Hutsul Republic

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Hutsul Republic

Гуцульська республіка
1919–1919
Flag of Hutsul Republic
Flag
Hutsul Republic.jpg
StatusUnrecognized state
CapitalYasinia
Common languagesUkrainian
GovernmentRepublic
Prime Minister 
• 1919
Stepan Klochurak
Historical eraWorld War I
• Established
8 January 1919
• Disestablished
11 June 1919
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Austria-Hungary
West Ukrainian People's Republic
Czechoslovakia
Today part of Ukraine

The Hutsul Republic was a short-lived state, formed in the aftermath of World War I. The republic was declared on January 8, 1919, when original plans to unite this area with the Western Ukrainian People's Republic failed and the territory was occupied by Hungarian police.[1]

Czechoslovakia between 1920 and 1938, with Subcarpathian Ruthenia shown in blue.

The legislature of the Hutsul Republic was the 'Ukrainian People's Council' with 42 members, and its executive power (government) was the 'Council' with 12 members.[2]

Creation[edit]

Hutsul uprising
Part of the Polish–Ukrainian War
Date7–8 January 1919
Location
Hutsul Republic (today Zakarpattia Oblast)
Result Hutsul victory
Belligerents
Hutsul Republic  Hungarian Democratic Republic
Commanders and leaders
Stepan Klochurak First Hungarian Republic Mihály Károlyi
Strength
109[2] 620[2]
Casualties and losses
Unknown 500 captured

On 20-22 December 1918 Hungarian troops return to the territory of the Hutsul Republic.[2] A state of emergency was proclaimed, the Hutsel militia units disarmed, the Ukrainian People's Council was liquidated, the Hungarian language was restored in school and in government communication, and former Hungarian officials were appointed to all posts of the local government.[2]

On the night of January 7–8, 1919 the local population of Rahó (Rakhiv) rose against the Hungarian gendarme battalion, taking into custody some 500 Hungarian policemen. General Stepan Klochurak was elected prime minister of the republic. He was also active in organizing the armed forces of the republic, which consisted of nearly 1,000 soldiers[3] On 17 January 1919 the army waged a brief confrontation against the occupying Romanian troops in Máramarossziget (Sighetu Marmației), in the adjacent lands of Máramaros County. This unequal battle resulted in the Hutsul Republic suffering, according to various data, 18 to 41 people killed, 39 to 150 people wounded, and 400 people taken prisoner including 20 officers.[2]

The day after the "Unification Act" was signed on 23 January 1919 by the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic Stepan Klochurak and Julian Braschaiko joined the "Labor Congress" of this new entity as representatives of the Hutsul Republic.[2]

By the end of April 1919, the eastern part of Transcarpathia was occupied by Romanian troops, the central part was under the control of the Hungarians, while Czechoslovakian troops occupied its western part.[2]

In April 1919 most of Carpathian Ruthenia joined Czechoslovakia granted as an autonomous territory, while its easternmost territory (Hutsul Republic) was de facto a breakaway state.[clarification needed]

Hungarian invasion[edit]

Hungarian invasion of the Hutsul Republic
Part of the Hungarian–Romanian War
Date11 June 1919
Location
Hutsul Republic (today Zakarpattia Oblast)
Result Hungarian victory
Belligerents
Hutsul Republic Flag of Hungary (1919).svg Hungarian Soviet Republic
Commanders and leaders
Stepan Klochurak Flag of Hungary (1919).svg Béla Kun
Strength
1,100 Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

The state finally failed when it was occupied temporarily by Hungarian troops on 11 June 1919.[4] The territory claimed by this state accepted the admission into the First Czechoslovak Republic in September 1919, where it remained during the interwar period. On 15 March, 1939, just for a day, after its proclamation the Ukrainian state named Carpatho-Ukraine claimed its independence but was soon occupied by Hungarian troops and was annexed by Hungary until the end of World War II. After the war, the region became the Carpathian Oblast of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as part of the Soviet Union.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert; Pop, Ivan I. (June 2002). Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture (book). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 237–238. ISBN 978-0-8020-3566-0. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h (in Ukrainian) ZUNR and national liberation movement in Transcarpathia in 1918-1919., Ukrayinska Pravda (21 November 2018)
  3. ^ Klochurak, Stepan (1978). Do Voli (Strive for freedom : Memories) (book) (in Ukrainian). New York: The Carpathian Alliance. OCLC 17608529.
  4. ^ Magocsi, Paul R. (1975). "The Ruthenian Decision to Unite with Czechoslovakia". Slavic Review. 34 (2): 360–381. doi:10.2307/2495193.