Hussain Muhammad Ershad
Hussain Muhammad Ershad
হুসেইন মুহাম্মদ এরশাদ
|Leader of the Opposition|
3 January 2019 – 14 July 2019
|Preceded by||Rowshan Ershad|
|Succeeded by||Rowshan Ershad|
|10th President of Bangladesh|
11 December 1983 – 6 December 1990
|Prime Minister||Ataur Rahman Khan|
Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury
Kazi Zafar Ahmed
|Vice President||A K M Nurul Islam|
|Preceded by||AFM Ahsanuddin Chowdhury|
|Succeeded by||Shahabuddin Ahmed|
|4th Chief of the Army Staff|
1 December 1978 – 30 August 1986
A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury
|Preceded by||Lieutenant General Ziaur Rahman|
|Succeeded by||Lieutenant General Atiqur Rahman|
|Born||1 February 1930|
Dinhata, Cooch Behar State, British India
(now in West Bengal, India)
|Died||14 July 2019 (aged 89)|
|Political party||Jatiya Party (E)|
Bidisha Siddique Ershad
(m. 2000; div. 2005)
|Alma mater||University of Dhaka|
Officers Training School, Kohat, Pakistan
Command and Staff College, Quetta, Pakistan
|Profession||Military officer, politician|
|Awards||UN Population Award |
UN Environment Award
Global Officials of Dignity Award
|Allegiance|| Pakistan (before 1971)|
|Branch/service|| Pakistan Army|
|Years of service||1952–1971 (Pakistan) |
|Commands||4th Chief of the Army Staff,|
Adjutant General of the Army,
CO, 7th East Bengal Regiment,
CO, 3rd East Bengal Regiment
Hussain Muhammad Ershad (Bengali: হুসেইন মুহাম্মদ এরশাদ; 1 February 1930 – 14 July 2019) was a Bangladeshi Army Chief and politician who served as the President of Bangladesh from 1983 to 1990, a time many consider to have been a military dictatorship.
He seized power as head of the army during a bloodless coup against President Abdus Sattar on 24 March 1982 (by imposing martial law and suspending the Constitution). He declared himself President in 1983, and subsequently won the controversial 1986 Bangladeshi presidential election. Despite claims to have legitimately won the 1986 election, many consider his regime as an era of military dictatorship. Ershad served in the Presidential office until 1990, when he was forced to resign following a popular pro-democracy mass uprising led by Khaleda Zia and Sheikh Hasina. Ershad founded the Jatiya Party in 1986 and became a Member of Parliament for that party in the constituency of Rangpur-3 in 1991, with successful re-election in all subsequent general elections.
During his tenure Ershad pursued devolution reforms, privatization of nationalised industries; the expansion of the national highway system; and the founding of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation; he committed his nation's forces as an ally to the United States in the Gulf War. He contributed to developments in infrastructure and socio-economic growth, divesting key nationalised industries. In 1989, Ershad pushed parliament to make Islam the state religion, in a sharp departure from Bangladesh's original secular constitution.
Early life and military career
Ershad was born in 1930 at Dinhata in Cooch Behar Princely State, British India (now in Cooch Behar district, India) to Mokbul Hossain and Mazida Khatun. Mokbul was a lawyer and served as a minister of the-then Maharaja of Cooch Behar. Ershad was the eldest of nine siblings including GM Quader, Mozammel Hossain Lalu and Merina Rahman. His parents migrated from Dinhata to East Bengal in 1948 after the Partition of India. Ershad studied in Carmichael College in Rangpur. He later graduated from the University of Dhaka in 1950.
Ershad was commissioned into the Pakistan Army in 1952 from officers training school in Kohat. He was an adjutant in the East Bengal Regimental Centre, the regimental training depot in Chittagong. He completed advanced courses from the Command and Staff College in Quetta in 1966. After serving with a brigade in Sialkot, he was given command of the 3rd East Bengal Regiment in 1969 and the 7th East Bengal Regiment in 1971.
Bangladesh Liberation War and independence
From the beginning of the Bangladesh Liberation War, Ershad was interned along with other Bengali officers stationed in West Pakistan, and held as a prisoner of war. In 1973 he and the others were repatriated to the new nation of Bangladesh in accordance with the Simla Agreement between India's Indira Gandhi and Pakistan's Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
After his return, Ershad was appointed Adjutant General of the Bangladesh Army by President of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the first president of independent Bangladesh. The different experiences during the war of the professional and paramilitary officers and soldiers in Bangladesh, together with the country's diverse cultures and Muslim majority, created instabilities in the years after independence. The members of the army who had been imprisoned or otherwise out of the country during the liberation war later tended to form different political alliances than those who had participated in the war. This long influenced the instability of national politics and the armed forces. Ershad was sent for advanced military courses to the National Defence University (NDU), India.
On 15 August 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was assassinated. Although Maj. Gen. Ziaur Rahman was arrested in a counter-coup on 3 November 1975, he was restored to power in a coup led by Lt. Colonel Abu Taher on 7 November 1975. The Chief Justice of Bangladesh, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem, succeeded to the presidency on 7 November 1975 during martial law. At that time, Zia Rahman was appointed as the Deputy Chief Martial Law Administrator. General Ziaur Rahman was appointed Army Chief by President of Bangladesh Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad. Rahman appointed Ershad as the Deputy Chief of Army Staff in 1975.
Ziaur Rahman assumed the presidency after legalising the military coups. He revived the multi-party system through the Fifth Amendment of the Bangladesh Constitution. He appointed Ershad as the new Chief of Army Staff, promoting him to the rank of lieutenant general. Viewed as a professional officer and having a talent for Bengali speech writing, Ershad soon became the closest politico-military counselor of Ziaur Rahman.
Coup and presidency
After the assassination of Ziaur Rahman on 30 May 1981, Ershad remained loyal to the government. He ordered the army to suppress the coup attempt by Major General Abul Manzoor. Ershad maintained loyalty to the new president Abdus Sattar, who had led the BNP to victory in elections in 1982.
Ershad came to power in a bloodless coup on 24 March 1982 as Chief Martial Law Administrator (CMLA). President Justice Sattar was replaced with A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury. Suspending the constitution and political parties, Ershad took over as president on 11 December 1983 by replacing Chowdhury.
Ershad supported the Land Reforms Ordinance of 1984, which granted important rights to tenants for the first time in the history of Bangladesh. A plan for the divestment of government industries promised to move the country away from socialism.
Ershad played a key role during the founding summit of the countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in 1985, which was held in Dhaka. Member states of South Asian States agreed to cooperate in politics and economics. Ershad brought together the leaders of India and Pakistan, Rajiv Gandhi and Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, respectively.
As president, Ershad approved amendments to the constitution of Bangladesh which declared Islam the state religion, abandoning state secularism. (The secular constitution was later restored.) To improve rural administration, Ershad introduced the Upazila and Zila Parishad system. He held the 'first democratic elections for these village councils' in 1985.
Election of 1986 and 1988
Ershad imitated his predecessor President Zia in many ways. Initially, he too installed a civilian president, Abul Fazal Muhammed Ahsanuddin Chowdhury (March 1982‐December 1983), and became the President only on 11 December 1983. He also floated a state‐sponsored political party, Jatiya Party (JP), composed of various factions from leftist and rightist political parties to support his regime. Like his predecessor, he allowed political parties to be active.[original research?]
Jatiyo Party nominated Ershad in the Presidential Election of 1986, which was organised by his government. The only significant opposition candidates were Hafezzi Huzur and Syed Faruque Rahman, a retired colonel who had been accused in 15 August Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and 3 November jail killing in 1975. Parliamentary elections on 7 May 1986, held under the martial law. Main contenders for the parliamentary seats were the Jatiya (People's) Party, formed on 1 January 1986 when the nationwide ban on political activity was lifted, and comprising the five parties which had together formed the pro-government National Front in July 1985 and the opposition leftist Awami League, led by Sheikh Hasina. The largest political party of the second Parliament, BNP decided to boycott the poll. Election day was held in a climate of unrest and was marked by opposition charges of voting fraud and malpractices. On 10 May, polling was suspended in 109 constituencies. Following re-elections in 37 constituencies on 19 May, final results giving JP an absolute parliamentary majority were announced ten days later. Ershad's JP was declared the winner with 153 seats out of 300. There were 115 opposition and 32 independent members. However, the inaugural House session was boycotted by 119 opposition and independent MPs. The same day, a new cabinet was sworn in. Ershad was elected as president on 15 October 1986.
However, Ershad faced increasing mass demonstrations on the streets mobilised by both the AL led by Sheikh Hasina and the BNP led by Khaleda Zia. The BNP boycotted the 1986 parliamentary election, but the AL which contested in the parliamentary election, later resigned from the parliament.
On 6 December 1987, Ershad dissolved the parliament in the midst of an opposition campaign calling for his and his government's resignation, and a nationwide state of emergency, which had been declared on 27 November. He stated that he wished to pave the way for fresh elections to receive the people's mandate on various national issues. The polling date was originally set for 28 February before being postponed.
Polling day was marked by violence and a boycott by the three leading opposition groups - the Awami League (an eight-party alliance) headed by Sheikha Hasina Wajed, the Moslem Jammai-i-Islami and the right-wing BNP, all of which alleged electoral fraud. In this context, the ruling Jatiya Dal, or Nationalist Party, reportedly increased its parliamentary majority to 251 seats (including 18 unopposed), independents captured 25 seats and several minor parties shared the rest. On 27 March, a new Council of Ministers headed by Mr. Ershad was sworn in. The Prime Minister is Mr. Moudud Ahmed.
Ershad's regime has sometimes been characterised[by whom?] as the longest autocratic rule in Bangladesh. The two general elections were widely criticised by the opposition parties. BNP boycotted the election in 1986. The government gained legitimacy by the participation of the other major opposition party, Awami League, and Jamaat-e-Islami, the largest Islamist party in the nation.
Ershad stabilized the Bangladesh Armed Forces, which had struggled with a series of coups and counter coups since the nation achieved independence in 1971. These arose in part because of the division in the Army between those who had participated in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, and those who had been interned or voluntarily stayed in West Pakistan during the conflict. As those men were repatriated and the Armed Forces needed their participation, they were welcomed back, but complained of discrimination in favour of the freedom fighters. The repatriated officers comprised 60% of the officers and a sizeable interest group. The freedom fighters, part of the development of Bangladesh from the beginning, tended to identify with the Awami League. The repatriated officers tended to identify with the BNP as the opposition. They carried out their rivalries in part through coups.
The Bangladesh Armed Forces did not attempt any coups from Ershad's takeover in 1982 until the fall of the BNP government in 1996. The Awami League in alliance with Jatiya Party won the June 1996 general election.
Ershad approved the participation in 1988 of the Bangladesh Army in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations for the first time. In addition to contributing to multi-national initiatives, this enabled the Armed Forces to earn foreign currency. Their participation in other UN-sponsored actions has continued to contribute to the Treasury. It is also a fact that people often forget to mention the infrastructural development undertaken during his regime specially in the rural and semi-rural areas.
Both the BNP and the Awami League boycotted the 1988 general election. There were reports of violence, human rights abuse and corruption during Ershad's tenure, which have been continuing problems in the country.
On 15 May 2011, Supreme Court declared the military rule of Ershad illegal in a verdict that also said the actions taken by his regime will remain effective until their fate is decided by parliament. "All proclamations, Martial Law Regulations, Martial Law Orders, made/promulgated during the period between 24 March 1982 and the date of commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1986 (Act 1 of 1986) are hereby declared illegal and void....," the SC said in its brief verdict.
Legacy and honours
The Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge Authority (JMBA) was set up by an ordinance promulgated by the then President Ershad on 3 July 1985 to implement the project. For mobilisation of domestic resources, another ordinance was promulgated by which a Jamuna Bridge surcharge and levy were introduced. A total of Tk 5.08 billion was mobilised in the process till its abolition.
He was honoured twice as a United Nations Laureate during his presidency:
- UN Population Award (1987)
, in recognition of the campaign for an international convention on the protection and conservation of climate, and other contributions.
Pressure for democracy
A wide umbrella of political parties united against Ershad. Khaleda Zia led the BNP, which allied with the Awami League, led by Sheikh Hasina, and Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh. Other Islamic parties and alliances joined the opposition ranks. They called for strikes and protests that paralysed[further explanation needed] the state and its economy. Although the parliament was dissolved, fresh elections were boycotted by the opposition, including Awami League and Jamaat. Students launched an intensifying opposition campaign, which ultimately forced Ershad to step down on 6 December 1990. The West, which had backed him for almost a decade, no longer supported him in light of the effective end of Cold War. Lieutenant General Nuruddin Khan as Chief of the Army Staff, unlike his predecessor Lt Gen Atiqur Rahman, did not back the President.
Ershad appointed Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed to form an acceptable neutral caretaker government and prepare for democratic elections. This was an innovation that was not provided for in the constitution.. Shahabuddin immediately placed Ershad under arrest and detained him, an action declared illegal in 1998 in a case appealed to the nation's Supreme Court.
In 1996, the newly elected government of the Awami League selected Shahabuddin as the President and appointed Lt Gen Nuruddin Khan as the Energy Minister. After a period, he was demoted to minister without portfolio for gross mismanagement.
Although anti-Ershad sentiment was strong, Ershad contested the 1996 election from jail and still won all five different constituencies he had contested from in 1991. The new government led by the BNP's Khaleda Zia instituted a number of corruption charges. Ershad was convicted in two charges till date, while all others were dismissed and thrown out of court.
In the 1991 and 1996 elections, during when he was in jail, Ershad won from five different constituencies. In 1996, he provided his support to the Awami League and helped form a government of consensus although his party sat on the opposition side of the parliament.
Ershad was released from jail on 9 January 1997 by the government, but only after he provided unconditional support to the Awami League. In March 1998, he was approached by a NY, USA based lobby group to get ready for next election. Somehow he ignored that opportunity and referred the lobby group to Brig. Gen. Illias for further negotiation, thereby losing his opportunity to gain the optimum power to come back in the limelight during 2001 election. It is assumed[according to whom?], during 1998 till mid of 2001, he was guided by JP politicians with very little exposure of international lobbies that made him suffer till 1st quarter of 2013.
In 2008, Ershad supported the Awami League in the December election. It was rumored[clarification needed] that the party had committed to making him president, but did not.
Political career since 1991
Ershad, is the only high-profile politician to be convicted of corruption and serve a prison sentence. Legal complexities tend to prolong the investigation and settlement of the corruption cases against senior politicians in Bangladesh." We really don't know what will be the fate of these cases", lawyer Shahdeen Malik told the BBC.
Ershad lost his membership in parliament owing to his conviction on charges of corruption when his relations with the ruling Awami League subsequently deteriorated. He switched his support to his one-time political adversary and main opposition leader, Khaleda Zia forming an anti-government coalition. Thus, the questionable court verdict followed.
Both Khaleda Zia of BNP and Sheikh Hasina of Awami League allied together to oust Ershad. Ironically both of these two top parties also allied with him and his Jatiya Party in time of their need to suit their purpose.
Ershad called President Iajuddin Ahmed three times along with Kazi Zafar Ahmed twice on 23 December not to extend two days time for filing nominations for scheduled 22 January 2007 elections when Awami League and its allies decided to join that elections after long parley of Mukhlesur Rahman Chowdhury with Sheikh Hasina. However, for the sake of continuation of democratic process Chowdhury convinced all concerned that without both Awami League and BNP the election will not be credible.
On 30 June 2007, Ershad stepped down temporarily from the post of Party chairman, indicating an end to his political career. It is speculated that he stepped down under pressure as the Caretaker Government started a series of prosecution and arrest for corruption and criminal charges against political leaders of Awami League and BNP including Sheikh Hasina, Khaleda Zia and Zia's son Tareq Rahman among others.
On 1 March 1998, the Supreme Court of Bangladesh ruled that President Ershad's original arrest in 1990 by the caretaker government, led by Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed, was illegal. This ruling would have permitted Ershad to sue the government for wrongful arrest. Ershad was convicted on a separate and unrelated charge eleven years after this arrest.
Charges and convictions
Ershad has been convicted and served time for only one case that has been upheld by the Supreme Court of the nation – Janata Tower Case. When his relations with the ruling Awami League subsequently deteriorated as he joined hands with the other main opposition BNP of Khaleda Zia.
He was found guilty in the Janata corruption case and was sentenced by the trial court to seven years imprisonment. Later the High Court Division affirmed the conviction but reduced the sentence to five years. The people were charged with building the Janata. It involved two charges – abuse of power in allotting land in Dhaka, which took place after Ershad colluded with M. M. Rahmat Ullah; and possessing unaccounted money. The Justice in his 91-page verdict found Ershad guilty under the Prevention Act.
Ershad was sentenced in corruption case on 20 November 2000. He was released on bail, on 9 April 2001 after serving four months in jail in Dhaka. As a result, he could not contest the 2001 elections.
At the time of his death there were still a few other pending cases against him but most had been thrown out of the court or had cleared him of any wrongdoing. The most famous case that the BNP Government at the time falsely implicated him by was a gold smuggling case. This was later thrown out by a Dhaka Court
In 2006, he protested against the controversial Election Commissioner (CEC) MA Aziz decisions on holding polls.
In 2006, as the BNP's term was ending Ershad joined the party's 4-Party Alliance after meetings with Tarique and Babar, which were followed by meeting with Khaleda Zia at her Mainul Road House. However, in late October 2006, he said he was not in the 4-Party Alliance, reversing his position the following day. Then he went into hiding for 3 days and joined the Awami League's Grand Alliance at Paltan Maidan with Sheikh Hasina.
But Hasina later breached the agreement between the two which promised to make Ershad the President for at least six months. Moeen also committed to make him president before 11 January 2007, but did not. Earlier, Ershad had been offered the position of head of the Government in 1991 by Sheikh Hasina while he was in jail, as well as by Khaleda Zia in 1996 just before the Awami League formed the government after a period of 21 years. Then, Ershad had joined the 4-Party alliance after the 1996 elections, but left later.
On 8 April 2008, Ershad took charge of his Jatiya Party once again. On 19 November 2008, Jatiya Party and Awami League agreed to contest the elections jointly under the Caretaker Government to be held on 29 December 2008. Out of the 300 constituencies in the parliament, Ershad's Jatiya Party contested from 49 (later 42 as Awami League did not pull back its candidates from few seats as agreed earlier) seats and Awami League and members of a leftist Fourteen Party Coalition from the rest 250 seats. Thus, the Grand Alliance emerged in Bangladesh.
Ershad contested the Bangladesh Parliamentary Election 2008 from three constituencies. According to Bangladesh electoral laws, a person is allowed to contest from three places, but can retain only one seat and two are to have by-elections after formation of government. These constituencies included Rangpur (Rangpur-3 and Kurigram-2), and Dhaka-17, the capital's diplomatic zone, where he resides. He won all three seats in the election.
The 2014 Election was a controversial election for Jatiya Party where Ershad's spokesperson Bobby Hajjaj had first publicly declared that Jatiya Party would not participate in the election. After the 2014 election, Ershad became the special envoy of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina in the Awami League-led government. Jatiya Party became the opposition party and Rowshan Ershad, Ershad's wife, became the leader of the opposition. Despite being in the opposition party some leaders of Jatiya Party were also in the government cabinet. In January 2016, Ershad's brother, GM Quader, was made the vice chairman of the party. In April 2016, Ershad appointed Rowshan as the vice-chairman of the party. In March 2017, Ershad indicated he might form a new political alliance with 14 other parties. For the next general election, the Jatiya Party under Ershad formed a 58 party grand alliance of its own. But of the 58 parties, only the Jatiya Party and Bangladesh Islami Front had registration with the election commission as of 2017.
Ershad married Rowshan Ershad in 1956. The couple had a son and daughter - Saad Ershad, and Jebin Ershad Jebin lives in London with her husband and two children, Nico Ershad and Savi Ershad .
Rowshan was elected five times as a Jatiya Sangsad member, nominated each time by the Jatiya party. Only in the 2008 election, did Ershad decided to join the Awami League-led alliance and Rowshan went with BNP. After his death, she became the senior co-chairman of the Jatiya party.
Ershad later married Bidisha Siddique in 2000. It ended in a divorce and sedition charges brought by the then BNP Government against her in 2005. He divorced her for allegedly hiding her first marriage which still was not annulled at the time of their marriage. Together they had a son, Eric Ershad.
Ershad had adopted a son.
In 1986, Britain's The Observer newspaper quoted a woman named Marieum Mumtaz as saying she had secretly married Ershad on 14 August 1982, after he forced her to divorce banker Chowdhury Badruddin. Early in 1990, the story surfaced again in the New York Post and The Sunday Correspondent. In June 1990, she filed a suit against Ershad in the United States, seeking dissolution of marriage. She alleged that he had abandoned her.
In 1990, Dainik Bangla, a government-owned daily, claimed Ershad and Zeenat Mosharraf used to meet at a guest house owned by the Bangladesh Chemical Industries Corporation. Zeenat's husband, A. K. M. Mosharraf Hossain, was the company's chairman until 1988 when he was given a job in Ershad's government as secretary of the Ministry of Industries.
Ershad was admitted to Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka on 26 June 2019 and on 29 June after his condition suddenly deteriorated. He died on 14 July 2019 at the hospital. His state funeral was celebrated 2 days later.
- Mascarenhas, Anthony. Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood. Hodder and Stoughton.
- Islam, Sirajul (2012). "Ershad, Lt. General Hussein M". In Islam, Sirajul; Ahmed, Helal (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- "Ershad: We have no specific demand at dialogue with PM". Dhaka Tribune. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- "Ershad shows Tk 2.8m cash, says wife Raushon has Tk 262m in election affidavit". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- Maniruzzaman, Talukder (1992). "The Fall of the Military Dictator: 1991 Elections and the Prospect of Civilian Rule in Bangladesh". Pacific Affairs. 65 (2): 203–224. doi:10.2307/2760169. ISSN 0030-851X. JSTOR 2760169.
- Stevens, William K.; Times, Special To the New York (12 December 1983). "Bangladesh Leader in Military Regime Assumes Presidency". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- Weisman, Steven R.; Times, Special To the New York (17 October 1986). "Bangladesh Chief Claims Vote Victory". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- Bergman, David (28 March 2016). "Bangladesh court upholds Islam as religion of the state". Al Jazeera.
- "Award Laureates". www.unfpa.org. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- "UNEP Global 500 Laureates – Award Winners". Global500.org. 25 February 2004. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- গোলাম মোহাম্মদ কাদের (জি এম কাদের)- এর জীবন বৃত্তান্ত. gmquader.com. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Jatiya Party presidium member Bablu marries Ershad's niece". bdnews24.com. 22 April 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- ভারতে নিজের নামে স্কুল-কলেজ গড়ার শর্তে জমি দান করলেন এরশাদ [Ershad donated land in the condition of developing educational institutes named after him]. The Daily Star (in Bengali). 1 June 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Ershad loses all educational certificates". The Daily Observer. 13 September 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "H.M. Ershad, Former President of Bangladesh, Is Dead at 89". The New York Times. 15 July 2019. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "Hussain Mohammad Ershad". encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- Codron, Jérémie (18 October 2007). "Putting Factions 'Back in' the Civil-Military Relations Equation: Genesis, Maturation & Distortion of the Bangladeshi Army". South Asian Multidisciplinary Academic Journal (SAMAJ): 55. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- "BBC On This Day | 1981: Bangladeshi president assassinated". BBC News. 30 May 1981. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Global Integrity Report". Report.globalintegrity.org. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- The Bangabhaban
- "Drama over Inquiry", The Daily Star
- "Strategic Issues". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 2 June 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Bangladesh". Lcweb2.loc.gov. 24 March 1982.
- "SAARC Summit opens in Dhaka". Rediff.com. 12 November 2005.
- "Bangladesh Restoring Secular Constitution". The Hindu (Opinion).
- "Bangladesh Chronology". Atheism.about.com. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011.
- "Ershad, Lt. General Hussein M". Banglapedia. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Politics loses its Ershad factor". The Daily Star (Opinion). 16 July 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- Rahim, Enayetur (2001). "Electoral Politics in Bangladesh, 1975–88". In Ahmed, Rafiuddin (ed.). Religion, Identity & Politics: Essays on Bangladesh. Colorado Springs, CO: International Academic Publishers. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-58868-080-8.
Syed Faruk Rahman, a retired colonel, known to be a key figure in the assassination plot of Sheikh Mujib ... While Hafezzi Huzur's candidacy gave certain substance to the election ... Faruk Rahman's appearance in public life was often construed as an attempt by the military to rehabilitate the assassins of Mujib.
- "Historical Archive of Parliamentary Election Results: Bangladesh 1986" (PDF). Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1986. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "The Parliament of Bangladesh: Representation and Accountability" (PDF). Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD). Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Historical Archive of Parliamentary Election Results: Bangladesh 1988" (PDF). Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1988.
- "Total BD Participation in UN Depl (Completed)". Bangladesh Army. 1 February 2007. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- Codron (2007), "Putting Factions Back", p. 62
- "Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics". Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
- Ahmed, Siddique. "Ershad's military rule illegal". The Daily Star. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Detention of Bangladeshi leader declared illegal". BBC News. 1 March 1998. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- BBC Online[dead link]
- "Ex-Bangladesh PM faces court action". BBC News. 29 January 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Bangladesh general back in jail". BBC News. 20 November 2000. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- Ahsan, Zayadul (31 July 2006). "Come polls, come shame". The Daily Star. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Ershad quits party post: Hands rein to Anisul Islam for reforms in JP". The Daily Star. 1 July 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Police arrest Bangladeshi ex-PM". BBC News. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Ex-PM sued on corruption charges in Bangladesh". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 2 September 2007. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009.
- "Bangladesh former PM is arrested". BBC News. 3 September 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Khaleda Zia's son is refused bail". BBC News. 13 March 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Those shameless corrupts in Bangladesh". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "More Confession: Babar cut $10m Warid deal for Koko". The Daily Star. 1 June 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "BNP govt falsely implicated him in gold smuggling case in 1991". Bangladeshnews.com.bd. Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Ershad gets acquitted". Bangladeshnews.com.bd. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Case Against Ershad: Witnesses now know nothing about gold smuggling". Bangladeshnews.com.bd. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Bangladesh court acquits Ershad of graft charge". allvoices.com. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Ershad's JP now to join street movement for CEC's removal". Bangladeshnews.com.bd. 21 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 April 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- এরশাদের ভারতপ্রেম রাজনীতিতে নতুন ছক!. Banglanews24.com (in Bengali). 22 August 2012. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014.
- "Ershad claims party top post again". Bangladeshnews.com.bd. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "JP aboard AL polls boat". Bangladesh News. 19 November 2008. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011.
- "New High Court bench assigned to hear Ershad's appeal in 1991 graft case". bdnews24.com. 27 March 2017.
- "Dangers of inter and intra party violence". Prothom Alo. 13 March 2017. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- "Ershad makes brother GM Quader Jatiya Party co-chairman". bdnews24.com. 17 January 2016.
- "Ershad makes Raushon senior co-chairman of Jatiya Party". bdnews24.com. 28 April 2016.
- "Jatiya Party to float new alliance soon". The Daily Star. 8 March 2017.
- "Will form another grand alliance: Ershad". Prothom Alo. 30 March 2017. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- "Ershad announces 58-party alliance". Gulf-Times (in Arabic). 7 May 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
- "Ershad's body taken to Rangpur". The Daily Star. 16 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Ex-Bangladesh leader fights for son". BBC News. 5 March 2000. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Ex-Bangladesh president's son thrashed after car mishap". Hindustan Times. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Ershad passes away". The Daily Star. 14 July 2019.
- "Controversy in Ershad's family life". Dhaka Tribune. 15 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Islam, Shahidul (14 July 2019). "No specific information on assets left by Ershad". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "The Story behind Bidisha's Arrest". Star Weekend Magazine. The Daily Star. 2 June 2000. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- Rahman, Waliur (27 June 2005). "Ex-Bangladesh ruler's wife bailed". BBC News. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- Saha, Joyanta. "HM Ershad leaves behind four children". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Hossain, Farid. "After President's Fall, Quiet Gossip Goes Public". AP News. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Supreme Court of the State of New York County of New York" (PDF). State Department. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- "Bangladesh-Politics: Love Affair Could Cost Ershad His Party". Inter Press Service. 30 April 1997. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Uddin, Sufia M. (2006). Constructing Bangladesh: Religion, Ethnicity, and Language in an Islamic Nation. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-0807877333.
- "Ershad, from soldier to ruler". Dhaka Tribune. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Former Bangladesh army ruler Ershad dies aged 89". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
- "State funeral for Bangladesh's former President Ershad". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hussain Muhammad Ershad.|
- "Hussain Mohammad Ershad - Dictionary definition of Hussain Mohammad Ershad". Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Islam, Sirajul (2012). "Ershad, Lt. General Hussein M". In Islam, Sirajul; Ahmed, Helal (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Hussain Muhammad Ershad at Find a Grave