|Alternative names||Hush-puppy, cornbread ball, corn dodgers|
|Place of origin||North America|
The use of ground corn (maize) in cooking originated with Native Americans, who first cultivated the crop. Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole cooking introduced one of its main staples into Southern cuisine: corn, either ground into meal or limed with an alkaline salt to make hominy, in a Native American technology known as nixtamalization. Cornbread was popular during the American Civil War because it was inexpensive and could be made in many different shapes and sizes. It could be fashioned into high-rising, fluffy loaves or simply fried for a quick meal.
To a far greater degree than anyone realizes, several of the most important food dishes that the Southeastern Indians live on today is the "soul food" eaten by both black and white Southerners. ... Indian boiled cornbread is present in Southern cuisine as "corn meal dumplings", ... and as "hush puppies"...
Hushpuppies are strongly associated with the Southern United States. A southern hushpuppy championship is held annually in Lufkin, Texas, and they are also available throughout the United States at restaurants serving deep-fried seafood.
The first recorded use of the word "hush-puppy" dates to 1899. The name is often attributed to hunters, fishermen, or other cooks who would fry some basic cornmeal mixture (possibly that they had been bread-coating or battering their own food with) and feed it to their dogs to "hush the puppies" during cook-outs or fish-fries. Other legends date the term to the Civil War, in which Confederate soldiers are said to have tossed fried cornbread to quell the barks of their dogs.
Characteristics and preparation
Typical hushpuppy ingredients include cornmeal, wheat flour, eggs, salt, baking soda, milk or buttermilk, and water, and may include onion, spring onion (scallion), garlic, whole kernel corn, and peppers. Sometimes pancake batter is used. The batter is mixed well, adjusting ingredients until thick, and dropped a spoonful at a time into hot oil. The small breads are fried until crispy golden brown, and cooled. Hushpuppies are served with seafood or barbecued foods. They are commonly made at home or served in restaurants advertising home-style food.
In Jamaica, such fried bread dumplings are known as "festivals", and are made from a flour and cornmeal dough, with added salt and sugar, which is then formed into hot-dog roll shapes and deep-fried. They are sweeter than hushpuppies, which often contain onion or garlic. They are served with jerked meats such as pork or chicken. Mostly, it is served with fried or escoveitch (see also escabeche and ceviche) fish.
- Corn dog – Deep-fried, corn-battered hot dog on a stick
- Corn fritter
- Cuisine of the Southern United States
- Falafel – Traditional Egyptian food: deep-fried balls of ground chickpeas or fava beans.
- Pigs in a blanket – Variety of different sausage-based dishes
- List of fried dough foods – Wikimedia list article
- List of maize dishes – Wikipedia list article
- List of quick breads – Wikipedia list article
- List of regional dishes of the United States – Wikipedia list article
- Sloosh – a form of campfire cornbread made during the American Civil War
- Vada – Category of savoury fried snacks from India – Indian fried lentil dough snacks, often flatter or disc shaped
- Dragonwagon, Crescent (2007). The Cornbread Gospels. Workman Publishing. ISBN 0-7611-1916-7.
- Hudson, Charles (1976). "A Conquered People". The Southeastern Indians. The University of Tennessee Press. pp. 498–499. ISBN 0-87049-248-9.
- Bass, Gary (July 28, 2016). "Lufkin's Southern Hushpuppy Championships makes list of 50 best cooking contests". KTRE. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- Harper, Douglas. "hush". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- Dull, S.R. (2006). Southern Cooking. University of Georgia Press. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
- Rattray, Diana (August 9, 2018). "Catfish and Hush Puppies". The Spruce Eats. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
- Cf. McCormick product, "Golden Dipt Hush Puppy Corn Meal Mix", ingredients and preparation on box
- Murphy, Winsome (2004). "Jamaican Festival Recipe". Jamaican.com. Retrieved June 9, 2019.