. Martin), and affected more than 70,000 people. Total damage was estimated at $3.3 billion (1995 USD) across the affected areas.

Earlier Category 4 storms that impacted the Leeward Islands in the 20th century include Hurricane Dog in 1950, Hurricane Donna in 1960, Hurricane David in 1979, and Hurricane Hugo in 1989. Luis was the second of three tropical cyclones to affect Guadeloupe in a short period; Hurricane Iris had hit a week before, and Hurricane Marilyn only 10 days after. After Hurricane Luis, the Leeward Islands were struck by Hurricane Bertha, Hortense, Erika, Georges, Jose, Lenny, and Debby.

The system formed from a tropical wave, south of Cape Verde islands west of Africa, on August 27, and attained tropical storm status on August 29. The storm reached hurricane status on August 31 and later developed into a 140 mph (230 km/h) Category 4 hurricane.[1] Luis affected the Leeward Islands at this strength from September 4 to September 6. By the time Luis made landfall on Newfoundland, it had shrunk to a Category 1 hurricane and then became extratropical on September 11.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On August 26, 1995, an area of disturbed weather associated with a tropical wave emerged over the eastern Atlantic Ocean, between the western coast of Africa and the Cape Verde Islands. A low-level circulation center formed and moved westward until it developed a weak surface low on August 27, and at around 1200 UTC on August 27, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) designated the system as Tropical Depression Thirteen. 36 hours later, on August 29, the NHC reclassified the event as Tropical Storm Luis. Although convective activity fluctuated over the next two days as the result of a nearby wind shear, the storm continued to intensify as pressure rose. When the wind shear relented, an eye began to form, and the system attained hurricane status on August 31. It was classified as a Category 3 major hurricane 18 hours later.[1]

Tropical Storms Karen (left) and Luis (right) on August 29

As it tracked north-northwestward, Hurricane Luis continued to strengthen, and became a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale on September 2. As it turned further westward, the cyclone maintained a rectilinear slow motion, and the intensity was confirmed by a reconnaissance flight on September 3. At the time of the flight, Luis was located approximately 540 miles (870 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. The storm began to accelerate slightly as it moved along a subtropical ridge, due to the absorption of Tropical Storm Karen by the stronger Iris.[1]

By the time that it approached the Lesser Antilles on September 4, Luis had sustained a wind field measuring from 345 to 365 miles (555 to 587 km) in diameter. On the morning of September 5, the islands of Dominica and Guadeloupe, which experienced hurricane-force winds on the northeastern coast of Grande-Terre and La Désirade, had been relatively spared by the storm. The eyewall of the hurricane, however, skimmed Antigua and directly passed over Barbuda as it slowly weakened. During this time, the storm proceeded slowly northwestward, causing moderate damage to Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Sint Eustatius, and Saba. Later, Luis moved along St. Barthelemy, St. Martin, and ultimately crosed Anguilla, where the most powerful winds within the eyewall were estimated to have reached 135 mph (217 km/h), and its central pressure had dropped from 945 to 942 mbar (27.9 to 27.8 inHg).[1]

Luis maintained its Category 4 intensity until September 7, when it was situated approximately 150 mi (240 km) north of Puerto Rico. After seven consecutive days as a major hurricane with maximum sustained winds of at least 115 mph (185 km/h) beginning on September 1, the storm gradually re-curved over the northern Atlantic as a Category 2 hurricane, its wind speed dropping to 110 mph (180 km/h).[2] On September 9, the center of the storm passed 200 miles (320 km) to the west of Bermuda, causing minor damage.[1] Later that day, the storm began to accelerate as it traveled northeast, ahead of a strong trough located to the northwest of Luis.[3] On the afternoon of September 10, Luis began to undergo an extratropical transition as it rapidly approached the Canadian coastline.[4] Due to the rapid movement of the setorm, significant weakening did not occur until Luis was at an unusually high latitude. The NHC reported that the central pressure of the storm decreased to 961 mbar (28.4 inHg), and sustained winds did not exceed 90 mph (140 km/h).[1][5]

Luis maintained this intensity until September 11, when it reached the Avalon Peninsula in eastern Newfoundland,[1][6] where cold, dry air became entrenched in its circulation, and the system began to merge with the approaching trough. The NHC issued their final advisory on Hurricane Luis at 0900 UTC on September 11, 1995. The hurricane sped at nearly 65 mph (105 km/h) to the northeast before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone.[1][7] The extratropical remains persisted for 30 more hours over the North Atlantic Ocean before being absorbed by the trough near the southern coast of Greenland late on September 12.[1]

Preparations[edit]

Hurricane Luis on September 6 to the north of the Leeward Islands

Three days before passing over the northern Lesser Antilles, Luis became a Category 4 hurricane and was forecasted to avoid areas well to the north, following the path set by Humberto and Karen. However, as Karen neared Iris, it was weakened and absorbed by the stronger storm. This, and the nearby subtropical ridge, ended up steering Luis to the west.

Caribbean[edit]

Due to its slow motion, Luis allowed local officials ample time to prepare. Before the storm's arrival, a total of 17 tropical cyclone watches and warnings were declared in several areas throughout the Caribbean. Over the course of September 3, Antigua, Barbuda, Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Martin, Saba, St. Eustatius, Dominica, Guadeloupe, and St. Barthelemy were placed under hurricane watch. At 0000 UTC on September 4, this was upgraded to a hurricane warning for the region from Antigua to St. Martin, and a tropical storm warning for Dominica and Guadeloupe. Six hours later, the British and United States Virgin Islands, as well as Puerto Rico, were placed under hurricane watch. By 2100 UTC, those regions had been upgraded to warning, as well as St. Barthelemy, St. Martin, and Dominica, with Saint Lucia and Martinique under a tropical storm warning.[1]

At 1200 UTC on September 5, the tropical storm warning for St. Lucia was discontinued, and nine hours later, Dominica was downgraded to a tropical storm warning. Throughout September 6-8, all warnings were either downgraded or discontinued. Bermuda was placed under tropical storm watch at 2100 UTC on September 7. This watch was upgraded to a warning at 1500 UTC the next day, and discontinued at 0900 UTC on the 10th.[1]

Canada[edit]

The Canadian Hurricane Centre began issuing advisories on the morning of September 8, about 48 hours before Luis' entry into the center's coverage area, as the storm's trajectory began to curve east of Florida. The Maritimes center of the Meteorological Service of Canada issued warnings for the affected areas as early as September 9, 36 hours before the arrival of the storm.[8]

Impact[edit]

Impact by country or region
County/Region Deaths Damage Source
Antigua and Barbuda 3 $350 million [1]
Guadeloupe 1 $50 million [1][9]
Dominica 2 $47 million [1][10]
Montserrat 0 $20 million [9]
Saint Kitts and Nevis 0 $197 million [1]
Saint Martin 1 >$350 million [1]
Sint Maarten 8 $1.8 billion [1]
Puerto Rico 2 $200 million [1][9]
United States 1 $1.9 million [11][12]
Virgin Islands 0 $300 million [9]
Newfoundland 1 $0.5 million [1]
Total 19 ~$3.3 billion

Leeward Islands[edit]

Overall, the powerful winds and heavy rainfall caused by Luis caused extensive crop and property damage across the Leeward Islands. Due to a lack of reports from some affected areas, the exact amount of damage caused by the storm is unknown, but it is estimated at about $3 billion USD.

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]

As a result of a direct hit from the Category 4 hurricane, Barbuda experienced 135 mph (217 km/h) and over 10 inches (25 cm) of rain, contributing to very extensive damage. According to Prime Minister Lester Bird, most houses were damaged or eradicated at 70% in Barbuda,[13] and nearly 45% of the residences on Antigua were damaged or destroyed by the hurricane as it passed near 30 miles (48 km) to the north of the island.[1] Across the islands, numerous inhabitants experienced power outages and disrupted water systems. The storm ultimately accounted for three deaths, and injured 165 locals. 32,000 inhabitants on both islands were greatly affected, with 1,700 forced to take shelter, and approximately 3,000 left homeless. A United States station on Antigua lost its wind recording equipment when gusts reached 146 mph (235 km/h) and minimum pressure at 971 mbar (28.7 inHg), while an amateur radio reported an unconfirmed gust of 175 mph (282 km/h) in Barbuda. Throughout the country, the total damage from the storm was estimated at $350 million, or 60% of the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), with most of the damage on Barbuda.[14]

Guadeloupe[edit]

Luis caused some damage as it passed near 65 miles (105 km) north of Guadeloupe, predominantly to Grande-Terre. Hurricane-force conditions resulted in moderate damage to homes and roofs, uprooted trees, and severe beach erosion.[citation needed] The Basse-Terre region, meanwhile, received minor damage, except to banana crops that were damaged at nearly 90%, and sugar cane crops on the north at nearly 20%. Overall, 5 to 11 inches (13 to 28 cm) of rain were recorded in the islands, while the mountain regions recorded up to 20 inches (51 cm). The highest rainfall within the 48-hour period was in La Grande Soufrière, where 22.91 inches (58.2 cm) of rain damaged the west coast roads and washed away houses.[15]

The meteorological office in Raizet recorded sustained winds of 48 mph (77 km/h), with gusts that reached near 65 mph (105 km/h). The office also reported a fall in minimal pressure to 994 mbar (29.4 inHg) between 3 and 4am on September 5, and a total of 178 millimetres (7.0 in) of rain across the whole period. Only Desirade, the easternmost island, recorded hurricane-force winds of 75 mph (121 km/h), and a sustained gust at 89 mph (143 km/h) between 3 and 4am on September 5,[1] with a 992 mbar (29.3 inHg) pressure. The storm claimed the life of a 19-year-old French tourist, who had been dragged away by vigorous waves on a pier in eastern Saint-François. The total damage was estimated at 250 million francs ($50 million USD), mostly for the crops and roads.[16]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Guadeloupe
Highest-known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref.
Rank mm in
1 582 22.91 Luis 1995 Dent de l'est (Soufrière)
2 508 20.00 Marilyn 1995 Saint-Claude [17]
3 466 18.35 Lenny 1999 Gendarmerie [18]
4 389 15.31 Hugo 1989
5 318 12.52 Hortense 1996 Maison du Volcan [19]
6 300 11.81 Jeanne 2004 [20]
7 223.3 8.79 Cleo 1964 Deshaies [17]
8 200 7.87 Erika 2009 [21]
9 165.3 6.51 Earl 2010 Sainte-Rose (Viard) [22]
10 53.6 2.11 Edith 1963 Basse Terre [17]

St. Barthelemy[edit]

The islands suffered extensive damages from 135 mph (217 km/h) winds as the hurricane passed at least 20 miles (32 km) north of Saint Barthelemy. The main weather station recorded wind gust at 100 mph (160 km/h) before the anemometer broke, while other stations suggest wind speeds of 125 mph (201 km/h) and gusts of up to 155 mph (249 km/h).[1] This difference in measurement may be due to local effects produced by mountainous terrain on the island and the aircraft sampling winds at a level above the region of maximum winds. Additionally, minimal recorded pressure was at 948 mbar (28.0 inHg) as the storm made its closest approach and stayed below 1,000 mbar (30 inHg) for at least 24 hours.[23]

St. Martin[edit]

The eyewall of Luis passed 15 to 20 miles (24 to 32 km) northeast of the island of St. Martin, causing extensive and catastrophic damage to 60% of the area, particularly on the Dutch side. A total of 6.5 in (17 cm) of rain was recorded on the island's territory over a period of 48 hours, and the storm spawned several F3 tornadoes.

French Collectivity[edit]

In Grand Case Bay, rough sea conditions and strong winds were responsible for the damage or destruction of 90% of homes. Other towns, such as the French Quarter and Marigot, also reported extensive damage to homes and vegetation. At least 50% of houses in the Collectivity of Saint Martin were damaged, leaving between 950 to 2,000 residents homeless.

The meteorological office at the Grand Case-Espérance Airport estimated some wind gusts of over 130 mph (210 km/h), while an unofficial anemometer in the port of Marigot recorded wind gusts at 126 mph (203 km/h) before the instrument was toppled. One person was reported dead, and, due to lack of insurances, the preliminary cost of Luis on the French Collectivity was 2 billion francs (€300 million euro, or $350 billion USD) worth of damage.

Sint Maarten[edit]

The southern part of the island, the Dutch-owned Sint Maarten, received more catastrophic damage than the northern French end. The strongest winds came onshore on the Dutch side, and the capital city of Philipsburg was at least 70% decimated by the storm. Flooding from Luis affected the Great Salt Pond, which deluged several streets.

Of the 70% of residences that were damaged in the storm, nearly 15% became uninhabitable, including businesses, churches, the main airport terminal, some schools, and four hotels. Over 5,000 Haitians living in the Dutch quarter were left homeless, while some towns on the island spent nearly three months without water and power. Of the 1,500 boats sheltered in Simpson Bay Lagoon, nearly 1,300—or 85%—were sunken or run aground. The official death toll in Sint Maarten was eight, with the possibility of more deaths by drowning in the lagoon.

Princess Juliana Airport recorded sustained winds of 87 mph (140 km/h), with maximum gusts of up to 114 mph (183 km/h). The barometric pressure fell, at its lowest, between 963 to 964 mbar (28.4 to 28.5 inHg). Tropical storm-force winds brushed the island for approximately 21 hours, while hurricane-force sustained winds lasted up to eight hours as the hurricane passed with minimal forward speed between 7 to 9 mph (11 to 14 km/h). Total damages on the Dutch side were catastrophic, totaling around $1.8 billion USD,[24] and Luis was the most devastating hurricane to hit the islands since Hurricane Donna in 1960.

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants on Saint Martin/Sint Maarten
Highest-known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref.
Rank mm in
1 700.0 27.56 Lenny 1999 Meteorological Office, Phillpsburg [25]
2 280.2 11.03 Jose 1999 Princess Juliana International Airport [26]
3 165.1 6.50 Luis 1995 [27]
4 111.7 4.40 Otto 2010 Princess Juliana International Airport [28]
5 92.3 3.63 Rafael 2012 Princess Juliana International Airport [29]
6 7.9 0.31 Ernesto 2012 Princess Juliana International Airport [29]
7 7.0 0.28 Chantal 2013 Princess Juliana International Airport [30]
8 6.6 0.26 Dorian 2013 Princess Juliana International Airport [30]

Anguilla[edit]

The eye of the hurricane passed over the northeastern tip of Anguilla. Although its geographic placement means that the island likely would have sustained worse damage than St. Martin, the total scale of damage is still unknown. Luis was the worst hurricane the island suffered since Hurricane Donna in 1960.[citation needed]

St. Kitts and Nevis[edit]

The eye of Luis passed nearly 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Saint Kitts and Nevis, causing severe beach erosion,[31] moderate damage to residences, and leaving at least 2,000 residents homeless. The storm further damaged local vegetation and some of the road infrastructure, with problems essentially arising from the poor water system on the islands. Total damage ultimately reached $197 million.

Dominica[edit]

Tropical storm-force winds of roughly 40 mph (64 km/h) affected Dominica from the morning to afternoon of September 5. The lowest pressure recorded was between 1,003 to 1,005 mbar (1,003 to 1,005 hPa). As the eye of Luis passed nearly 125 miles (201 km) north, the majority of the damage experienced in Dominica was inflicted upon banana crops that had already been damaged from the earlier hit by Iris. While overall damages were fairly minor, beach erosion was common, and Luis disrupted several beach hotels and coastal roads.[31] Rough waves on the northeastern and western coast affected towns such as Marigot, Roseau, and Portsmouth, leaving about 1,000 residents homeless. Ultimately, a fisherman was confirmed dead due to rough sea conditions.[32] Property damage from Luis alone was estimated at $47 million, while the combined effects of Luis, Iris, and Hurricane Marilyn, which struck ten days later, totaled $184 million.[citation needed]

Puerto Rico[edit]

Luis passed at 120 miles (190 km) northeast of Puerto Rico, causing minor damages in the east.[33] Two deaths were additionally reported on the island as a consequence of rushing to prepare for the arrival of the storm.[16]

Bermuda[edit]

Luis, west of Bermuda

Bermuda reported sustained winds of up to 46 mph (74 km/h). Offshore, the storm produced waves approaching 100 feet (30 m) in height. In total, little to no damage was reported on the island.[1]

Eastern United States and offshore[edit]

Rough seas from the storm affected the East Coast of the United States, resulting in some beach erosion and damage to two waterfront structures on Fire Island.[34] High waves, in combination with high tide, caused significant beach erosion and coastal flooding. On September 7, rip currents produced by Luis caused the death of one person near Corncake Inlet, North Carolina.[35] In Brunswick County, North Carolina, eight homes were washed away by waves, and 40 feet (12 m) of the beach was lost. In nearby Hyde, Carteret, and Onslow counties, waves of up to 17 feet (5.2 m) washed out 33 feet (10 m) of the Triple S Pier in Atlantic Beach, effectively destroying it. Total losses in North Carolina amounted to $1.9 million.[36][37][38] In New York, rough seas undermined and destroyed one home, and led to the death of one person who was swimming in the high waves.[11][12]

Atlantic Canada[edit]

Hurricane Luis making landfall in Canada

On September 11, a rogue wave triggered by Luis slammed the Queen Elizabeth 2 ocean liner when it was about 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) south of eastern Newfoundland.[4][39] A nearby Canadian buoy recorded a 98-foot wave (30 m) at roughly the same time.[1] Alhough the ship did not sustain any significant damage, its arrival in New York was delayed considerably.[40]

Throughout eastern Newfoundland, the system dropped 2.4 to 4.7 inches (61 to 119 mm) of rain at its landfall as a Category 1.[41] Northwesterly winds there gusted to 81 mph (130 km/h).[4] The storm caused minor damage to the large province, with flooding costing an estimated $500,000 in damages.[42] One storm-related death was reported in Canada.[1]

Aftermath and economic impact[edit]

Antigua, Barbuda, Dominica and St. Kitts and Nevis[edit]

Several bodies of the United Nations contributed financially to the rebuilding of areas affected by Hurricane Luis. The Office for the Coordination of Human Affairs provided $50,000 in emergency funds to the nation of Antigua and Barbuda, as well as the Netherlands Antilles, while the United Nations Development Programme provided an additional $50,000 to Barbados and the Netherlands Antilles. The Children's Fund additionally provided a cash grant of $20,000 to all affected islands, and the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization contributed $20,000 to Antigua and Barbuda, $15,000 to Dominica, and $5,000 to St. Kitts and Nevis for the purposes of rebuilding schools. The Organization of American States, meanwhile, provided an emergency cash grant of $250,000 to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and St. Kitts and Nevis.[43]

The Government of the Bahamas provided $50,000 to affected areas, while the Government of Canada donated $149,253 to the Pan American Health Organization and $44,760 to the impacted region. They were joined by a $150,000 donation from the Government of Japan and $15,873 from the Government of Spain. Antigua and Barbuda received $37,593 from the Government of Australia, $200,000 from the Government of France, and $32,942 from the Government of New Zealand. The Government of Germany provided $52,817 in emergency funds to St. Kitts and Nevis, while the Government of the Netherlands contributed $15.2 million in emergency and recovery funds to the Netherlands Antilles. The Government of Norway provided $50,000 in cash assistance to Antigua and Barbuda and St. Kitts and Nevis.[43]

While most of the support was entirely financial, given in emergency and recovery funds, the European Community Humanitarian Aid Office provided relief goods, such as plastic sheeting, water containers, blankets, and basic medical supplies worth $1.2 million. The Government of Jamaica deployed military recovery teams to affected regions to assist with rehabilitation and cleanup efforts.[43]

Saint Martin[edit]

The degree of devastation left by Hurricane Luis on Saint Martin left the island inaccessible by air or sea for two days.[44] The storm left up to 2,000 citizens homeless, and rendered the island largely without electricity, running water, or telephone service. When transportation resumed, tourists scrambled for a charter flight out of Princess Juliana International Airport.[45] Both the Netherlands and France sent soldiers and police officers to their respective sides of the island, but eyewitnesses and residents reported that the authorities did little to intercede in the widespread looting that followed the hurricane.[46]

Aside from high winds and seeds, Saint Martin was affected by a substantial difference in wind speed forecasts measured at the sea-level airport, and those measured in homes throughout the island hillsides. Sea-level readings showed 86 miles per hour (138 km/h) sustained winds and gusts of up to 114 miles per hour (183 km/h),[23] while hillside measurements showed gusts between 170 and 200 miles per hour (270 and 320 km/h). A sailor that had been sheltered in the lagoon recorded a record 115 miles per hour (185 km/h) wind gust, and a minimal pressure reading to 965 mbar (28.5 inHg).[47]

Records and retirement[edit]

A satellite image of the Atlantic Ocean on August 24 including Humberto, Iris, Jerry, and two waves that would soon become Karen and Luis

On August 29, Tropical Storm Luis marked the earliest date on which the twelfth named storm of the season formed, surpassing the previous record set by Tropical Storm Twelve on August 31, 1933. This record has since been broken by Hurricane Laura, which intensified into a tropical storm on August 20, 2020.

Shortly before becoming extratropical, Hurricane Luis was moving at 65 mph (105 km/h), becoming one of the fastest-moving Atlantic hurricanes in recorded history.[48] With a hurricane force-wind field expanding over 130 miles (210 km) from the center, Luis had the largest radius of hurricane-force winds measured for an Atlantic hurricane until Lorenzo in 2019.[49] It was also one of the most intense extratropical cyclones by wind speed. While extratropical cyclones usually only have wind speeds ranging from 45 to 80 mph (72 to 129 km/h), Luis achieved major hurricane-force winds south of Newfoundland.[citation needed]

On September 11, a 98 feet (30 m) wave struck an ocean liner as a result of Luis. This wave is the largest ever officially recorded,[50] although Hurricane Ivan may have produced a wave of up to 130 feet (40 m) high off the coast of Mexico in 2004.[51]

Since 1950, there have been very few Atlantic hurricanes that have had an Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index of over 50. By spending nearly fourteen days as a named storm, including seven consecutive days as a major hurricane, Luis achieved an ACE value of 53.9, the highest since Hurricane Inez in 1966. It retained this record until 2003, when Hurricane Isabel recorded an ACE of 63.3.[citation needed]

Due to the severe damage and loss of life caused by the storm in the Leeward Islands, the name "Luis" was retired in the spring of 1996, ensuring that it will never be used for another Atlantic hurricane. It was subsequently replaced with "Lorenzo" in the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. Luis was the first Atlantic hurricane name beginning with "L" to have its name retired, and the first hurricane to be retired since Hurricane Andrew in 1992.[52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Lixion Avila (September 9, 1995). "Hurricane Luis Discussion Number 48". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
  3. ^ Edward Rappaport (September 9, 1995). "Hurricane Luis Discussion Number 50". National Hurricane Center.
  4. ^ a b c Staff Writer (September 18, 2003). "Canadian Hurricane Centre Summary for 1995 - Luis". Canadian Hurricane Centre. Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
  5. ^ Max Mayfield (September 10, 1995). "Hurricane Luis Discussion Number 53". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
  6. ^ Staff Writer (September 14, 2010). "1995- Luis". Canadian Hurricane Centre. Retrieved November 14, 2010.
  7. ^ Richard Pasch (September 11, 1995). "Hurricane Luis Discussion Number 56". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
  8. ^ Canadian Hurricane Centre (January 15, 2014). "Hurricane Luis (August 26 to September 12, 1995)". ECCC. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
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  14. ^ Caribbean - Hurricane Luis Sep 1995 UN DHA Situation Reports Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
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  23. ^ a b Miles B. Lawrence; Max B. Mayfield; Lixion A. Avila; Richard J. Pasch; Edward N. Rappaport (May 1998). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1995" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 126 (5): 1124. Bibcode:1998MWRv..126.1124L. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126<1124:AHSO>2.0.CO;2.
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-04-14. Retrieved 2012-07-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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