Hurston/Wright Legacy Award

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The US Hurston/Wright Legacy Awards program honors published Black writers worldwide for literary achievement. Introduced in 2001, the Legacy Award was the first national award presented to Black writers by a national organization of Black writers.[1][2] It is granted for fiction, nonfiction and poetry, selected in a juried competition.[3]

Each fall, writers and publishers are invited to submit fiction, nonfiction and poetry books published that year. Panels of acclaimed writers serve as judges to select nominees, finalists and winners. A number of merit awards are also presented.[4] Nominees are honored at the Legacy Awards ceremony, held the third Friday in October. The awards ceremony is hosted and organized by the Hurston/Wright Foundation.

Merit awards[edit]

In addition to the Legacy Awards, the Hurston/Wright board of directors may present Merit awards during the annual Legacy Award ceremony.

  • The North Star Award pays homage to the significance of the North Star[5] for enslaved Africans, who looked to it as a guide to freedom. The recipients of the award are individuals whose writing and/or service to the writing community serve as a beacon of brilliant accomplishment and as an inspiration to others.
  • The Ella Baker Award, named for the heroic civil rights activist, recognizes writers and arts activists for exceptional work that advances social justice.
  • The Madam C.J. Walker Award, named for the pioneering entrepreneur and philanthropist, recognizes exceptional innovation in supporting and sustaining Black literature.

Legacy Award winners[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Year Author Work
2002 David Anthony Durham Gabriel’s Story
2003 Tayari Jones Leaving Atlanta
2004 Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Purple Hibiscus
2005 Chris Abani GraceLand
2006 Denise Nicholas Freshwater Road
2007 Aminatta Forna Ancestor Stones
2008 Kwame Dawes She's Gone
2016 Sanderia Faye Mourner's Bench
2017 JJ Amaworo Wilson Damnificados
2018 Ladee Hubbard The Talented Ribkins
2020 Jeffrey Colvin Africaville
2021 Rita Woods Remembrance

Fiction[edit]

Year Author Work
2002 Percival Everett Erasure
2003 Zakes Mda The Heart of Redness
2004 Mat Johnson Hunting in Harlem
2005 Maryse Condé Who Slashed Celanire's Throat?
2006 Nancy Rawles My Jim
2007 Edward P. Jones All Aunt Hagar's Children
2008 Junot Diaz The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
2009 Uwem Akpan Say You're One of Them
2010 Percival Everett I Am Not Sidney Poitier
2011 Danielle Evans Before You Suffocate Your Own Fool Self
2012 Helen Oyeyemi Mr. Fox
2013 Esi Edugyan Half-Blood Blues
2014 NoViolet Bulawayo We Need New Names
2015 Laila Lalami The Moor's Account
2016 James Hannaham Delicious Foods
2017 Colson Whitehead The Underground Railroad
2018 Alain Mabanckou Black Moses
2019 Nafissa Thompson-Spires Heads of the Colored People
2020 Curdella Forbes A Tall History of Sugar
2021 Percival Everett Telephone

Nonfiction[edit]

Year Author Work
2002 Ken Wiwa In the Shadow of a Saint:  A Son’s Journey to Understand His Father’s Legacy
2003 Elizabeth McHenry Forgotten Readers: Recovering the Lost History of African American Literary Societies
2004 Wil Haygood In Black and White: The Life of Sammy Davis, Jr.
2005 Alexis De Veaux Warrior Poet: A Biography of Audre Lorde
2006 John Hope Franklin Mirror to America: The Autobiography of John Hope Franklin
2007 Wangari Maathai Unbowed: A Memoir
2008 Edwige Danticat Brother, I'm Dying
2009 Frank B. Wilderson Incognegro: A Memoir of Exile and Apartheid
2010 Robin Kelley Thelonious Monk: The Life and Times of an American Original
2011 Isabel Wilkerson The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration
2012 Tomiko Brown-Nagin Courage to Dissent: Atlanta and the Long History of the Civil Rights Movement
2013 Fredrick Harris The Price of the Ticket: Barack Obama and Rise and Decline of Black Politics
2014 Craig Wilder Ebony & Ivy
2015 Elizabeth Nunez Not For Everyday Use
2016 Pamela Newkirk Spectacle: The Astonishing Life of Ota Benga
2017 Kali Nicole Gross Hannah Mary Tabbs and the Disembodied Torso: A Tale of Race, Sex, and Violence in America
2018 Tiya Miles The Dawn of Detroit: A Chronicle of Slavery and Freedom in the City of the Straits
2019 Imani Perry May We Forever Stand: A History of the Black National Anthem
2020 Albert Woodfox Solitary: My Story of Transformation and Hope
2021 Marcia Chatelain Franchise: The Golden Arches in Black America

Poetry[edit]

Year Author Work
2007 Patricia Smith Teahouse of the Almighty
2008 Kyle G. Dargan Bouquet of Hungers
2009 Myronn Hardy The Headless Saints
2010 Rita Dove

Haki R. Madhubuti

Sonata Mulattica: Poems

Liberation Narratives: New and Collected Poems

2011 Elizabeth Alexander Crave Radiance: New and Selected Poems 1990–2010
2012 Evie Shockley the new black
2013 Lucille Clifton The Collected Poems of Lucille Clifton 1965–2010
2014 Amaud Jamaul Johnson Darktown Follies
2015 Claudia Rankine Citizen: An American Lyric
2016 Vievee Francis Forest Primeval
2017 Donika Kelly Bestiary
2018 Evie Shockley Semiautomatic
2019 Terrance Hayes American Sonnets for My Past and Future Assassin
2020 Ladan Osman Exiles of Eden
2021 Rachel Eliza Griffiths Seeing the Body

Contemporary Fiction[edit]

Year Author Work
2005 Tracy Price-Thompson A Woman's Worth
2006 Clyde W. Ford The Long Mile: The Shango Mysteries

2022 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner:

  • This Life, Quntos KunQuest (Agate Bolden)

Nominees:

  • The House of Rust, Khadija Abdalla Bajaber (GrayWolf Press)
  • Young Blood, Sifiso Mzobe (Catalyst Press)
  • The Final Revival of Opal and Nev, Dawnie Walton (37 Ink)

Fiction[edit]

Winner:

  • The Trees, Percival Everett (Graywolf Press)

Nominees:

  • Nazaré, J.J. Amaworo Wilson (PM Press)
  • Yellow Wife, Sadeqa Johnson (Simon & Schuster)
  • The Perishing, Natashia Deon (Counterpoint)
  • Rib King, Ladee Hubbard (Amistad, an imprint of HarperCollins)
  • Reconstruction: Stories, Alaya Dawn Johnson (Small Beer Press)

Nonfiction: Memoir/Biography[edit]

Winner:

  • Half in Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Nellie Y. McKay, Shanna Greene Benjamin (The University of North Carolina Press)

Nominees:

  • Bird Uncaged, Marlon Peterson (Bold Type Books)
  • Read Until You Understand, Farah Jasmine Griffin (W. W. Norton & Company)

Nonfiction: Historical/Social/Political[edit]

Winner:

  • Born in Blackness, Howard French (Liveright)

Nominees:

  • We Do This Till We Free Us, Mariame Kaba (Haymarket Books)
  • Liner Notes for the Revolution: The Intellectual Life of Black Feminist Sound, Daphne A. Brooks (Belknap Press: An Imprint of Harvard University Press)

Poetry[edit]

Winner:

  • No Ruined Stone, Shara McCallum (Alice James Books)

Nominees:

  • Tragic City, Clemonce Heard (Anhinga Press)
  • More Perfect Union, Teri Ellen Cross Davis (Mad Creek Books)
  • Sho, Douglas Kearney (Wave Books)
  • I Remember Death by Its Proximity to What I Love, Mahogany L. Browne (Haymarket Books)
  • Everyday Mojo Songs of Earth, Yusef Komunyakaa (Farrar, Straus and Giroux)

2021 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner:

  • Remembrance, Rita Woods (Forge Books)

Nominees:

  • The Coyotes of Carthage, Steven Wright (Ecco)
  • Black Sunday, Tola Rotimi Abraham (Catapult)

Fiction[edit]

Winner:

  • Telephone, Percival Everett (Graywolf Press)

Finalists:

  • Ring Shout, P. Djèlí Clark (Tor)
  • The Freedom Artist, Ben Okri (Akashic Books)

Nominees:

  • These Bodies, Morgan Christie (Tolsun Books)
  • Book of the Little Axe, Lauren Francis-Sharma (Grove Press)
  • Black Bottom Saints, Alice Randall (Amistad Books)

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner:

  • Franchise: The Golden Arches in Black America, Marcia Chatelain (Liveright)

Finalists:

  • Tacky's Revolt: The Story of an Atlantic Slave War, Vincent Brown (Belknap Press)
  • The Address Book: What Street Addresses Reveal About Identity, Race, Wealth, and Power, Deirdre Mask (St. Martin's Press)

Nominees:

  • Mediocre: The Dangerous Legacy of White Male America, Ijeoma Oluo (Seal Press)
  • The Alchemy of Us: How Humans and Matter Transformed One Another, Ainissa Ramirez (The MIT Press)
  • Memorial Drive: A Daughter's Memoir, Natasha Trethewey (Ecco)

Poetry[edit]

Winner:

  • Seeing the Body, Rachel Eliza Griffiths (W. W. Norton & Company)

Finalists:

  • Fantasia for the Man in Blue, Tommye Blount (Four Way Books)
  • Pale Colors in a Tall Field, Carl Phillips (Farrar, Straus and Giroux)

Nominees:

  • Jump the Clock, Erica Hunt (Nightboat Books)
  • Kontemporary Amerikan Poetry, John Murillo (Four Way Books)
  • White Blood: A Lyric of Virginia, Kiki Petrosino (Sarabande Books)

2020 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner:

  • Africaville, Jeffrey Colvin (Amistad)

Nominees:

  • Avery Colt is a Snake, a Thief, a Liar, Ron A. Austin (Southeast Missouri State University Press)
  • As a River, Sion Dayson (Jaded Ibis Press)

Fiction[edit]

Winner:

  • A Tall History of Sugar, Curdella Forbes (Akashic Books)

Finalists:

  • Gingerbread, Helen Oyeyemi (Riverhead Books)
  • The World Doesn’t Require You, Rion Amilcar Scott (Liveright)

Nominees:

  • Speaking of Summer, Kalisha Buckhanon (Counterpoint)
  • Patsy, Nicole Dennis-Benn (Liveright)
  • The Revisioners, Margaret Wilkerson Sexton (Counterpoint)

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner:

  • Solitary: My Story of Transformation and Hope, Albert Woodfox (Grove Press)

Finalists:

  • Think Black: A Memoir, Clyde Ford (Amistad)
  • Wayward Lives, Beautiful Experiments: Intimate Histories of Riotous Black Girls, Troublesome Women, and Queer Radicals, Saidiya Hartman (W. W. Norton & Company)

Nominees:

  • Open Season: Legalized Genocide of Colored People, Ben Crump (Amistad)
  • We Live for the We: The Political Power of Black Motherhood, Dani McClain (Bold Type Books)
  • What Doesn’t Kill You Makes You Blacker: A Memoir in Essays, Damon Young (Ecco)

Poetry[edit]

Winner:

  • Exiles of Eden, Ladan Osman (Coffee House Press)

Finalists:

  • & More Black, t’ai freedom ford (Augury Books)
  • Syncope, Asiya Wadud (Ugly Duckling Presse)

Nominees:

  • Night Angler (American Poets Continuum), Geffrey Davis (BOA Editions, LTD)
  • 1919, Eve L. Ewing (Haymarket Books)
  • Library of Small Catastrophes, Alison Rollins (Copper Canyon Press)

2019 Winners and finalists[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Winner:

Finalists:

Nominees:

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner:

  • May We Forever Stand: A History of the Black National Anthem by Imani Perry (The University of North Carolina Press)

Finalists:

  • Eloquent Rage: A Black Feminist Discovers Her Superpower, Brittney Cooper (St. Martin’s Press)
  • Invisible: The Forgotten Story of the Black Woman Lawyer Who Took Down America’s Most Powerful Mobster, Stephen L. Carter (Henry Holt and Company)

Nominees:

  • Tigerland: 1968-1969 A City Divided, a Nation Torn Apart, and a Magical Season of Healing, Wil Haygood (Alfred A. Knopf)
  • Heavy: An American Memoir, Kiese Laymon (Scribner)
  • The New Negro: The Life of Alain Locke, Jeffrey C. Stewart (Oxford University Press)

Poetry[edit]

Winner:

  • American Sonnets for My Past and Future Assassin by Terrance Hayes (Penguin Books)

Finalists:

Nominees:

  • Approaching the Fields, Chanda Feldman (Louisiana State University Press)
  • DiVida, Monica A. Hand (Alice James Books)
  • Pardon My Heart, Marcus Jackson (TriQuarterly Books/Northwestern University Press)

2018 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner:

  • The Talented Ribkins by Ladee Hubbard

Nominees:

Fiction[edit]

Winner:

Finalists:

Nominees:

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner:

  • The Dawn of Detroit: A Chronicle of Slavery and Freedom in the City of the Straits by Tiya Miles

Finalists:

Nominees:

  • Cuz: The Life and Times of Michael A. by Danielle Allen
  • Loving: Interracial Intimacy in America and the Threat to White Supremacy by Sheryll Cashin
  • Guidebook to Relative Strangers: Journeys into Race, Motherhood, and History by Camille T. Dungy

Poetry[edit]

Winner:

Finalists:

Nominees:

2017 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner:

  • Damnificados by JJ Amaworo Wilson

Nominees:

Fiction[edit]

Winner:

Finalists:

Nominees:

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner:

  • Hannah Mary Tabbs and the Disembodied Torso: A Tale of Race, Sex, and Violence in America by Kali Nicole Gross

Finalists:

  • The Social Life of DNA: Race, Reparations, And Reconciliation After the Genome by Alondra Nelson
  • In The Wake: On Blackness and Being by Christina Sharpe

Nominees:

Poetry[edit]

Winner:

Finalists:

Nominees:

2016 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner:

  • Mourner's Bench by Sanderia Faye

Nominees

Fiction[edit]

Winner:

Finalists:

Nominees:

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner:

  • Spectacle: The Astonishing Life of Ota Benga by Pamela Newkirk

Finalists:

  • The Light of the World by Elizabeth Alexander
  • Confronting Black Jacobins: The United States, the Haitian Revolution, and the Origins of the Dominican Republic by Gerald Horne

Nominees:

  • Where Everybody Looks Like Me: At the Crossroads of America's Black Colleges and Culture by Ron Stodghill
  • Infectious Madness: The Surprising Science of How We "Catch" Mental Illness by Harriet A. Washington
  • The Beast Side: Living and Dying While Black in America by D. Watkins

Poetry[edit]

Winner:

Finalists:

  • Honest Engine by Kyle Dargan
  • Catalog of Unabashed Gratitude by Ross Gay

Nominees:

2015 Winners and finalists[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Poetry[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

2014 Winners and finalists[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

  • Nine Years Under: Coming of Age in an Inner-City Funeral Home by Sheri Booker
  • The March on Washington: Jobs, Freedom  and the Forgotten History of Civil Rights by William P. Jones
  • Searching for Zion: The Quest for Home in the African Diaspora by Emily Raboteau

Poetry[edit]

Winner

  • Darktown Follies by Amaud Jamaul Johnson

Finalists

Nominees

2013 Winners and finalists[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

  • The Price of the Ticket: Barack Obama and Rise and Decline of Black Politics by Fredrick Harris

Nominees

Poetry[edit]

Winner

Nominees

  • But a Storm is Blowing from Paradise by Lillian-Yvonne Bertram
  • me and Nina by Monica Hand

2012 Winners and finalists[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

  • Courage to Dissent: Atlanta and the Long History of the Civil Rights Movement by Tomiko Brown-Nagin

Finalists

Nominees

Poetry[edit]

Winner

Nominees

2011 Winners and finalists[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

  • How to Escape from a Leper Colony: A Novella and Stories by Tiphanie Yanique
  • How to Read the Air by Dinaw Mengestu
  • Wading Home: A Novel of New Orleans by Rosalyn Story

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

  • The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration by Isabel Wilkerson

Finalists

  • Root and Branch: Charles Hamilton Houston, Thurgood Marshall, and the Struggle to End Segregation by Rawn James Jr.
  • The Indignant Generation: A Narrative History of African American Writers and Critics, 1934-1960 by Lawrence Jackson

Nominees

  • Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell
  • John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard
  • Losing My Cool: How a Father’s Love and 15,000 Books Beat Hip-hop Culture by Thomas Chatterton Williams

Poetry[edit]

Winner

Nominees

2010 Winners and finalists[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

  • Thelonious Monk: The Life and Times of an American Original by Robin Kelley

Finalists

  • Freedom by Any Means: True Stories of Cunning and Courage on the Underground Railroad by Betty DeRamus
  • Sweet Thunder: The Life and Times of Sugar Ray Robinson by Wil Haygood

Nominees

  • More than Just Race: Being Black and Poor in the Inner City by William Julius Wilson
  • Remembering Scottsboro: The Legacy of an Infamous Trial by James A. Miller
  • The Breakthrough: Politics and Race in the Age of Obama by Gwen Ifill

Poetry[edit]

Winners

Nominees

  • Cooling Board: A Long-Playing Poem by Mitchell L. H. Douglas
  • Gospel by Samiya Bashir

2009 Winners and finalists[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

  • Ida: A Sword Among Lions: Ida B. Wells and the Campaign Against Lynching by Paula J. Giddings
  • The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood by Ta-Nehisi Coates

Nominees

  • Mr. and Mrs. Prince: How an Extraordinary Eighteenth- Century Family Moved Out of Slavery and into Legend by Gretchen Holbrook Gerzina
  • Somebody Scream: Rap Music’s Rise to Prominence in the Aftershock of Black Power by Marcus Reeves
  • The Agitator’s Daughter: A Memoir of Four Generations of One Extraordinary African- American Family by Sheryll Cashin

Poetry[edit]

2008 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner

Nominees

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

  • Dreams of Africa in Alabama: The Slave Ship Clotilda and the Story of the Last Africans Brought to America by Sylviane A. Diouf
  • On the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-first Century by Sherrilyn Ifill

Nominees

Poetry[edit]

Winner

Nominees

2007 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner

Nominees

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

  • The Last 'Darky': Bert Williams, Black-on-Black Minstrelsy, and the African Diaspora by Louis Chude-Sokei
  • The Skin Between Us: A Memoir of Race, Beauty, and Belonging by Kym Ragusa

Nominees

  • Before the Legend: The Rise of Bob Marley by Christopher John Farley
  • BookMarks: Reading in Black and White by Karla F.C. Holloway
  • The River Flows On: Black Resistance, Culture, and Identity Formation in Early America by Walter C. Rucker

Poetry[edit]

2006 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner

Nominees

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

  • Bright Boulevards, Bold Dreams: The Story of Black Hollywood by Donald Bogle
  • Creating Their Own Image: The History of African-American Women Artists by Lisa E. Farrington

Nominees

  • My Face is Black is True: Callie House and the Struggle for Ex-Slave Reparations by Mary Frances Berry
  • Why I Hate Abercrombie & Fitch: Essays on Race and Sexuality by Dwight A. McBride
  • Worrying the Line: Black Women Writers, Lineage, and Literary Tradition by Cheryl A. Wall

Contemporary Fiction[edit]

Winner

Nominees

  • Love on the Dotted Line by David E. Talbert
  • Who Does She Think She is? by Benilde Little

2005 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner

Nominees

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

  • Bone to Pick: Of Forgiveness, Reconciliation, Reparation and Revenge by Ellis Cose
  • The Black Interior by Elizabeth Alexander
  • The Failures of Integration: How Race and Class Are Undermining the American Dream by Sheryll Cashin

Contemporary Fiction[edit]

2004 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalist

Nominee

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

  • Always Wear Joy: My Mother Bold and Beautiful by Susan Fales-Hill
  • Somebody’s Someone by Regina Louise
  • Wrapped in Rainbows: The Life of Zora Neale Hurston by Valerie Boyd

2003 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

  • A Little Piece Of Sky by Nicole Bailey-Williams
  • Fifth Born by Zelda Lockhart

Nominees

  • Gigantic by Marc Nesbitt
  • River Woman by Donna Hemans
  • Song of the Water Saints by Nelly Rosario

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

  • Forgotten Readers: Recovering the Lost History of African American Literary Societies by Elizabeth McHenry

Finalists

  • Passed On: African American Mourning Stories by Karla FC Holloway
  • The Herndons: An Atlanta Family by Carole Merritt

Nominees

  • American Skin: Pop Culture, Big Business, and the End of White America by Leon E. Wynter
  • Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius by Lawrence Jackson

2002 Winners and finalists[edit]

Debut Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

  • Greenwichtown by Joyce Palmer
  • The Red Moon by Kuwana Haulsey

Nominees

Fiction[edit]

Winner

Finalists

Nominees

Nonfiction[edit]

Winner

  • In the Shadow of a Saint:  A Son’s Journey to Understand His Father’s Legacy by Ken Wiwa

Finalists

  • On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C.J. Walker by A’Lelia Bundles
  • The Undiscovered Paul Robeson: An Artist’s Journey, 1898–1939 by Paul Robeson Jr.

Nominees

  • Impossible Witnesses: Truths, Abolitionism, and Slave Testimony by Dwight McBride
  • Raising Fences: A Black Man’s Love Story by Michael Datcher
  • Salvation: Black People and Love by bell hooks

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hurston/Wright Legacy Award", Hurston/Wright Foundation.
  2. ^ "Hurston/Wright Foundation Legacy Awards 2018 nominees announced", James Murua's Literature Blog, July 4, 2018.
  3. ^ "Hurston/Wright Foundation | Hurston/Wright Legacy Award". www.hurstonwright.org. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  4. ^ "Merit Awards", Hurston Wright Foundation.
  5. ^ "North Star to Freedom (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2021-12-28.

External links[edit]